Any disease conditiion is called pathology. Pathology is the study of disease conditions. Like every other organ, eye also has many different kinds of disease conditions called eye pathologies. As an medical transcriptionist learner, you all should know about these pathologies or disease conditions of the eyes. There is difference in ages or gender, even eye diseases in children are found. In the list of eye diseases, we can include diabetic related eye diseases too. Diabetes is also a cause of eye diseases in elder people. These diseases are called degenerative eye diseases. The important disease conditions are cataract, chalazion, glaucoma, and retinopathy due to diabetes. We will see about one by one now. Okay.
Cataract: This is a common eye disese type, which causes decreased vision in the eyes. This decrease in vision happens due to the clouding process of the lens. This pathological condition occurs commonly in older people and so it is called senile cataract. This is a kind of a degenerative disease. Some children get cataract from birth. Cataracts may happen due to diabetes and also due to chronic usage of corticosteroids excessively. The state of lens clouding can be visually examined using a ophthalmoscope. The only treatment for this condition is to remove the affected lens and replace it with artificial one. Contact lenses or usage of glasses are the other two options for treating this condition.
Glaucoma: In this disease condition, the pressure inside the eyes is increased. Due to this high intraocular pressure, the optic nerve is affected, and sometimes the retina is too affected.
Diabetic Retinopathy: Due to diabetes mellitus the retina of the eye is affected. The other effects are blood leakage in the blood vessels of the eye called hemorrhage, retinal veins are getting dilated, microaneurysms, and blood vessels form newly near the optic nerve etc. The vision is getting blurred due to the leakage of blood from the blood vessels into the retina of the eyes. The treatment for this condition are vitrectomy and photocoagulation if the patient gets more leakage of blood.
Chalazion: This is a pathological condition of the eye, in which, there is a small and rough cystic mass is formed on the eyelid. Chalazion mass is formed due to the inflammation of any of the sebaceous gland for a long time known as meibomian gland.
In the next lesson, we will learn about the other pathological conditions of the eyes. Okay. Come on.
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