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Monday, March 29, 2010

PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDER - LESSON 181

Now in this post we would learn about somatoform disorders and others.
Somatoform disorders:- These are a group of disorders in which it is a mental disorder characterized by physical symptoms for which no particular cause or injury can occur. The physical symptoms such as abdominal or chest pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, palpitations, deafness, blindness, and paralysis are not oftenly explained by a physical or other mental disorders or by injury and are not side effects of medication, drugs, or alcohol. People who suffer this disorder may go various medical evaluations and tests to be confident that they do not have an illness related to a physical cause or central lesion. Whenever the patients suffer from this disorder they become worried so that the doctors are also unable to find a reason for their health problems. The symptoms are lasted for several years like the other illnesses.

Examples of  Somatoform disorders are 1. Conversion disorder and  2.Hypochondriasis.

Let us know briefly about this disorders
Then come on

1. Conversion disorder:-This is a loss of physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but instead that is an expression of a psychological conflict or need. The patient usually has a feared or unconscious conflict that threatens to escape from a defense mechanism in which a person removes unacceptable ideas or impulses from consciousness is nothing but called as "repression", but the energies dealing with this confict are experienced as a physical symptom. This symptom enables the person to avoid the conflict and get support from the surrounding environment. The examples of these symptoms are paralysis, blindness, seizures, paresthesias, and dyskinesia.

1. The nice example for this symptom is that a person with repressed anger and desire to physically harm a family member may suddenly develop paralysis of the arm.  
2. Another best example of this disorder is shell shock or combat fatigue, in which a soldier becomes paralysed and cannot participate in battle.

2. Hypochondriasis:- Hypochondria, we already discussed about this as health phobia is an excessive preoccupation with bodily aches, pains, and discomforts in the absence of real illness. Appropriate physical evaluation does not support the diagnosis of any physical disorder that can account for the symptoms or the person's unwarranted interpretation of them. Most of the people who suffers from this disorder focus on a particular symptom as the catalyst of their worrying, such as gastro-intestinal problems, muscle fatigue or palpitations.

Substance-related disorders:- These disorders are characterized by symptoms and behavioral changes dealt with regular use of substances that affect the central nervous system. Continued or regular use of some drugs produces a state of dependence. Psychological dependence is a compulsion to continue taking a drug despite adverse consequences, and physical dependence is characterized by the onset of withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued abruptly. A definite feature of dependence is tolerance. Tolerance is the declining effect of the drug so that the dose must be increased to give the same effect.

In the next post we would learn about the examples of the substances with drug abuse and dependence
                                       Okay.
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Friday, March 26, 2010

SEXUAL AND GENDER IDENTITY DISORDERS - LESSON 180

In this post we would learn about Sexual and Gender identity disorders: Gender identity disorder which is the formal diagnosis used by physicians and psychologists to explain the person's significant gender dysphoria. It described the attributes related to transgender, transsexuality and transvestism and also it is a psychiatric classification.

This Gender identity disorder in children is mostly common and is considered clinically distinct from GID which appears in adolescence or adulthood which has been reported by some as intensifying over time. Cross-gender behavior is strongly disapproved in many cultures. It sometimes results in significant problems for affected persons and those in close relationships with them.

The Sexual disorders are divided into two types.
They are 1. Paraphilias,  and
2. Dysfunctions.

Pparaphilias:- In this term para means abnormal, philia means attraction to or love. These are characterized by recurrent intense sexual urges, fantasies, or behaviors that include unusual objects, activities or situations. Sexual dysfunctions are disturbances in sexual want or psychosexual changes in sexual response, such as premature ejaculation and dyspareunia that are not the result of a general medical situation.

Examples of paraphilias are:
1. Exhibitionism:- To an unsuspecting stranger, one's body can be exposed, particularly the genitals with compulsive need.

2. Fetishism:- The substitutes used for a human sexual love object as a nonliving objects especially articles of clothing.

3. Pedophilia:- Sexual urges and fantasies involving sexual activity with a prepubescent in the children of age 13 or younger.

4. Sexual masochism:- Sexual gratification is gained by being humiliated, beaten, bound or otherwise made to suffer by another person.

5. Sexual sadism:- Sexual gratification is gained by inflicting physical or psychological pain or humiliation on others.

6. Transvestic fetishism:- Wearing clothing, cross-dressing, of the opposite sex. It has been described in only heterosexual males who have intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving cross-dressing.

7. Voyeurism:- The unsuspecting people who are naked, undressing, or engaging in sexual activity, the sexual excitement is achieved.

A gender identity disorder is persistent cross-gender identification with the opposite sex. This identification is manifested in preference for cross-dressing and cross-sex roles and is observed in children or persistent fantasies of being the other sex.

In the next post we would learn about Somatoform Disorders and some examples regarding this disorder.

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Wednesday, March 24, 2010

PERSONALITY DISORDERS - LESSON 179

Now in this post we would try to learn about the personality disorders: 
Personality disorders:- Personality disorders are starting patterns of thinking and ways of relating to and perceiving the environment and one's self. Whenever these traits become rigid and inflexible, founding impairment of working, distress, and conflict with others, they contains personality disorders. Examples of personality disorders are
1. Antisocial disorders:- Those people with this disorder may include persistent lying, apparent lack of remorse or empathy, inability to keep jobs or stay in school, lack of realistic, long term goals, maintain relationships such as marriage, poor behavioral controls, elevated self-appraisal or a sense of extreme entitlement, a history of childhood conduct disorder, tendency to violate the boundaries and rights of others, disregard for the safety of self or others etc.,

2. Histrionic disorders:- The people with this type of disorder may suffer from exhibitionist behavior, constant seeking of approval, sudden seductive appearance or behavior, somatic symptoms, low tolerance for frustration, rapidly shifting emotional states that may appear superficial, tendency to believe that relationships are more intimate etc., or in general we say that emotional, attention-seeking, immature and dependent, irrational outbursts and tantrums; flamboyant and theatrical; having general dissatisfaction.

3. Narcissistic disorders:- These people grandiose sense of self-importance or uniqueness and preoccupation with fantasies of success and power. Narcissism is a pervasive interest in one's self with a lack of empathy for others or in general an oversensitive temperament at birth, over indulgence and overvaluation by parents, excessive admiration that is never balanced with realistic feedback, severe emotional abuse in childhood, excessive praise for good behaviors or excessive criticism for poor behavior in childhood.

4. Paranoid disorders:- Those people who suffer with continually suspicious and mistrustful of other people; jealous and overly concerned with hidden motives of other; sudden to take offence or in general suspects, harming or deceiving him or her, is reluctant to confide in others, benign remarks as threatening or demeaning, has recurrent suspicions etc.,

5. Schizoid disorders:- Emotionally cold and aloof indifferent to praise or criticism or to the feelings of other; few friendships and rarely appears to experience strong emotions, such as anger or joy or in general neither wishes nor celebrates close relationships, has little interest in having sexual experiences with another person, if any activities are there then takes pleasure in few, lacks close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives, appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others.

6. Schizophrenia disorders:- This disorder is characterized by withdrawal from reality into an inner world of disorganized thinking and conflict. There is mental deterioration from a previous level of function in areas of schizophrenia such as work, social relations, and self-care.

Some of the characteristic symptoms are:
1. Delusions such as thought broadcasting.
2. Halucinations, which may involve many voices the person perceives as coming from outside her or his head.
3. Disorganized thinking such as loosening of associations. It may result in incoherent incomprehensible speech.
4. Flat affect, which is marked by monotonous voice, immobile face and no signs of expression. Affect also may be inappropriate.
5. Impaired interpersonal functioning and relationship to the outside world such as emotional detachment and social withdrawal. Autism is often a feature of schizophrenia.

Physicians explain different kinds of schizophrenia, such as catatonic type, disorganized type and paranoid type.

In the next post we would learn about Sexual and Gender identity disorders

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Thursday, March 18, 2010

DISSOCIATIVE, EATING, AND MOOD DISORDERS - LESSON 178

Now in this post we would try to learn briefly about the remaining disorders.
Dissociative disorders:- These disorders are chronic or unexpected disturbances of memory, uniqueness, consciousness, or perception of the environment that are not caused by the direct effects of brain damage or drug abuse. There are four dissociative disorders. They are 1. Depersonalization disorder, 2. Dissociative amnesia, 3.Dissociative fugue and 4. Dissociative identity disorder.
Its symptoms can include
1. Multiple mannerisms, thoughts and faithfulnesstjat are not equal to each other.
2. Headaches and other body pains cannot be explained.
3. Deformation or loss of related time
4. Comorbidity.
5. Depersonalization.
6. Derealization.
7. Great memory loss
8. Depression
9. Flashbacks of abuse/ trauma.
10. Loss of familiarity and personal connections.
11. Numerous panic/anxiety attacks.
12. Auditory hallucinations of the personalities inside their mind.

Eating disorders:- The eating behaviour is very severe disturbance for these disorders. The causes of eating disorders are complex and not completely understood. Eating disorders are expected to affect 5-10 million females and 1 million males in the United States. Eventhough this is not yet renowned as separate disorder, binge eating disorder is the common eating disorder in the United States affecting 3.5% of females and 2% of males.

Examples of Eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia nervosa is a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight. The term anorexia means lack of appetite, is a misnomer because lack of appetite is rare.

Bulimianervosa in which bulima means abnormal increase in hunger and is characterized by binge eating. Examples of such behaviour are self-induced vomiting; misuse of laxatives, diuretics or enemas; and fasting or excessive exercise.

Mood disorders:- A prolonged emotion, such as depression or mania that dominates a patient's entire mental life. Examples of these disorders are bipolar disorders and depressive disorders.

Bipolar disorders in which bi means two and polo means extreme are characterized by one or more manic episodes alternating with depressive episodes. The predominant mood which is more elevated (euphoria), expensive, or irritable is a period called A manic episode. A psychiatric diagnosis that describes a category of mood disorders defined by the presence of one or more episodes of abnormally elevated mood are clinically referred to as mania or if milder hypomania. Cyclothymia in which cycl/o means cycle, thymi/o means mind is form of bipolar disorder in which there are many manic or hypomanic episodes intermixed with depressive episodes, but the episodes are not as severe or for a long duration.

Depressive disorders are marked by one or more major depressive episodes without a history of mania or hypomania. This major depressive disorder is also known as clinical depression or unipolar depression or unipolar disorder which is a mental disorder by an all-encompassing low mood accompanied by low self-esteem and loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities. This term was selected by the American Psychiatric Association to designate this symptom cluster as a mood disorder in1980 version.
Major depression involves severe dysphoria which means sadness, hopelessness, worry, discouragement. Other symptoms are appetite disturbances and changes in weight, sleep disorders such as insomnia or hypersomnia, fatigue or low energy, feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness, or excessive or inappropriate guilt, difficulty thinking or concentrating, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide. Dysthymia is also depressive disorder which are sometimes found in major depression.

An episode of depressive disorder and a particular 60-day period of the year is noted by the physicians. A regular appearance of depression will occur between the beginning of October and the end of November. This is referred to as the seasonal affective disorder.

In the next post we would learn about Personality disorders.  Okay.

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Wednesday, March 17, 2010

PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS - LESSON 177

Post-traumatic stress disorder:- This is the development of symptoms like intense fear, helplessness, insomnia, nightmares, and diminished responsiveness to the external world following exposure to a traumatic event.

Delirium and dementia:- These both are the disorders of abnormal mental processes of thinking, perception, reasoning and judgement also called cognition.

Delirium is an acute and temporary disturbance in the ability to focus attention, perception, incoherent speech, irrelevant, rambling and  disorientation to time, place or person with memory impairment. It is a systematic syndrome caused by a chemical or disease-process which is disrupting the neurons of the cerebral cortex. Delirium tremens is brought on by withdrawal after prolonged periods of heavy alcohol ingestion.

Dementia is a habitual loss of intellectual abilities involving impairment of judgment, memory, and abstract thinking as well as changes in personality. Dementia may be occurred by the conditions, some reversible, and some progressive, involving damage to the brain. The most general cause is Alzheimer's disease, but others are cerebrovascular disease, central nervous system infection, tumors, brain truama and Parkinson's and Huntington's disease.

In the next post we would learn about remaining psychological disorders.  Okay.                              

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Friday, March 12, 2010

PHOBIAS - 2 - LESSON 176

In this post we will continue the post of lesson 175.

10. Chorophobia - fear of dancing.
11. Coprophobia - fear of feces.
12. Cynophobia - fear of dogs or rabies.
13. Dermatophobia - fear of skin lesions.
14. Diabetophobia - fear of diabetes.
15. Emetophobia - fear of vomiting.
16. Fibriophobia - fear of fever.
17. Gynophobia - fear of women.
18. Heliophobia - fear of the sun.
19. Iophobia - fear of poison.
20. Lepraphobia - fear of leprosy.
21. Maieusiophobia - fear of childbirth.
22. Ommatophobia - fear of eyes.
23. Phthisiophobia - fear of tuberculosis.
24. Proctophobia - fear of rectums.
25. Pyrophobia - fear of fire
In the next lesson we will learn about psychological disorders.  Okay.


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Wednesday, March 10, 2010

PHOBIAS - LESSON 175

Now let us common we would learn more about psychological disorders
Other specific phobias are:
1. Zoophobia - fear of animals.
2. Acrophobia - fear of heights, acr/o means beyond the limit.
3. Claustrophobia - fear of closed-in places; claustr/o means barrier.
4. Androphobia - fear of men.
5. Algophobia - fear of pain.
6. Aurophobia - fear of gold.
7. Bacteriophobia - fear of bacteria.
8. Bibliophobia - fear of books.
9. Carnophobia - fear of meat.


In the next lesson we will learn about more phobias. Okay.

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Friday, March 5, 2010

PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS - LESSON 174

Now in this lesson we would learn about psychological disorders.
Psychological disorders:- Psychological disorders get in between post traumatic stress syndrome to general phobias. It helps to explain the different psychological disorders and is a good introduction to mental sickness, both mild and severe. The identification and the mutual understanding of mental health conditions has changed over time and across there are still variations in the definition, assessment and classification of mental disorders whenever standard guideline are widely accepted.

Freud believed that certain psychological disorders can form when conflicts arise between two or more of these conditions of the personality. This tends to believe the diagnosis, may miss appointments, may neglect medication or may ignore symptoms. The term psychosis is frequently used to explain mental illness. A psychosis involves important impairment of reality testing, with symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations and bizarre behaviour. Schizophrenic disorders are examples of psychoses.

Some of the psychiatric disorders that will be explained in this lesson were anxiety, disorders, delirium, and dementia, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, mood disorders, personality disorders, schizophrenia, sexual and gender identity disorders, Somatoform disorders and substance-related disorders.

Let us know briefly about them:

1. Anxiety disorders:- Anxiety is characterized by anxiety-the experience of upleasant tension, fear, distress, troubled feelings, and avoidance behaviour. Panic attacks marked by intense fear or discomfort and symptoms such as trembling, dizziness, palpitations and so on occur in several anxiety disorders. Some examples of anxiety disorders are phobic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Phobic disorders are characterized by irrational or debilitating fears associated with a specific object or situation. Therefore the affected persons tend to actively avoid direct contanct with the situations in danger cases any mention or depiction of them. The object that is feared is often symbolic of an unconscious conflict that is the cause of the phobia and thus diverts the patient's attention from the conflict, making it unconscious.

Agaraphobia is the fear of being alone or in open, crowded, public places from which escape would be difficult or in which help mught not be available. They may feel comfortable only remaining at home or in the company of a friend or relative. Panic attacks can occur in anticipation of the phobic situation. In other case social anxiety problems may be an underlying cause. This Agoraphobia occurs about twice as generally among women as it does in men.

A Social phobia is the fear of situations in which the individual is open to public scrutiny with possible embarrassment and humiliation. A social phobia is also a diagnosis within the mental health professions referring to social anxiety. The examples of social phobia are using public lavatories, eating in public, fear of speaking in public.

In the next post we would learn about remaining psychological disorders.

Okay.


Wednesday, March 3, 2010

PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS- LESSON 173


Psychiatric disorders are also named as mental health disorders. This term may be useful in understanding several types of psychiatric disorders. Sigmund Freud's ideas of personality is made up of three major parts. They are id, the ego, and the superego.

This term should be used for more severe mental illness rather than some of the less severe types of psychological disorders. But Psychiatrists are able to declare medications and thus they tend to treat more difficult conditions than psychologists can treat with the therapy known as cognitive-behavioral therapy.
As earlier explained the terms the id represents the unconscious instincts and psychic energy present at birth and from there. Depending on the situation the basic drives according to the pleasure principle, seek sudden gratification. The id is believed in the thinking of the infants and to be manifest in the uncontrolled actions of certain mentally ill patients.

Whereas the ego is the central coordinating branch of the personality. It is the mediator between the id and outside world. It evaluates and assesses the reality of the situation and if necessary postpones the gratification of a need or drive until a satisfactory object or situation arises. This ego is perceived as being "self" by the individual.

The superego is the conscience and moral part of the personality. It follows the sense of discipline derived from parental authority and society. For example, the feelings which are guilty arise from behaviour and thoughts which do not conform to the standards of the superego.

In the next post we would learn about psychological disorders.
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Tuesday, March 2, 2010

PSYCHIATRIC DISEASES AND SYMPTOMS - LESSON 172


In this lesson we came to learn about the remaining psychiatric symptoms.
1. Amnesia: It deals with loss of memory.
2. Anxiety:- This deals with apprehension, uneasiness or dread often accompanied by palpitations, tightness in the chest, choking sensations and breathlessness.
3. Apathy:- In this emotions not present, it also deals with lack of interest or emotional involvement.
4. Autism:- More lack of responsiveness to others, preoccupation with deep thoughts; withdrawal and retarded language development.
5. Compulsion:- It deals with uncontrollable urge to perform the action repeatedly
6. Conversion:- For blindness, deafness, or paralysis none of which have an organic basis, the anxiety becomes a bodily symptom.
7. Delusion:- By logical reasoning or evidence a fixed false belief cannot be changed.
8. Dissociation:- From the real object uncomfortable feelings are separated. Avoidance of mental distress the feelings are redirected toward a second object or behaviour pattern.
9. Dysphoria:- It deals with sadness, depressive mood, hopelessness.
10. Euphoria:- For a well-being the exaggerated feeling.
11. Hallucination:- The sensory perception is not real, for example; hearing voices when none is present; an illusion is a false perception of an actual sensor, stimulus.
12. Labile:- The change which is not stable and undergoing rapid emotional.
13. Mania:- The state of action in which excessive excitability, hyperactivity and agitation.
14. Mutism:- It is a nonreactive state.
15. Obsession:- The action which is not voluntary, emotional, persistent or urge.
16. Paranoia:- The combination of the two like delusions of persecution or grandeur.

Hello be ready to learn the next topic psychiatric disorders:

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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...