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Monday, November 28, 2011

Ear Medical Terminology - Lesson 282



In the free medical transcription course lessons, we are going to learn next about ear medical terminology words now. In the last lesson, we have learnt about auditory meatus, auditory nerve fibers, auricle, cochlea, and cerumen. In this lesson, we will learn about other ear medical terms, such as, endolymph, eustachian tube, malleus and incus bones, labyrinth, and organ of Corti.

Ear Vocabulary

Now we will see about endolymph and labyrinth and organ of Corti now in the lesson of ear medical terminology.

Endolymph: This is a fluid like material present in the labyrinth part of the ear. Endolymph is in the inner ear.

Labyrinth: In the inner ear, there are canal like structures. These canals contain other structures such as cochlea, saccule, utricle, and semicircular canals. Labyrinth looks like a maze.

Organ of Corti: This part of the inner ear is a sensitive receptor of sound waves. Organ of Corti is found in the cochlea.

Ear Ossicles: They are the smallest bones in the human body that are found in the middle ear. Ear ossicles act as auditory transmitters and they pass the sound waves to the environment to the cochlea.
Malleus and Incus:  Malleus is a hammer-like organ found in the middle ear. This is the first ossicle bone. Malleus is connected to the incus bone. Incus is the second ossicle bone attached to teh malleus and incus is attached to the ear drum in the inner ear. The other name of the incus bone is anvil.

Eustachian Tube in Ear:  This is a tube-like structure that connects the pharynx to the middle ear. The length of this tube is pproximately 35 millimeter. The new name of this tube is pharyngotympanic tube. This is an auditory tube. We have learnt some important ear medical terms now in the series of ear medical terminology.

Next lesson is the continuation of this post of ear medical terminologies. Okay.

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Thursday, November 24, 2011

Medical Term for Ears - Lesson 281


In this post, we are going to learn about medical term for ears. I am going to provide a list of vocabularies related to the sensory organ ear and it will provide you support to know about new medical terminologies. The meanings of each medical term is given as short definitions for your easy understanding. In everyday medical transcriptionist life, you could hear these terminologies when you do practice or live files from physicians.

Anatomical Vocabulary: In this lesson of medical term for ears, we will see the meanings of what is auditory meatus, auditory canal, auditory tube, auditory nerve fibers, auricle, cochlea, and cerumen. The rest of the medical terminologies related to the sensory organ ear will be included in the next lesson next week. Now we will see the meanings one by one. Okay.

Medical Terms and Meanings: 
Auditory Meatus:  Each ear consisits of internal auditory meatus and external auditory meatus. External auditory meatus is a tube in the ear that runs from the external ear to middle ear. The approximate length of this tube is 35 mm and diameter is 5 to 10 mm.

Auditory Canal: The other name of auditory meatus is auditory canal.

Auditory Nerve Fibers: These are a collection of nerve fibers. These auditory nerve fibers are helpful in communicating the sounds to the brain from cochlea.

Auricle: It is a word derived from a latin word auricula. This is the flap part of the ear. Auricle extends outside from the head. The other name of auricle is pinna.

Cochlea: This is a part of hearing in the inner ear. Cochlea is a cavity of spherically shaped bone like structure or bony labyrinth. Cochlea is a tube-like structure that consists of sensory receptor cells inside of it.

Cerumen: This is a wax like material present inside the ears. This wax is produced by the external ear. The other name of cerumen is ear wax.

This lesson of Medical Term for Ears will continue in the next lesson.

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Sunday, November 20, 2011

Equilibrium and Inner Ear - Lesson 280


In this post, we will learn about inner ear equilibrium. We all know already that human ear has three parts, such as, outer ear or pinna, middle ear, and inner ear. Each ear has its own significance in sending sound waves from our surroundings to the brain. The inner ear is an important area in maintaining equilibrium in the brain. What is equilibrium? Equilibrium is the feeling of balance. Balance of being is maintained by the inner ear. If one is off balance, then that state is called dizziness. Dizziness is purely a physical state and this equilibrium is maintained by three canals in the inner ear. Now we will see in detail about this now.

Inner Ear Equilibrium Problems: Inner ear has three organs that are responsible for balance. The name of these three semicircular tubes are semicircular canals, saccule, and utricle respectively. These three tubes contain a liquid named as endolymph and small sensitive hair like cells inside it. When we move head, this liquid is fluctuated because of the movement of the head. Due to this fluctuation, impulses are formed within the hair cells and so the vibration is transformed to the brain. Then the communication from the brain is sent to the muscle cells in all parts of the body and so inner ear equilibrium is maintained.

Auditory Receptors:   In the inner ear, the auditory liquids and auditory receptors are present inside an organ named organ of Corti in the labyrinth. Due to the problem in the inner ear, we are getting some abnormal conditions, such as benign positional vertigo, Miniere's disease, labyrinthitis or any other tumors. Benign positional vertigo is a disease condition of inner ear equilibrium. In the next lesson, we will learn about vocabularies of eyes and ears. Okay. Come on.

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Tuesday, November 15, 2011

Functions Of The Ear -- Lesson 279


In this post we would learn about the functions of the ear. Generally the ear can be divided into three separate regions. They are 1. Outer ear, 2. Middle ear and 3. Inner ear. These outer and middle ears function in the conduction of sound waves through the ear. The inner ear contains structures that receive the auditory waves and relay them to the brain. The auditory or estachian tube is a canal leading which is from middle ear to the pharynx. In an efficient way, this tube can prevent damage to the eardrum and shock to the middle and inner ears.  The pressure of air in the middle ear is equal to the pressure of the air in the external environment.

Functions of Middle Ear: Whenever we speak the outer ear collects the sound waves and sends them through the auditory canal. That is the vibrations are carried through the auditory canal to the eardrum. Then this vibrations goes to the middle ear. The smallest bones which are in the middle ear converts this vibrations in the air into liquid and then reaches to inner ear. In this inner ear the liquid causes vibration of the basilar membrane. The main spiral organ or corti is located. Approximately, 20,000 hearing cells were created by electric impulses. This nerve receives the impulses and passes them.

Functions of Inner Ear:  Actually the main basic function of the ear is hearing. Balancing is also other important function of the ear. Oriented at the right angles. With effect to gravity another part of the inner ear sends information to the brain in an idle position. The eardrum is a sensitive organ. It can detect the sounds and this vibration is transferred to the inner ear for further proceeding. The pinna and the ear canal pass the sound waves to the middle ear. As ear is the sensitive organ, we should never use  pins or pencil points or any type of fig into the ear. We have to use cotton ear buds to clean. We should keep our ears clean so that loss of hearing may be detected. A human ear can detect in the range of frequence between 16 hertz to 16384 hertz. 

In the next post we would learn some definitions shortly regarding this post.

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Wednesday, November 9, 2011

Ear Functions and Structure - Lesson 278


In this post, we are going to learn about ear functions and structure. This lesson begins the ear anatomy and physiology lessons. In the future posts, we will learn about human ear anatomy and physiology. As per the passage of sound waves from the ear to the brain, we can divide the ear structure into four divisions, such as outer ear, middle ear, inner ear or labyrinth, and brain. The outer ear consists of pinna, external auditory ear, and tympanic membrane. The middle ear consists of malleus, incus, stapes, and oval window. The inner ear or labyrinth consists of cochlea, auditory liquids and receptors, and auditory nerves. In the brain, the ear is connected with cerebral cortex. We will learn about each of these parts of the ear one by one now.

Ear Functions and Structure:  Outer Ear: Any sound waves from our surrounding will enter into the outer ear first through the muscle part called pinna or auricle, outside the ear, which projects outside the ear. Auditory canal is extended from the pinna, which is also known as external auditory meatus. This canal is lined with some glands and those glands secrete a wax substance called cerumen. Cerumen is brownish-yellow in color. Cerumen lubricates the auditory canal. We will learn about ear functions and structure of the middle ear now.

Middle Ear: There is a membrane that obstructs the sound wave that travels from the outer ear to the inner ear called ear drum or tympanic membrane. Due to this obstruction, the ear drum vibrates and so three small bones present in the middle ear called malleus, incus, and stapes. The common name for these three small bones is ossicles. As the one of the small bone called stapes moves, it brings into touch with the oval window, which separates the middle and the inner ear.

Functions of Inner Ear: Inner Ear: The middle ear extends into the inner ear as cochlea, which is a snail-shaped structured bone. Cochlea consists of a lubricant liquid named as perilymph and endolymph. The sound vibrations from the middle ear passes through this structure and liquids. Organ of Corti is a sound receptor present in the inner ear. Sound waves from organ or Corti passes through auditory nerves present in the inner ear to brain.

Brain: Sound wave is received in the inner ear to the brain to the cerebral cortex and so the sound perception is felt by the human beings. The lesson of ear functions and structure concludes now.

In the next lesson, we wil learn about the function of the ear. Okay. Come on.

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Sunday, November 6, 2011

Laser Eye Surgeries - Lesson 277

In this post, we will see about the eye treatment procedures, such as vitrectomy, keratoplasty, laser photocoagulation, and scleral buckle methods. Keratoplasty surgery is a method of transplanting the cornea inside the eye. This surgical process is also known as corneal graft method. In this method, the cornea is replaced with a normal cornea that can transparent well and so the vision is restored. If the cornea is replaced entirely, the surgical process is named as penetrating keratoplasty. If the cornea is replaced partially only, then the process is called as lamellar keratoplasty. The cornea is donated if a man orwoman dies by accidents or any other reason and they donate their cornea with their own consent.

In laser photocoagulation method, many eye diseases are treated. In this, the blood vessels inside the eye is cauterized using laser light waves. The laser light used in this method is known as argon laser beams. These beams stimulate the blood vessels inside the eye. Diabetic retinopathy is treated in this way. Senile macular degeneration is also treated using laser method. The blood vessels are sealed using laser and so the leakage of blood is stopped and also any unusual growth of blood vessels is also rectified.

In the scleral buckle method, a suture of silicone band is formed directly on the retinal detachment and so the retinal tear is rectified. The scleral buckle attaches two ends of the retina together. Usually retinal tears are created due to retinal detachments inside eyes.

In the vitrectomy method of surgery, the vitreous humor is replaced with another clear liquid. Simply the vitreous humor liquid inside the eye is removed using vitrectomy. In an unusual condition, the scar tissue and the blood vessels are gathered together in the vitreous humor and this may happen mostly due to retinopathy disease during diabetis called diabetic retinopathy. Vitrectomy is of two types, such as anterior vitrectomy and pars plana vitrectomy. If only small portions of the anterior vitreous humor is removed, it is known as anterior vitrectomy. If this procedure is performed in a deep level inside the eye and so entire vitreous humor is removed.

In the next lesson we will learn about anatomy of the ear and some abbreviations. Okay. Come on.

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Friday, November 4, 2011

Cataract Refractive Surgery - Lesson 276

In this lesson, we are going to study about cataract of the eyes. As a free medical transcription course learner, you should all know about cataracts of the eye. The dictators will dictate about cataract in dictation files in the surgical history of the patient or about the surgery files about cataracts etc. You should know about what is cataract and what are the surgical methods to remove cataracts. The reasons for cataract is a change in the protein structure, as well as the water stuff inside the lens. Changes in the protein affects the clarity of the vision. These changes in the crystalline lens create clouding in the eyes. Cataract is a disease. In the cataract disease, the lens is the primary thing affected by clouding process, from its normal clarity. Cataract affects the retina to focus the light rays on the lens. Cataract means waterfall in the latin language. Some patient with cataract would also have diabetes and they may meet complications while the physician decides to do surgery to remove the cataract due to high sugar in the blood. The main sign of cataract is the blurred vision and also difficulty in vision during nights, light sensitivity, fading of light colors, and sometimes double vision. Some old age patients may get cataract and glaucoma at the same time due to the ageing process. 

Types of cataracts: If the older people get cataract due to ageing process, it is called senile cataract. There is another type of cataract, which is named as Morganian cataract, in which a liquid like milk is formed in the lens. If the cataract form in a child, it is called congenital cataract.

Cataract Surgeries: Now we will see the surgical methods to remove the cataracts. In common there are two methods to remove cataracts. They are intracapsular and extracapsular methods. In the intracapsular method, the lens is removed totally with lens capsule. In the extracapsular extraction method, the posterior portion of the lens is kept in place, but the lens tissue is removed entirely. The extracapsular lens is removed by a method called aspiration-irrigation technique. In this process, the lens material is absorbed using a needle and the lens is broken using phacoemulsification method, in which an ultrasonic vibration is passed to break the lens. Intraocular lens, shortly termed as IOL is then implanted if the patient gets cataract again after extracapsular surgery.

In the next lesson, other surgical processes of the eye. Okay. Come on.

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The Longest Medical Word

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