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Sunday, December 28, 2008

Body Positions and Directions


To know the relationship of one location of the body to the another, we should understand about body positional and directional terms of Medical terminology.

(1) Anterior or ventral:- This position refers to front side of the body. Ex:- chest is anterior to the back. In a human anterior and ventral are the same position, but in four-legged animals anterior refers to front side of the body near the head and ventral refers to the abdomen side.

(2) Posterior or dorsal:- Posterior or dorsal refers to the back side of the body. Back is the posterior or dorsal to the chest.

(3) Deep:- This refers to away from the surface. Ex:- Bullet went deep into the chest.

(4) Superficial:- This refers to on the surface. The shore is on the superficially infected.

(5) Proximal:- This position refers to near the point of attachment or near the beginning of a structure. Ex:- The proximal end of the femur attaches with the hip bone.

(6) Distal:- This position refers to far from the point of attachment or far from the beginning of a structure. Ex:- The distal end of the stomach is at the small intestine.

(7) Inferior:- This position refers to below another structure. Ex:- Colon lies inferior to the stomach and the liver. The another name for inferior is the term Caudal, which means pertaining to the tail.

(8) Superior:- This position refers to above another structure. Ex:- Head is located superior to the neck. The another name for superior is cephalic, which means pertaining to the head.

(9) Medial:- This position refers to nearer or middle of the medial plan of the body. Ex:- Neck is medial of the shoulders.

(10) Lateral:- This position refers to pertaining to the side. Ex:- Left or right hand is lateral to the body.

(11) Supine (Face is up):- This position refers to lying on the back. Ex:- The patient is supine during the surgery in the neck.

(12) Prone (lying on the face):- This position refers to lying on the belly. Ex:- The buttocks area of the patient can be examined when he is in prone position.

Now we see about planes of the body. We can imagine three types of planes such as;
(1) Frontal or coronal
(2) Sagittal or lateral
(3) Transverse or cross-sectional

We will see each plane in detail.

(1) Frontal or coronal:- This plane divides the body structure into posterior and anterior portions. The another name for this plane is anterioposterior. An anterioposterior x-ray is taken in the frontal plane.

(2) Sagittal or lateral: This plane divides the body structure into right and left sides. The midsagittal plane divides the body into left and right halves. A lateral chest x-ray is taken in this plane.

(3) Transverse or cross-sectional: This plane divides the body into upper and lower portions. This plane is also called as cross-sectional. A computerized tomography (CT), a series of x-rays taken in this plane.

In the next lesson, we will learn more new combining forms, prefixes, and suffixes. COME ON.

Saturday, December 27, 2008

Spinal Column and its Divisions


According to the regions of the Spinal column, we can separate into divisions. Spinal columns comprised of bones in series extending from the neck towards the tail bone. Each bone in this series is called in singular vertebra and vertebrae in plural.

Totally this series of bones numbered is thirty and we can divide this thirty bones into five divisions such as:

(1) Cervical (C)

(2) Thoracic (T or D( dorsal))

(3) Lumbar (L)

(4) Sacral (S)

(5) Coccygeal

Now we can see each division in detail:

(1) Cervical (C):- This division of the backbones are in the neck region. These are seven in numbers (C1 - C7). These bones are called cervical vertebrae.

(2) Thoracic (T or D( dorsal)):- This division of the backbones are in the chest region of our body. These twelve bones are joined to the rib bones. These bones are twelve in number (T1 - T12). These bones are called Thoracic vertebrae.

(3) Lumbar (L):- These bones are in the flank region. Thatis between the ribs and hip bone. These are five in number. These bones are called Lumbar vertebrae.

(4) Sacral (S):- These bones are five in number. These five bones are fused together to form one bone called sacrum.

(5) Coccygeal:- This is a small bone composed of fused pieces. The another name for Coccyx is tail bone.

What is the difference between spinal column and spinal cord?

Now we should understand one important difference between What is Spinal Cord and what is Spinal Column. As we now studied above spinal column are vertebrae whereas Spinal cord is nerves surrounded by the spinal column. Spinal column is comprised of bone tissue whereas spinal cord is comprised of nerve tissue.

Intervertebral Spaces:
These are the spaces between the two vertebrae or two vertebral bones. Between each intervertebral space a cartilageous pad is present which is called disk or disc. This structure is the shock absorbing structure of the back. Sometimes this disc may move out of this space and this condition is called slipped disk.

In the next lesson we will study about POSITIONAL AND DIRECTIONAL PLANES OF THE BODY...COME ON.

Next Lesson 14

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Abdominal Quadrants - Part 2



We can divide Abdominopelvic regions into four quadrants by making two imaginary lines (vertically and horizontally intersecting each other) on the abdomen through the body.

By this way we will get four abdominal quadrants such as:

(1) Right upper quadrant (RUQ)

(2) Left upper quadrant (LUQ)

(3) Right lower quadrant (RLQ)

(4) Left lower quadrant (LLQ)

Now we can see each quadrant and its organ one by one:

(1) Right upper quadrant (RUQ):- This quadrant contains right lobe of the liver, gallbladder, part of the pancreas, part of the small and large intestines.

(2) Left upper quadrant (LUQ):- This quadrant contains left lobe of the liver, Stomach, spleen, part of the pancreas, and parts of the small and large intestines.

(3) Right lower quadrant (RLQ):- This quadrant contains part of the small and large intestines, right ovary, the right uterine or fallopian tube, appendix, and right ureter.

(4) Left lower quadrant (LLQ):- This quadrant contains part of the small and large intestines, left ovary, the left uterine or fallopian tube, and left ureter.

Now in the next lesson we will study about the BACK OR THE SPINAL COLUMN

ABDOMINAL QUADRANTS

Abdominopelvic Regions - Part 1


We can divide Abdominopelvic cavities into nine regions.

(1) Hypochondriac regions (left and right) - 2

(2) Epigastric region - 1

(3) Lumbar regions - 2


(4) Umbilical region - 1

(5) Inguinal regions - 2

(6) Hypogastric regions - 2

Now we can see each region and the organs containing in each region:

(1) Hypochondriac regions (left and right):- These regions are two in number and they are in the upper right and left regions below the rib cartilages that extend over the abdomen. (chondr/o means cartilage).

(2) Epigastric region:- This is the region which is above the stomach.

(3) Lumbar regions:- These regions are near the waist in the left and right side.

(4) Umbilical region:- This is the region also called Umbilicus region which is in the naval portion of the body.

(5) Inguinal regions:-These are regions in the lower part of the abdomen in the right and left sides near the groin where the two legs join to the trunk of the body. (Inguin/o mean groin).Iliac is the another name for this regions as the ilium (a bone which is present in the upper portion of the hip on each of the body) is near to this region.

(6) Hypogastric region:- This region is in the lower middle portion below the Umbilical region.

In the next lesson we will see about ABDOMINAL QUADRANTS...COME ON...


Friday, December 26, 2008

Body Cavities





A body cavity is a space within the body that contains internal organs.

A body cavity is any fluid filled space in a multicellular organism, it is located between an animal's outer covering (epidermis) and the outer lining of the gut cavity, where internal organs develop.

"The body cavity" of human body cavities normally refers to the ventral body cavity, because it is by far the largest one in area.

The collective visceral cavity of the trunk (thoracic cavity plus abdominopelvic cavity), bounded by the superior thoracic aperture above, the pelvic floor below, and the body walls (parietes) in between.

Our body consists of five body cavities, such as
1. Cranial cavity
2. Thoracic cavity
3. Abdominal cavity
4. Pelvic cavity
5. Spinal cavity

Now we will study briefly each cavity and the organs within each cavity:

1. Cranial cavity: This cavity consists of brain and pituitary gland.

2. Thoracic cavity: This cavity consists of lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, thymus gland, aorta (largest artery).

Thoracic cavity can also be divided into two other smaller cavities.

a. Pleural cavity: This is a space between the membranes that surround each lung. Two pleural cavities are lined with a double-folded membrane called pleura.

b. Mediastinum: This is the space between the lungs. This space contains the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, thymus gland, and bronchial tubes.

3. Abdominal cavity: This cavity consists of stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, liver, gallbladder and pancreas. There is a double-folded membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity.
4. Pelvic cavity: This cavity consists of urinary bladder, ureters, urethra uterus and vagina in the female.

5. Spinal cavity: This cavity consists of nerves of the spinal cord.

We can divide all the body cavities into two according to their location in the body, such as dorsal cavities (posterior) and ventral cavities (anterior). Cranial and spinal cavities are posterior body cavities as they are placed in the back portion of the body and thoracic abdominal pelvic cavities are anterior cavities because they are placed in the front portion of the body.

Mediastinum is the muscular wall that separates abdominal and thoracic cavities. On the other hand abdominal and pelvic cavities are not divided by any wall like structures. These two cavities in combination also called as abdominopelvic cavity.

Now in the next lesson we will study about abdominopelvic regions and its quadrants.
COME ON …

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Saturday, December 20, 2008

Human Body Organs and Systems


ORGANS:  Several kinds of tissues combine together to form an ORGAN. For instance, stomach is an organ that is composed of nerve tissue, muscle tissue, and glandular epithelial tissue. VISCERA (singular: viscus) are internal organs. Abdominal viscera are the liver, stomach, large and small intestines, pancreas, spleen, and gallbladder.

SYSTEMS:  Groups of organs combine together to form a SYSTEM. Each system performs complex functions. For instance, respiratory system consists of NOSE, PHARYNX, LARYNX (VOICE BOX), TRACHEA (WINDPIPE), BRONCHIAL TUBES, AND LUNGS.

Now we can see each system and its organs:

1. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: This system contains mouth, pharynx (throat), esophagus, stomach, intestines (small and large intestines), liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.

2. URINARY AND EXCRETORY SYSTEM: This systems consists of kidneys, ureters (from these tubes urine comes out of the kidneys to urinary bladder), urinary bladder, urethra (from this opening urine comes out of the body from urinary bladder).

3. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: This system consists of nose, pharynx, larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), bronchial tubes, and lungs.

4. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: This system consists of:
FEMALE: Ovaries, uterine or fallopian tubes, uterus or womb, vagina, mammary glands.
MALE: Testes and its associated tube, urethra, penis, and prostate gland.

5. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: This system consists of thyroid gland in the neck, pituitary gland at the base of the brain, sex glands of ovaries and testes, adrenal glands above the kidneys, pancreas or islets of Langerhans, parathyroid glands, and thymus gland.

6. NERVOUS SYSTEM: This system consists of brain, spinal cord, nerves, and collections of nerves.

7. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM: This system consists of heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries), lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland.

8. MUSCULAR SYSTEM: This system consists of muscles.

9. SKELETAL SYSTEM: This system consists of bones and joints.

10. INTEGUMENTARY (SKIN AND SENSORY) SYSTEM: This system consists of skin, hair, nails, sweat glands and sebaceous (oil) glands, eyes, ears, nose, and tongue.

Ok learners…in the next lesson we will deal with BODY CAVITIES…come on…

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Monday, December 8, 2008

Tissues and its Functions



Combination of a group of similar or same kind of cells. They combine to work together to do a particular or specific job. For example,

a) EPITHELIA TISSUE is lining the internal organs of our body i.e. their function is to lining an organ that is these tissues covering the outside of the body organs, as well as inner suface of internal organs too. Epi-means outer.

b) MUSCLE TISSUE, two types of muscle tissues (voluntary and involuntary), voluntary muscles are controlling our arms and legs where the movement is voluntary i.e. movement is in our control. At the same time involuntary muscles is in our heart (CARDIAC MUSCLE-a specialized muscle found in the heart) and gastrointestinal system, and also other parts of the body too where the movement is involuntary i.e. not in our control.

c) CONNECTIVE TISSUE, blood, fat, cartilage, and bone are the examples of connective tissue, because they differ much from other tissues. CARTILAGE is an elastic fibrous tissue attached bones. There are two types of connective tissues a) LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUES b) DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUES.

Loose connective tissues are found in the AREOLAR, ADIPOSE, AND RETICULAR AREAS.Dense connective tissues are found in the CARTILAGE, BLOOD, BONE, AND LYMPHATICS.

d) NERVE TISSUE: They conduct sensory and motor impulses from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM to and fro all over the body.

Now you can understand what is a TISSUE and how they are spread all over the body and functioning in short... We will study them later extensively..

Cell and its Function - Medical Transcription - Lesson 8a


The fundamental unit of every animal or plant is cells. Combination of cells is called TISSUES. Every ORGAN in the body is made up of combination of many tissues.

SAMENESS OF THE CELLS: All cells are same and they contain a gelatinous substance made up of or composed of water, protein, acids, fats, and various minerals. See the figure-1 and 2, to know the cell and its structures photographically.Now we see each and every part of the cell one by one.

1. CELL MEMBRANE: Cell membrane protects the cell and surrounds it that passes into and out of the cell.

2. NUCLEUS: The nucleus controls the structure of the cell. Cell reproduction process is directed by the nucleus only and which determines the function of the cell and the structure of the cell.

3. CHROMOSOMES: These are rod-like structures inside the cell. Human body cells (other than sex cells, the egg, and sperm cells) contain 23 pairs of chromosomes. Sex cells, such as sperm and egg cells have 23 single chromosomes only. When one egg cell unites with a sperm cell to for an embryo, then the embryonic cell has 46 chromosomes i.e. 23 pairs...understand the difference...Chromosomes contains the regions called GENES. Thousands of genes are in an orderly sequency on each chromosome. Gene is made up of a chemical substance called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). DNA is an important compound that regulates the activities of the cell in a sequential order on each chromosome. The DNA is a series of codes. When DNA activity carries out of the nucleus to other parts of the cell, the activities of the cell i.e. cellular reproduction and the manufacture of proteins are controlled by DNA.

Chromosomes in the nucleus can be analyzed to look at their arrangement, size, and number by doing a KARYOTYPE. Karyotyping of chromosomes is important in determining whether chromosomes are normal in number and structure. Karyotyping will be done by doctors by puncturing the sac around the fetus when one woman is pregnant through amniocentesis. Abnormal numbers of chromosomes may cause some serious conditions like Down syndrome (mongolism) and trisomy-21 syndrome.

4. CYTOPLASM: It means cyto means cell, plasm means formation. Cytoplasm carries the work of a cell i.e. nerve cell conducts stimulation, muscle cell contracts. Cytoplasm contains MITOCHODRIA and ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.

5. MITOCHONDRIA: It is called power center of the cell. This is small and sausage-shaped bodies produce energy by burning food in the presence of oxygen. This process is called catabolism (cata-down, bol-to cast, -ism-process). This process makes complex food particles into simpler substances and energy is released after this action to do the work of the cell.

6. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM: These like canal-like structures-this is a network within the cell. These canals contain a very small structures called RIBOSOMES like a tunnel system in this proteins are produced for the use of the cell. This process is called ANABOLISM (ana-up, bol-to cast, -ism-process). After this process, complex proteins are made up from the simpler parts of food. Smaller proteins linked like a chain to become complex proteins in this process.Both these catabolism and anabolism in combination is called METABOLISM (meta-change, bol-to cast, -ism- process) i.e total chemical activities that occuring in a cell. In this process, the sugars and fat in the food are used up and burned quickly and so the ENERGY is released.

In the next lesson we will discuss about why we have different kinds of cells in our body?..ok

Medical Terminology - More About "Roots" Used in Medical Transcription - Lesson 8

ROOT: This is the foundation of the word. All medical terms consists of one or more ROOTS.eg. pulmonologyin this word pulm/ is the ROOT, which means lung.see some more examples:

1. gastritis (inflammation of the intestine) - gastr/o is the ROOT, which means intestine.
2. hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) - hepa/o is the root, which means liver
3. cardiology (study of heart) - cardi/0 means heart
4. adenoma (tumorous mass) - aden/o means gland
5. arthritis (inflammation of the joint) - arthr/o means joint
6. biology (study of life) - bio/o means life
7. carcinoma (cancerous tumor) - carcin/o means cancerous tumor
8. cardiology - cardi/o means heart
9. cephalic - cephal/o means head
10. incision - cis/o means cutting into
11. endocrine - crini/o means gland
12. cytology - cyt/o means cell
13. cystoscopy - cyst/o means bladder
14. dermatitis - derm/o means skin
15. dermatology - dermat/o means skin
16. electrocardiogram - electro/o means electricity
17. encephalopathy - encephal/o means head
18. enteritis (inflammation of the small intestine) - enter/o - means small intestine
19. erythrocyte (red blood cell) - erythr/o means red
20. gastrology (study of stomach) - gastr/o means stomach
21. diagnosis (complete knowledge) - gnos/o means knowledge
22. gynecology (study of woman)- gynec/o means female
23. hematology (study of blood)- hemat/o means blood
24. hematoma (blood tumor) - hem/o means blood
25. hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) hepat/o means liver
26. iatrogenic (state of unexpected side effects) iatr/o means unexpected
27. leukemia (abnormal increase of white blood cells) leuk/o white cell
28. nephrology (study of kidneys) nephr/o means kidney
29. neurology (study of nerves) neur/o means nerve
30. oncology (study of tumors) onc/o means tumor
31. ophthalmology (visual study of eyes) ophthalm/o means eyes
32. osteitis (inflammation of bones) oste/o means bone
33. pathology (microscopic examination of a death cells) path/o means death body
34. pediatrician (specialist in children) ped/o means child
35. psychology (study of mind) psych/o means mind
36. radiology (study of x-rays) radi/o means x-rays
37. renal (pertaining to kidneys) ren/o means kidney
38. rhinitis (study of nose) rhin/o means nose
39. sarcoma (malignant tumor) sarc/o means malignant
40. resection (resection or cutting back) sect/o means cutting
41. thrombocyte (clotting cells or platelets) thromb/o means clot
42. urology (study of urine) ur/o means urine

COMBINING VOWEL: In all these root we see the letter /O/, which combines root to the suffixor word ending. This attaches the root to the rest of the word to give a full word with one meaning.now you can understand what is COMBINING FORMS AND ROOT, AND THE FUNCTION OF COMBINING VOWEL.

In the next lesson we will study in detail about combining forms...come on..

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Medical Terminology Program- Combining Forms - Lesson 7

In this medical terminology program, we deal about medical terminology as a subject matter in the next few lessons.

We start from combining forms.

1. IMPORTANCE OF MEDICAL WORD ANALYSIS:The first important foremost thing is to understand medical terminology by the technique of word analysis method. Using division of words by this method makes us understand easily difficult medical terms with relation to its meaning.The aim of this lesson is to analyze medical words or medical terminology.some medical words or medical terms are same in pronunciation  but their spellings are different.For instance see these words:ilium and ileum these are same in pronunciation  but the meanings are different.ilium is part of the hip bone. ileum is part of the small intestine.and note these words urethra and ureter, these two words resemble like the same word, butthe pronunciation and meanings are different, and even the spellings too.ureter (-UR-e-ter) is the one of the tubes leading from each kidney go into the urinary bladder. urethra (u-RE-thrah), this is a tube comes out from the urinary bladder to outside the body i.e. bringing urine outside the body from the urinary bladder so medical terminology is like a new language, which is to be understood.

2. RELATION OF MEDICAL TERMS TO THE FUNCTION AND ANATOMY OF THE BODY:
Medical terminology program explains the conditions of body and its work in healthy state and in disease state. for example, nephritis is a word, in this nephr- means kidney, and -itis means inflammation, which means inflammation of the kidney. so we can easily remember this word without just mugging up once we hear this word and its meaning. so one should not try to mug up just medical words while learning, but try to understand the meaning of the parts of the word.

ANALYSIS OF MEDICAL WORDS: To understand medical terminology, we should divide each word into its components such as,

1. ROOT or foundation of the word

2. PREFIX or WORD BEGINNING

3. SUFFIX or WORD ENDING

4. COMBINING VOWEL (/O/)

5. COMBINING FORM

For example take one word, CARDIOLOGIST, in this word the ROOT is CARDI/, which means heart, and /O/ is the COMBINING VOWEL, and /LOGIST is the SUFFIX or WORD ENDING, so the meaning of the word is heart specialist.

now we study each of the component in detail, so it is necessary to learn medical terminology to understand the healthy and disease state.
OK LEARNERS...we will study in detail about ROOT component of medical terminology program in the next lesson....come on...

Tags: comprehensive medical terminology, current medical terminology

Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions - Lesson 5

Abdominopelvic quadrants and regions are divided into 9 regions as per the division of the abdominal and pelvic cavities to explain the regions in which internal organs are found. They are as follows: Hypochondriac, epigastric, lumbar, umbilical, inguinal, and hypogastric.

Now we will see about all abdominopelvic quadrants and regions one by one now.

1. Hypochondriac regions (2): The two upper right and left regions below the cartilage (chondr/o) of the ribs that extend over the abdomen.

2. Epigastric regions (2): This is the region above the stomach.

3. Lumbar regions (2): The two right and left regions near the waist part of the body.

4. Umbilical regions (1): The region of the umbilicus or navel portion of the body.

5. Inguinal regions (2): The two lower right and left regions of the body, inguin/o means groin that is the area where the two legs join together with the trunk of the body. This region is also called iliac regions because they are near the ilium part of the body. These regions are the upper portion of the hip bone on each side of the body.

6. Hypogastric region (1): Lower middle region below the umbilical region.

Reference



Abdominal Quadrants - Lesson 6

Abdominal quadrants study is an important things to know. We can divide the abdominopelvic region into four quadrants. This can be imagined by drawing an imaginary lines one vertical and one horizontal through the body. The four abdominal quadrants are right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, right lower quadrant, left lower quadrant.

1. Right upper quadrant (RUQ): This quadrant contains the right lobe of the liver, gallbladder, part of the pancreas, parts of the small and large intestines.

2. Left upper quadrant (LUQ): This quadrant contains the left lobe of the liver, stomach, spleen, part of the pancreas, parts of the small and large intestines.

3. Right lower quadrant (RLQ): This quadrant contains parts of the small and large intestines, right ovary, right uterine (fallopian) tube, appendix, and right ureter.

4. Left lower quadrant (LLQ): This quadrant contains part of the small and large intestines, left ovary, left uterine tube, and left ureter.

Now the information about abdominal quadrants is over.

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Anatomy of Body Cavities - Lesson 4


Anatomy of body cavities are important topics in medical transcription course. Body cavity is a space within the body that contains internal organs. Our body consists of five cavities, such as Spinal, Pelvic, abdominal, Thoracic, and Cranial.

1. Spinal Cavity-This cavity consists of nerves of the spinal cord.

2. Pelvic Cavity-This consists of urinary bladder, urethra, ureters, and uterus and vagina in the female.

3. Abdominal Cavity-This consists of Stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, liver, gallbladder and pancreas. Abdominal cavity is surrounded by a double-folded membrane called peritoneum. Two kidneys are situated at the back of the abdominal cavity, and this area is called as retroperitoneal area.

4. Thoracic Cavity-This cavity contains organs such as lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, thymus gland, aorta (large artery). Thoracic cavity can also be divided into two smaller cavities:
i. Pleural cavity- This is a space between pleura (a double folded membrane covering each lung)
ii. Mediastinum- The area between the lungs which contains the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, thymus gland, and bronchial tubes.

5. Cranial cavity- This contains brain and pituitary gland.

In the lesson of anatomy of body cavities spinal and cranial cavities are on the back portion of the body, and so they are called dorsal body cavities. The Pelvic, abdominal, and thoracic cavities are on the front portion of the body and so they are called ventral body cavities. The abdominal and thoracic cavities are divided by a muscular wall called diaphragm. The abdominal and pelvic cavities are not separated by any structures are not separated by any structures and these two cavities combining to form abdominopelvic cavity.

The lesson of anatomy of body cavities is over. To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.




Organs and Systems of the Human Body - Lesson 3


ORGANS: Organs are the structures that are composed of several kinds of tissues. For instance an organ like Stomach is composed of Glandular epithelial tissue, nerve tissue and muscle tissue.

SYSTEMS: A system consists of organ groups functioning together to perform a complex function. For example digestive system consists of organs like mouth, esophagus, stomach and small and large intestines, they combine together to do a complex function of digesting food and absorb the digested food into the bloodstream.
In our body there are ten systems as below:

1. Skin and sense organs-This system contains skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, oil glands, the eye, the ear, the nose, and the tongue.

2. Skeletal system-joints and bones.

3. Muscular system-muscles.

4. Circulatory system-heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries), Lymph vessels and nodes, Spleen and thymus gland.

5. Nervous system-brain, spinal cord, nerves and collection of nerves.

6. Endocrine system-thyroid gland (neck), pituitary gland (base of the brain), sex glands (ovaries and testes), adrenal glands, pancreas, thymus gland, and parathyroid glands.

7. Reproductive system-male: testes and the tubes associated with it, urethra, penis and prostate gland. Female: ovaries, uterine or fallopian tubes, uterus or womb, vagina and mammary glands.

8. Respiratory system-Nose, pharynx, larynx or voice box, trachea or windpipe, bronchial tubes, and lungs.

9. Urinary or excretory system-kidneys, ureters (tubes from the kidneys to the urinary bladder), urinary bladder, urethra (tube from the bladder to the outside of the body).

10. Digestive system-Mouth, pharynx or throat, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder.

Ok..next we will move to the next lesson of BODY CAVITIES...come on....

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Human Tissues - Lesson 2





This lesson is about human tissues. To do a specialized activity, same cells combine together to form a tissue . Study of tissues is called Histology, and one who specialized in Histology is called Histologist.

There are different kinds of tissues in our body to perform different functions .Similar cells combine together to form a tissue.

Different kinds of tissues:

1. Nerve tissue
2. Connective tissue
3. Muscle tissue
4. Epithelial tissue

Now we study about all human tissues one by one

1.Nerve tissue: Nerve tissues are combination of nerve cells as we have already studied the main function of nerve cells is conduction of impulses through out the body, and so the job of nerve tissue is also the conduction of impulses.

2. Connective tissue: The examples for Connective tissues are Adipose tissue, Cartilage and bone. Cartilage is an elastic and fibrous tissue attached to bones.

3.Muscle tissue: There are two types of Muscle tissues in our body such as Voluntary muscles and Involuntary muscles. Voluntary muscles are found in legs and arms and in the parts of the body where the movement is voluntary. Involuntary muscles are found in our body where the movement is involuntary or the movement is not in our conscious control, such as heart and digestive system. Cardiac muscle is a best example for an involuntary muscle tissue.

4. Epithelial tissue: These tissues are placed through out the body as a covering or lining or internal organs in exocrine and endocrine glands as well as an external covering covers the body as skin.  Understood well about human tissues?...now we move on to the next lesson of BODY ORGANS...come on.


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Body Cells and Differentiation-Lesson 1


Body cells are different types. We often may read about stem cell types. Like in a movie there are many actors to do their different roles to establish a story, in our body there are different kinds of cells to do different roles to keep the body stable and active.

The cells in our body are of two types:
1. Somatic cells. Our body contains Muscle cells, Nerve cells, Skin cells, and Fat cells. These kind of cells performing mainly body related functions and so they are called Somatic cells. There are varieties of cells inside the body. Every cell is different or specially created to do their special role inside the body throughout.

Fat Cell: For example in body cells a FAT CELL has in it empty and large spaces for fat storage, and a muscle is slender and long and has in it fiber material that help in relaxing and contracting, as well as a skin cell is square in shape and also flat in structure to give protection to our body and a nerve cell which is long in structure and also has many types of extensions of fibers those help in its work of impulses carrying.

Sex cells:  These cells do reproductive activities like cell division and help in producing a fetus.

A cell is performing one or more specific functions. There are five types of body cells in the human body:
We can divide them into two groups, such as SOMATIC CELLS AND SEX CELLS.

SOMATIC CELLS: They are called as body cells because they perform body related functions like contraction, expansion, protection, communication of information, and movements etc. They are of four types:

1. Epithelial cell - These cells found as the lining and covering of organs and body cavities.

2. Connective cell- these cells supports as bone, cartilage, tendons and ligaments, protects as the bony cavities and as protective immune cells in the blood, and stores nutrients.

3. Nervous cell- these cells, which carry information in the form of impulses throughout the body.

4. Muscle cell - these cells contract to perform movements such as skeletal muscle movements, GI tract propulsion, and pumping of blood in the heart.

SEX CELLS:
These cells perform activities related reproduction. Thus, different kinds of cells in our body performing different actions.

Ok, next we move on to the next lesson...come on...

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