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Sunday, August 9, 2009

URINARY SYSTEM INFORMATION- ABBREVIATIONS-LESSON 89


In this post, we will learn about the important urinary system abbreviations. As a medical transcription learner, you should all be familiar with these abbreviations, as physicians often use these words while they dictate live files in companies when you involve in medical transcription job online live. So be careful to study these words and their meanings and also familiarize with them.

1. ARF-Acute Renal Failure

2. ADH-Antidiuretic Hormone (also known as vasopressor)

3. BUN-Blood Urea Nitrogen

4. CAPD-Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

5. Cath.,-catheterization

6. Cl-chloride

7. CRF-Chronic Renal Failure

8. Cysto-Cystoscopic examination

9. ESRD-End-stage Renal Failure

10. ESWL-Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

11. HCO3-Bicarbonate (an electrolyte)

12. HD-Hemodialysis

13. IVP-Intravenous Pyelogram

14. K+-Potassium (an electrolyte)

15. KUB-Kidney Ureter and Bladder

16. Na+-Sodium (an electrolyte)

17. pH-Symbol of value or urine acidity or alkalinity

18. PKU-Phenyketonuria

19. UTI-Urinary Tract Infection

20. VCUG-Voiding Cystourethrogram

This lesson concludes urinary system. Next lesson starts the new chapter CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM. OK.

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URINARY SYSTEM INFORMATION- CLINICAL COURSES-2-LESSON 88



MRI or magnetic resonance imaging: The images of the retroperitoneal and pelvic regions of a patient is taken by lying the patient in a cylindrical MRI appliance. Protons are the kind of images taken by this machine when the internal organs moving. The images can be taken in all the three planes of the body such as sagittal, transverse, and frontal. 9. Ultrasonography: Sound waves are used to find the abnormalities in the kidneys such as tumors, size of the kidneys, hydronephrosis, polycystic kidneys or any obstructions can be found out using this. 10. Dialysis: Waste materials are filtered out using a machine when the kidney are no more working. Dialysis are of two types. They are of Hemodialysis and Peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis is a filtering of the patient's blood by sending the waste material filled blood into a dialysis machine and filtered out and then the blood is send back to the patient's body. Peritoneal dialysis is done by using a peritoneal catheter by introducing a fluid into the peritoneal cavity. The wastes are then passed into the fluid. The fluid is then removed by the catheter tube. Intermittent Peritoneal Dialysis or IPD is done by the patient him or herself continuously using an artificial support. This method is also called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis or CAPD.

Cystoscopy: This is the visual examination of the urinary bladder using an instrument called cystoscope. The bladder mucosa is examined by inserting a empty tube into the bladder via urethra and a light source, lenses, mirrors are used to do this procedure. A wide-angle view of the bladder is obtained using a method called panendoscope.

ESWL or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: Kidney stones are mashed using this method by passing shock waves and the stones are crushed into a little fragments. The shock waves are passed into the body from the outside of the body i.e. extracorporeally.

Renal transplantation: When both kidneys of a patient is failed then a kidney from another person can be transplanted to that patient. This transplanted kidney can be obtained from an identical twin of that patient and this is called isograft. If the kidney is obtained from other persons that is called allograft.

Renal biopsy: Live tissue from the kidney is taken out using a needle via the skin after the patient was given anesthesia. This biopsy sample of the kidney is used for microscopic visual examination of the cells. This test is done by a pathologist. Fluoroscopy or ultrasonography equipment is attached to the biopsy needle and inserted via the skin to the kidney.

In the next lesson we will see about important urinary system abbreviations. OK.

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URINARY SYSTEM INFORMATION- CLINICAL COURSES-LESSON 87


1. CT scan: This is a visual examination to find out cysts, hydronephrosis, tumors, or any abscesses in the kidneys. This can be done with a contrast material injected into the kidney or without any contrast material.
2. KUB or kidney, ureter, and bladder: This is an x-ray study done to measure the size of the kidneys and also to find out the exact position setting of the kidneys in relation to other organs in the abdominopelvic regions. 3. IVP or intravenous pyelogram: Another name of this test is excretory urogram or IVP tomography. This test is done to find out the tumors, infections, cysts, renal stones, or hydronephrosis in the kidneys. This visual examination is done by injecting a contrast material in a vein that goes directly to any kidney. The contrast material then filtered out in the urine by the kidney. Films are taken following the travelling of the contrast material through the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra and the abnormalities are found out.

4. Retrograde pyelogram: This test is used to find out the occurrence of renal stones or any barriers. A contrast material injected in to the ureters and bladder using a cystoscope. Intravenous dye material is used in this test to find out poor renal functions. If the patient is sensitive to intravenous contrast in IVP test retrograde pyelogram is used as an alternative.

5. Retrograde angiography: This test is used to visually examine the vascular system (blood vessels) of the kidneys. By this test kidney tumors are diagnosed.

6. Voiding cystourethrogram: This is an x-ray examination of the bladder and urethra while the patient is voiding urine. In this test bladder is filled with contrast material to diagnose the abnormalities.

7. Radioisotope tests: The size and function of the kidneys are tested in this test by using an radioactive isotope into the bloodstream and pictures are taken.

Next lesson is the continuation of the urinary system lab tests. OK.

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URINARY SYSTEM INFORMATION- LAB TESTS-LESSON 86


There are two type blood lab tests to analyze the kidney function. They are of BUN or blood urea nitrogen and creatinine clearance test. We will see one by one now. 1. BUN or blood urea nitrogen: BUN determines the total urea content in the blood. If the kidneys fails to excrete urea from blood due to any disease conditions, then urea accumulates in the blood and so uremia occurs. This is a serious condition. One may even attain coma or even die. In normal conditions the urea level in the blood is low due to be excreted by the kidneys. 2. Creatinine clearance test: The efficiency of the kidneys of how they eliminate creatinine from the blood is proved by this test. This test is done by draw a sample of blood and its creatinine level is measured. Then urine samples collected for the 24-hour period and its creatinine levels are measured. The blood creatinine level will be high if kidneys are not functioning well.

In the next lesson we will learn about urological clinical course. Okay.

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In the next lesson we will learn about urinary system clinical courses. Okay.

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URINARY SYSTEM INFORMATION- DISEASE CONDITION-3-LESSON 86



This lesson is the continuation of the lesson 84. 10. Nephrosclerosis: This is an abnormal condition of thickening of arteriole walls of the kidney. 11. Wilm's tumor: Babyhood malignant tumor of the kidneys. Chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation are the treatments for this tumour. It should be treated before its spread otherwise cannot be cured.

Bladder cancer: This cancer is common in industry worker and in tobacco users. The occurrence of this cancer is in general in men who are above 50 years old. The symptoms of bladder cancer are increased urinary frequency, dysuria, and hematuria. Biopsy of the urinary bladder and cystoscopy are the visual examinations of this cancer. Electrocauterization is the method to remove external tumors, but if the tumor is deep and then invasive methods such as cystectomy, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy are the other options of treatment.

Diabetes mellitus: This is condition happened outside the kidneys but related to kidneys. In diabetes mellitus less insulin is secreted. Without insulin body cells cannot use glucose for energy and converted. Unused sugars remain in blood and so more sugars accumulated in the blood makes the condition called hyperglycemia and so excreted more in urine. Kidneys cannot reabsorb the sugars through the renal tubules. Mellitus means sweet. In this condition urine is sweet due to more sugar in urine.

Diabetes insipidus: In this condition water is not reabsorbed from the blood by the renal tubules due to the too little secretion or confrontation of the kidney to the combat of ADH or antidiuretic hormone. The symptoms of this condition are polyuria (excessive urination) and polydipsia (excessive thirst). Urine is more watery in this condition due to the inability of the kidneys to hold up water content.

In the next lesson we will learn about urinary system lab tests. OK.

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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...