We are going to understand about anatomy of parathyroid and parathyroid gland function in this lesson. Parathyroid glands are four tiny glands that are present in the neck. These small glands produce a hormone known as parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid glands are oval in shape. They are present in the inferior part of thyroid glands on the both sides of the pharynx. In rare cases parathyroid glands are present within thyroid glands and in some patients they are present even in the chest area. The main function of the parathyroid hormone is to control the level of calcium in the blood and in the human bones. In abbreviated form the parathyroid hormone is referred as PTH. The another name parathyroid hormone is parathormone. This hormone helps in the function of moving calcium from the blood into the bones. Calcium is an essential mineral to maintain important body functions.
Functions of the Parathyroid Glands: We get calcium mineral that is necessary for our body's function from the food materials we eat. Calcium consumed from the blood is absorbed in the intestines and transferred into the bloodstream. From the bloodstream, the absorbed calcium is stored inside the bones by parathyroid hormones. By this activity of PTH, our body homeostasis is controlled. Homeostasis is an equilibrium of body's internal environment.
If human body calcium level decreases due to any diseases in the body, such as, vitamin D deficiency, PTH is secreated by the body in excess and urges bone calcium deposit to release again into the bloodstream. By this way it regulates calcium level in the blood. If body calcium level is increased in the bloodstream then brain orders parathyroid gland to stop its production.
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