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Sunday, January 31, 2010

TYPES OF ADMINISTRATION OF DRUGS-LESSON 157

ADMINISTRATION OF DRUGS
The route of administration of drugs can be used to determine the rate and completeness of its absorption into the bloodstream and the speed and duration of the drug. The route of administration of drugs can be broadly classified into four types.
They are
1. Oral administration,
2. Sublingual administration,
3. Rectal administration, and
4. Parenteral administration
These administration of drugs are briefly described below
1. Oral administration:-
These drugs are given by mouth and they are slowly absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach or intestinal wall. People who have difficulty swallowing pills or capsules may find it easier to swallow the medication if they look up as they swallow. After swallowing pills people should be given sufficient amount of water so that to dissolve the solid medications. Sometimes it is also ineffective because whenever the drug is unable to pass through the intestinal mucosa. So there are some disadvantages also with this administration. If time is a factor in therapy it is also disadvantageous.
2. Sublingual administration:-
These drugs are swallowed but are placed under the tongue and allowed to dissolve in the saliva. The drug can be placed under the ventral surface of the tongue for dissolution and absorption through the mucous membrane. Nitroglycerin tablets are taken in this way to treat attacks.
3. Rectal administration:-
These drugs are cone-shaped and aqueous solutions are inserted into the rectum. Whenever the patient is feeling unpleasant feeling or urge to vomit at that time drugs are given by rectum.
4. Parenteral administration:-
This desired effect is systemic, substance is given by routes other than the digestive tract. i.e, it is accomplished by injection of the drug from a syringe through a hollow needle placed under the skin, into a muscle, into a vein or into a body cavity. There are some
varieties of parenteral injections.
In the next post we would introduce a new topic called Analgesics and Anesthetics. Okay

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PHARMACOLOGY- ANESTHETICS, ANALGESICS, AND ANTIBIOTICS-LESSON 156

ANALGESICS:- Analgesics are the drugs used to kill pain. They induce condition of near unconsciousness with the brain's interpretation of the signals. They may produce habit formation and tolerance. There are basically two kinds of analgesics. They are 1. Non-narcotics and 2. Narcotics. The best example for Non-narcotics analgesics is acetaminophen and for Narcotics analgesics is Morphine.
Some of the drugs of non-narcotic drugs reduce fever, pain and inflammation in joint disorders. These agents are not steroid harmones and are known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Examples of nonsteroidal antiflammatory drug are libuprofen (Motrin, Advil) and naproxen (Naprosen).

ANESTHETICS:- An anesthetic is an agent that reduces or eliminates sensation. If the affect is on the whole body then it is said to be general anesthetic or if the effect is on the particular region then it is said to be local anesthetic.

Generally these anesthetics are used for surgical procedures and depress the activity of the central nervous system, producing loss of consciousness. i.e, in general these anesthetics are used to create numbness in the body wherever we want. Local anesthetics inhibit the conduction of impulses in sensory nerves in the region in which they are injected or applied.s
Examples of general anesthetics are ether-hatothane (Fluothane), oxide-thiopental (Pentothal) and local anesthetics are hydrocortisone acetate (Orabase), lidocaine (Xylocaine).

ANTIBIOTICS:- A chemical substance produced by a microorganism that inhibits or stops the growth of bacteria, fungi or parasites is said to be antibiotics. Example for microorganism are bacterium, yeast or mold). These antibiotics are largely used to control many diseases such as rheumatic fever, pneumonia, malaria, dengue etc. Pencillin was the first antibiotic used in the year 1945. The use of antibiotics is warranted because they are some powerful agents. Pathogenic organisms can develop resistance to the antibiotic and thus destroy the disease. Thus antibiotics are having the capacity of disease-fighting capability.
In the next post we would know the different types of antibiotics and their examples. Okay.
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Friday, January 29, 2010

PHARMACOLOGY- VARIETIES OF DRUGS-LESSON 155

VARIETIES OF DRUGS: A drug can have three varieties of names. They are 1. Chemical name, 2. Generic or official name and 3. Brand (trade or proprietary) name.

Chemical name is the chemical formula of the drug. This is useful for the chemist because it shows the structure of the drug. The chemical formula may be long and complicated.

Generic or official name may be recognized as identifying the drug for legal and scientific purposes. This name becomes public property by the original manfacturer and any drug manufacturer may use it thereafter.The generic name for each drug is only one.

Brand name (trade or proprietary) is the private property for individual drug manufacturer. This is a registered trade name. When a particular brand name is ordered on a prescription by a physician, it must be dispensed by the pharmacist; no other brand name may be substituted.

The chemical name of ampicilin is 'derivative of 6-aminopenicillanic acid'.

The generic name of ampicilin is 'ampicilin'.

The brand names of ampicilin are:

1. Amcill capsules.

2. Omnipen.

3. Polycillin.

4. Pricipen.

In the next lesson we will learn about administration of drugs. Okay.

PHARMACOLOGY SUBDIVISIONS-LESSON 154

SUBDIVISIONS OF PHARMACOLOGY: In the previous lesson we came to know about the drugs, pharmacology and their subdivisions  In this lesson we come to know more about the various subdivisions.

1. Medicinal chemistry:- It is the study of synthesis of new drug and the relationship between chemical structure and biological effects.

2. Pharmacodynamics:- It involves the study of drug effects in the body i.e, 'Drug absorption' (how drugs pass into the blood stream), 'Metabolism' (changes drugs undergo within the body), and 'Excretion' (removal of the drug from the body).

3. Pharmocokinetics:- It explains the appearance and disappearance of the drug in the body overtime.

4. Molecular pharmacology:- It is the study of the interaction of the drugs and subcellar entities such as DNA, RNA and enzymes.

5. Chemotherapy:- It defines the study of drugs that destroy microorganisms, parasites, or malignant cells within the body.
It also includes the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer.

6. Toxicology:- It tries to explain the study of harmful chemicals and their effects on the body. These studies in animals are required by law before new drugs can be tested in humans. Antidotes are the substances given to neutralize unwanted effects of drug which a toxicologist is interested to find new and proper antidotes.

This lesson concludes Radiology. From the next lesson we will learn about Pharmacology. Okay.
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PHARMACOLOGY-LESSON 153

PHARMACOLOGY: Let us come to know about the introduction of Drugs in this chapter
Introduction:- 1. Drugs are the substances which are used for the prevention or treatment of diseases in a comfortable condition for our human body.
2. Drugs are classified into two types. They are biological and chemical substances.
(I) Biological Drugs:- 1. These drugs are obtained from plants, such as the roots, leaves and fruit.
Examples of these drugs are digitalis (from the foxglove plant) and antibiotics such as pencillin and streptomycin (from lower plants called molds).

2. These drugs are also obtained from animals
Examples of these drugs are hormones are secretions from the glands of animals.

(II) Chemical Drugs:- 1. These drugs are syntesized in the laboratory.
Examples of these drugs are Anticancer drugs, such as methotrexate and prednisone,

2. These drugs are also contained in food substances called vitamins.
Examples of these drugs are vitamin B12.

"Drugs are directed by a physician and are directed by a pharmacist." These drugs are sold in pharmacy.

In the same way Pharmocology deals with the study of drugs-their nature, origin and effect on the body.

Pharmacology contains many subdivisions. They are:

1. Medicinal chemistry,
2. Pharmacodynamics,
3. Pharmacokinetics,
4. Molecular pharmacology,
5. Chemotherapy and
6. Toxicology

In the next lesson, we will see about subdivisions of pharmacology. Okay.

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Monday, January 25, 2010

RADIOLOGY- IMPORTANT ABBREVIATIONS-LESSON 152

ABBREVIATIONS
1. Angio Angiography

2. AP Anteroposterior

3. Ba Barium

4. CAT Computerized axial tomography

5. cGy Centigray

6. C-Spine Cervical spine films

7. CT Computed tomography

8. CXR Chest x-ray

9. Decub Decubitus (lying down)

10. DI Diagnostic imaging

11. DSA Digital subtraction angiography

12. Fx Fracture

13. 67Ga Radioactive gallium (used in whole-body and
brain scans)

14. Gy Gray (unit of radiation and equal to 100 rads)

15. 131I Radioactive iodine (used in thyroiduptake, liver and
kidney scans and treatment of malignant and nonmalignant
conditions of the thyroid)

16. IVP Intravenous pyelogram

17. KUB Kidneys, ureters, bladder
(x-ray wihtout contrast medium)

18. LAT Lateral

19. LS Films Lumbosacral spine films

20. mCi Millicurie (measure of radiation)

21. Ci Microcurie (measure of radiation)

22. MRI Magnetic resonance imaging

23. MUGA Multiple-gated acquisition scan
(radioactive test to show heart function)

24. PA Posteroanterior

25. PET Positron emission tomography

26. rad Radiation absorbed dose

27. SPECT Single-photon emission computed tomography;
radioactive substances and a computer are used
to create three-dimensional images

28. 99mTc Radioactive technitium (used in brain, skull, thyroid, liver,
spleen, bone,and lung scans)

29. UGI Upper gastrointestinal series

30. US,U/S Ultrasound

31. VQ Ventilation perfusion scan of the lungs

32. XRT Radiation therapy

This lesson concludes Radiology. From the next lesson we will learn about Pharmacology. Okay.

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Sunday, January 24, 2010

RADIOLOGY- IMPORTANT SUFFIXES AND PREFIXES-LESSON 151

SUFFIXES
1. -gram means record
Angiogram-Record or visual examination of vessels.
Hysterosalpingogram Record of uterus or fallopian tubes.
Myelogram is the record of spine i.e. bone marrow (Bone marrow).
Pyelogram is the record of renal pelvis.
2. -graphy means process of.
Computed tomography is the computerised recording axial images of the body organs.
3. -lucent means to shine.
Radiolucent means indicating x-rays pass through easily i.e. complete transparent to x-rays or other forms of radiation.
4. -opaque means obscure.
Radiopaque is the indication of something that does not allow x-rays to penetrate.
5. -supression means to stop.
Myelosuppression is the hush-u of bone marrow from normal functions.
6. -therapy means treatment.
Radiotherapy is the treatment using x-rays of radiation.

PREFIXES
1. brachy- means short.
Brachytherapy is the treatment method of using radiation from short distances.
2. cine- means movement.
Cineradiography is the visual examination of cancer using radioistopes in motion.
3. echo- means repeated.
Echocardiography is the visual examination of repeated sounds of the heart.
4. inter- means between.
Interstitial therapy is the method of using radio isotopes for therapy by placing them in between tumors.
5. intra- means within.
Intracavitary is the placement of anything within a body cavity.
6. ultra- means beyond.
Ultrasonography is the visual examination using ultra sound waves.

In the next post we will learn about important radiological abbreviation. Okay.

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Friday, January 22, 2010

RADIOLOGY-IMPORTANT COMBINING FORMS AND ITS MEANINGS-LESSON 150

COMBINING FORMS AND THEIR MEANINGS
1. Fluor/o- means flourescence orluminous. Fluroscopy is a visual examination of tissues and deep structures on a fluorescent screen using fluoroscope.
2. Is/o- means same. Radioisotope- The isotope changes to a mere stable state by emitting radiation.
3. Leth/o- means death. Lethal-point to death.
4. Mucos/o- means mucous. Mucositis is the inflammation of the mucous membrane.
5. Pharmaceut/o- means drug. Radiopharmaceutical is combined form of isotope and drug. isotope + drug
6. Radi/o- means x-rays. Radioresistant is the resistance to x-rays. Radiosensitivity is the feature of accepting or responding to x-rays.
7. Roentgen/o- means x-rays. Roentgenology is the stimulation of x-rays.
8. Scintill/o- means spark. Scintillation is the use of diagnostic imaging scanner.
9. Son/o- means sound. Sonogram is the visual examination using sound waves.
10. Therapeut/o- means treatment. Therapeutic is a word that points to treatment.
11. Tom/o- means to cut. Tomography is the visual examination of axial view in depth.
12. Vitr/o- means glass. In vitro is the examination outside test tube or outside the body.
13. Viv/o- means life. In vivo means examination within inside of the living body organisms.
14. Xer/o- means dry. Xerostomia is the dryness of mouth.

Next post is the continuation of this post and we will read about radiological suffixes and prefixes. Okay.

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Friday, January 15, 2010

IMPORTANT RADIOLOGY NUCLEAR MEDICINE TERMS-4-LESSON 149


1. Radiopharmaceutical- A radioactive medicine, which consists of a radionuclide and a chemical substance in combination, which is administered in one piece for diagnostic and curative rationales.
2. Roentgenology- Study of x-rays i.e. radiology.
3. Scan- An all purpose word for pictures of organs, fractions, or oblique or crossway sections of the body part created in a mixture of tactics. A good number are often used to portray pictures taken from ultrascan, CT scan, and other tracer methods.
4. Scintillation scanner- Scintill/o-means glow or glint. An equipment used to become aware of radioactive drug substances stayed inside the body. This method is used to take investigative pictures.
5. SPECT or single-photon emission computed tomography- A radioactive outliner material is brought inside the body using an injection via intravenous route. The pictures are then taken and seen in a computer monitor and three-dimensional views are taken.
6. Tagging- The course of action is the body is followed after putting together a radioactive substance inside the body.
7. Tomography- Investigative radiographic method by which a sequential order of images are taken in different profundities of an organ of the body.
8. Tracer studies- Radioactive materials are used as tagging materials to put together chemical substances and went after at the same time as they travel through the body organs.
9. Ultrasound- A investigative method that endeavors and gets back high-frequency sound waves, at the same time as they rebound off from parts of the body they travel.
10. Uptake- The speed or velocity of assimilation of a radioactive material into and tissue or an organ of the body.
11. VP scan or ventilation/perfusion scan- First a radioactive drug is drawn inside and brought in through an injection. The travel of the radionuclide through the respiratory tract is followed and pictures taken.
This post concludes radiotherapy important medical terms. In the next lesson we will learn about important combining forms of radiology. Okay.
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YouSayToo Awards


YouSayToo-Awards: I have just joined in this great site two days back. The site outlook is wonderful and a feast to the eyes really, as well as the functionality of the site. So I immediately added by blog as the site has the social networking features especially for bloggers. I added my blog immediately and added two posts yesterday and forgot about it. Suddenly when I checked my mails today, I found one invitation mail from YouSayToo that to enter my blog for their blog award competition entry before January 31, 2010 and I amazed and decided to give my entry to the site now. The first prize is $1000 holiday dream gift of my choice.

My $1000 holiday dream gift is: I don't know yet, which would be my $1000 holiday gift, but any gift if I am selected would make me merry and happy for sure.

Why my blog should win: I am a blogger for the last one year 2009 and I am spending nearly 3 to 4 hours per day to develop my blog to add more lessons and to optimize the site for free and to get more traffic, etc., I have never known two days back that there is a chance of winning an award for a blogger like this YouSayToo Awards offer. Now my mind is full of a thought of why I should not win this if God has blessed me. My readers may bless me to our blog to win this great award from YouSayToo. If this blog wins, all credit will go to the readers of this blog only for the last one year.

You may also add your blog to YouSayToo using my referral link below:


Thank you.

Thursday, January 14, 2010

IMPORTANT RADIOLOGY NUCLEAR MEDICINE TERMS-3-LESSON 148







1. Magnetic resonance imaging- A magnetic ground radio signals are used to outline sagittal, coronal, and axial pictures of the body.
2. Megavoltage- High-energy radiation engendered by means of an equipment and employed in restorative x-ray analysis intended for cancer.
3. Nuclear medicine- This is a medical speciality, which examines and employs of radioactive materials called radionuclides within identification and treatment of ailment.
4. Orthovoltage- Emission of low-energy radioactive waves that are employed in pain-killing radiation therapy and exterior skin cancer diseases.
5. Palliative- Means just soothing or painkilling, not curing completely that is not possible.
6. PET scan or positron emission tomography- Radioactive materials are administered using intravenous route and these substances give out positrons. They generate a cross-sectional picture of the metabolism of the body. These images symbolize local concentration of the radioactive material administered.
7. Radiation Oncology- This is a speciality of medicine that studies and provides treatment of tumors utilizing radiation of high-energy (radiotherapy).
8. Rad- Radiation absorbed dose, a measurement of radiation dose administered.
9. Radioimmunoassay- This is an examination that blends the utilization of antibodies, as well as radioactive substances to become aware of microscopic amount of materials in the blood.
10. Radioisotope- A radioactive mode of a material called radionuclide.
Next lesson is the continuation of this lesson i.e. important medical terms related to radiology and nuclear medicine. Okay.
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Wednesday, January 13, 2010

IMPORTANT RADIOLOGY NUCLEAR MEDICINE TERMS-2-LESSON 147




This lesson is the continuation of the lesson 146.
1. In vitro- A method of test or a technique in which something is appraised or monitored from the outer surface of living organism.
2. In vivo- A method of test or a technique in which something is appraised or monitored from within the living organism.
3. Irradiation- Dispensing radiation management of treatment to a patient.
4. MRI or magnetic resonance imaging- A magnetic ground with radio signals are used to outline sagittal, axial, and coronal pictures of the body.
5. Lethal- This is concerning to that which is poisonous, noxious, or fatal.
6. Interstitial Therapy- Radioisotopes are put in using a surgery into a tumor.
7. Interventional Radiology- Healing methods that are carried out by a radiologist.
8. Half-life- Time necessary for a radioactive material to be unable to find half of its radioactivity by breakdown.
9. Ionization- The partition of durable materials into electric or excited elements. These elements are called ions. This process is called ionization.
10. Linear accelerator- This is an equipment used to distribute radiation rehabilitation method.
Next lesson is the continuation of this lesson i.e. important medical terms related to radiology and nuclear medicine. Okay.
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Monday, January 11, 2010

IMPORTANT RADIOLOGY NUCLEAR MEDICINE TERMS-1-LESSON 146




In the next lesson we will learn some important medical terms related to radiology nuclear medicine. Okay.

1. Cobalit-60 - A radioactive material in radiotherapy.

2. Brachythrerapy- Brachy- means tiny-Radiation therapy using an implanted radioisotope radiation source.

3. Cineradiography- Employment of motion picture method to document a chain of x-ray representations.

4. Betatron-This is a machine employed in radiotherapy to distribute a prescribed amount of radiation to a patient.

5. External beam radiation - Relevant radiation is used as an outlying source.

6. CT scan or computed tomography - Investigative x-ray technique by which a cross-section representation of pictures taken of an exact portion of the body is documented.

7. Fluorescence - The production of blazing light that results from contact to and incorporation of radiation from x-rays.

8. Fluoroscopy - A fluorescent representation of x-rays taken on a screen.

9. Gray - A component of measurement of radiation quantity.

10. Gamma rays - A high-energy give off of beams discharged by radioactive materials.

Next lesson is the continuation of this lesson. Okay.

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Thursday, January 7, 2010

RADIATION THERAPY-2-LESSON 145



Brachytherapy comprises interstitial therapy and intracavitary therapy. To facilitate delivery of interstitial therapy, a radioactive material for example gold-198, iridium-192 or iodine-125 is put in using a surgery in the surrounding area. The radionuclide is inserted as an element of strands using tiny preserved bud vases or in detachable needles. These stands are called seeds.
In the intracavitary therapy the radioactive source is placed closest to the tumor inside a body cavity. For this process radioactive materials like radium, cesium-137 or phosphorous-32 are used. Uterus, cervix, and vaginal cancers are managed using intracavitary therapy.
Dispensation of radioactive materials into the bloodstream is one more variety of radiotherapy. For this method of radiotherapy iodine-131 is used to treat hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine-131 is dispensed orally in hyperthyroidism and this material mixed with blood and mounts up in the thyroid gland. This material irradiates the tissue in the thyroid and so reduces the activity of the gland. Iodine-131 is also absorbed by thyroid tumors. In treating thyroid carcinoma, iodine-131 is used after partial or total thyroidectomy to inactivate any residual thyroid tissue and to treat metastases.
The unit of radiation dispensation measurement is gray or in short Gy. A gray is equivalent to 100 rad i.e. radiation absorbed dose. Tumors and body tissues are categorized in the same way as radiosensitive and radioresistant as per the number of gray obligatory to kill or injure cells.
Examples of radiosensitive organs are the ovaries and testes. Radioresistant organs are for example pituitary gland and adrenal glands. These glands are disposed to the effects of radiation. Lymphomas are in the main radiosensitive, but sarcomas are by and large radioresistant.
Side Effects of Radiation Therapy:
Radiotherapy even if it perhaps moreover a painkilling or restorative agent is able to create objectionable side effects on customary body tissues that are by the way irradiated. Some of these snags are reversible by the time and recovery takes place almost immediately after the period of radiotherapy is over. These acute reversible effects may include:
1. Mucous membrane ulceration. The another names for this condition is mucositis for example in the pharynx, mouth, vagina, bladder, or small and large intestine. Xerostomia i.e. dryness of mouth takes place after radiation to the mouth or pharynx.
2. Nausea and vomiting as a reaction to radiotherapy to the brain or gastrointestinal organs.
3. Bone marrow suppression or myelosuppression, with leukopenia and thrombocytopenia.
4. Alopecia i.e. baldness.

With higher does of radiotherapy these impediments can be linked with everlasting organ damage. Besides, radiotherapy delivered in therapeutic doses may produce chronic wound to any body organ that happens to be in or near the path of the radiation beam. Chronic side effects depend on the site of treatment delivery and can include pericarditis, pneumonitis, vasculitis i.e. inflammation of the blood vessels, and fibrosis of the skin and lungs.

In the next lesson we will learn about the important medical terms related to radiology and nuclear medicine. Okay.

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RADIATION THERAPY-1-LESSON 144




Radiation Therapy:  X-rays and radionuclides are used in the medical field for both detecting disease, as well as curing diseases in the form of therapy. Using large doses of radiation materials via therapy is life-threatening event to the calls of the body those are irradiated.
The specialization of radiation oncology has been chiefly ready to lend a hand as a technique for the handling of cancers. The equipments used for radiation oncology are unlike from those used for detection of diseases. The machines used in radiation therapy bring about rays of many times higher intensity.
Orthovoltage machines deliver low-energy radiation, which in modern treatment centers is used in managing cancers for superficial skin cancers. Megavoltage machines produce high-energy radiation. These megavoltage machines are used to heal more profound tissues. This is curative radiotherapy treatment for cancer.
Betatron and linear accelerator are the two types of radiotherapy equipments. They produce a penetratingly clear radiation rays to a certain area of the body at the same time as cautious superimposing of the surface tissue.
Radiation may be applied to a tumor from some distance (external beam radiation) or implanted within the tumor itself called brachytherapy. External beam machines such as linear accelerator, direct a beam of photons toward the tumor. The higher the energy of the photons, the greater the penetration of the beam. Photons can also be produced from a radioactive source such as cobalt-60, both sources of high-energy photons i.e. linear accelerator and cobalt are well suited for the treatment of deep-seated tumors.

Next lesson is the continuation of radiotherapy. Okay.

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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...