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Sunday, October 31, 2010

IMMOVABLE JOINTS - LESSON 224

In the earlier posts we have already learned about the types of joints like movable joints and immovable joints. Now in this post we would learn some what about immovable joints.

The joining of two or more bones is the articulation or the joint. Some of the immovable joints between the skull bones are the suture joints  A suture is a type of articulation in which the bones that makeup and the bones are close together.  In this suture joint, the union of bones is connected by connective tissue.

Other joints, such as those between the vertebrae, are partially movable joints. Most of the joints however allow considerable movement. Those which are freely movable joints are called as synovial joints. This synovial joint is also called as diarthrosis which is the most movable type of joint in the body of a mammal. Like with other joints mostly, synovial joints gains movement at the meeting of the articulating bones. Examples of the synovial joints are the ball-and-socket type of joint(hip joint; the head of the femur fits into the acetabular fossa of the ilium) and the hinge type(elbow, knee and ankle joints).

Description of the synovial joint:
The vascularized connective tissue which has a lack of basement membrane all are consisted in Synovial tissue and also sterile. The bones in this joint (synovial joint) are separated by a joint capsule. This joint capsule composed of fibrous cartilage tissue and the articular cartilage. Ligaments also called fibrous bands, or sheets, of connective tissue often anchor the bones together around the joint capsule to become strength. The surface of the bones at the joint is covered with a smooth cartilage surface called the articular cartilage.

The synovial cavity membrane lies under the joint capsule and lines the synovial cavity between bones. The synovial cavity is filled with a particular and special lubricating fluid produced by the synovial membrane. This synovial fluid consists of water and nutrients that nourish as well as lubricate the joints, so that friction on the articular cartilage is minimal.

Bursae:
Bursae singular bursa are the closed sacs of synovial fluid lined with a synovial membrane and are located near a joint. These are formed in the spaces between tendons which are called connective tissue binding muscles to bones, ligaments which are called connective tissue binding bones to bones and bones. Bursae lubricate these areas where friction would normally develop close to the joint capsule.

In the next post we discuss some of the Vocabulary terms.

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Friday, October 22, 2010

BONE PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS - LESSON 223

In this post we are going to deal about Pathological Conditions of bone such as osteomyelitis, osteoporosis, and talipes.  

OSTEOMYELITIS
Osteomyelitis is the word from Greek and in which osteon means bone, myelo means marrow and -itis means inflammation. So it can also be called as inflammation of the bone and bone marrow. Bacteria enters the body through the wound and extends from an infection at the bone or come from a skin or infection of the throat. The mostly affected from this Osteomyelitis were the children and this infection usually occurs in the long bones of the legs and the arms. This bacteria can travel into the bone through the bloodstream from another infected areas in the body. This is also called as hematogenous. People suffering from this osteomyelitis feel severe pain in the infected bone, and suffer from fever and chills, feel tired or nauseated or have a feeling of not being well generally. The skin at the top of the infected bone may be sore, red and swollen. The lesion begins as an abscess (inflammation with pus collection). Pus spreads down the medullary cavity and outward to the periosteum. In this situation antibiotic therapy corrects the condition, so that abscess can be prevented or stopped.

OSTEOPOROSIS
Osteoporosis means ‘a disease of bones’ that develops to an increased risk of fracture. It also means the decrease in bone density  or mass, bone becomes weak and thin, that means the bone mineral density(BMD) becomes less.

Osteoporosis condition is also called as Osteopenia, because the interior of bones is diminished in structure, as if the steel skeleton of a building had been rusted and worn down. It commonly occurs in older women as a consequence of estrogen deficiency with menopause.

Estrogen deficiency promotes excessive bone resorption (osteoclast activity) and less bone deposition. Weakened bones are  subjected to fractures, reduction in height and kyphosis occur as vertebrae collapse. The therapy of Estrogen replacement and larger intake of calcium may be helpful for some patients also.

A weight-bearing daily exercise program is also important. It can also occur with atrophy or misuse as in a limb that is in a cast, or in the legs of a paraplegice, or in a bedridden patient. It may also occur in men as part of the aging process and in patients given corticosteroid (harmones made by the adrenal gland and used to treat inflammatory conditions) therapy.

TALIPES
This is also called as Clubfoot which is the congenital deformity of the bones of the foot means that the patient cannot stand with the sole of the foot flat on the ground. The defect can be corrected by orthopedic splinting in the early months of infancy. This clubfoot depends on what classification it is given.

 In this genetic influence increase dramatically with history of family. Growth arrests at roughly 9 weeks and compartment syndrome which is a defect with chromosome. Talipes equinovarus also called TEV was previously assumed that postural TEV could be caused by external influences in the final trimester such as intrauterine compression.

In the next post we would learn about the Types of joints.

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http://learn-free-medical-transcription.blogspot.com/2008/12/lesson-7-why-there-are-differences.html

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Saturday, October 16, 2010

BONE DISEASE CONDITIONS - LESSON 222

In this post we will learn about various bone disease conditions one by one. Okay.  
Osteomalacia:  This is an abnormal condition of bones, in which the bones get soften by means of scarce quantity of calcium and other minerals in the bones.  This condition is primarily happens because of  rickets, a disease condition in childhood.  In this condition, bones not succeed to get sufficient quantities of important minerals like phosphorous and calcium.  As there is lack of essential minerals, bones turn out to be crook easily and become spongy, and so bend.

Exostosis:  It means a condition of bone in which a growth starts to occur on the outside of the bones.  Ex- means out, -ostosis means an abnormal condition of bone.  For example, a bunion is a puffiness or a bump on the big toe especially in the metatarsophalangeal joint in close proximity to the base.  This bunion develops by way of growth of soft tissue and main bone.

Osteogenic sarcoma:  This is an abnormal condition of a bone in which a malignant growth takes place from it.  This is one of the widespread occurrence.  In this condition, the cancerous bone cells called osteoblasts increase lacking having control over and outline huge tumors.

Ewing’s sarcoma:  This type of sarcoma is one type of malignant tumor.  Pain and swelling on the region of Ewing’s sarcoma is a general condition that involved in a bone, especially in the shaft region of the bone, mostly the whole shaft in the medullary cavity.  The people of the age group of 4 to 16 most commonly affect with this type of malignant tumor.  The best treatment for this malignant tumor called Ewing’s sarcoma are chemotherapy and radiotherapy.  But the possibility of cure of the malignant tumor would happen only if the treatment started before the spread of the disease started.

In the next post, we will learn about more bone disease conditions.  Okay.

Come on.

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Tuesday, October 12, 2010

TYPES OF FRACTURES - LESSON 221

In this post, we will learn about musculoskeletal pathological conditions. Okay. Come on.
Human musculoskeletal system consists of bones that form the outline of the human body.  Movement happens in the human body only when bones move with muscles by the reaction of action commands from the nerves from the central nervous system and brain.  Even the bones are tougher comparing other organ systems in the body, they also are affected by many disease conditions like cancers and fractures and other conditions.  In this post, we will see about all types of fractures one by one now.

Fracture happens when one unexpectedly breaks his or her bone due to any intentional or unintentional activities like accident, attacks, falls, or due to thinning of bones due to less calcium in them.  Fractures in the bones are of eight types such as simple fracture or closed fracture, compound or open fracture, pathological fracture, Colles’ fracture, comminuted fracture, compression fracture, greenstick fracture, and impacted fracture.  We will see about one by one now.

1.  Simple fracture or closed fracture:  In this type of fracture, a bone is broken without making any wounds on the skin surface. 

2.  Compound or open fracture:   In this type of fracture, the skin surface shows an open wound due to injury or any other causes with fracture.

3.  Pathologic fracture:  This type of fracture is happened by the weakness of the bones and the other cartilages surround it by any disease condition.

4.  Comminuted fracture:  In this type of fracture the bone is flattened and is fragmented by any causes.

5.  Colles’ fracture:  This fracture happens mainly in the wrists generally at the inferior edge of the radius of the bone.

6.  Compression fracture:  This type of fracture happens generally the vertebral bones.  The bones get compressed into each other in the vertebrae and so fracture of the bones happen.

7.  Greenstick fracture:  In this type of fracture, a bone is incompletely broken and partially curved or crooked on the opposite side after fracture happened.  This looks like a broken greenstick in appearance and so the name was given to this type of fracture.

8.  Impacted fracture:  In this type of fracture, one piece of bone is forced to intimidate in to the other bone.

In the next post we will deal about cancerous conditions of bones. Okay. Come on.

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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...