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Sunday, November 29, 2009

IMPORTANT CANCER TERMS-3-LESSON 129


This is the continuation of LESSON 128.
29. Morbidity: The condition of being diseased.
30. Mucinous: The cancer cells containing mucus.
31. Mutation: Change in the genetic material that is DNA of a cell may be caused by chemicals, radiation or viruses or may occur spontaneously.
32. Neoplasm: New growth that may be either benign or malignant tumor.
33. Oncogene: A region of genetic material in a cell that is DNA found in tumor cell (cellular oncogene) on in viruses that cause cancer called viral oncogene. Oncogenes are designated by a three-letter word, such as abl, erb, jun, myc, ras, and src.
34. Pedunculated: Possessing a stem or stalk (peduncle) characteristic of some polypoid tumors.

35. Pharmacokinetics: Study of the distribution and removal of drugs in the body over a period of time.

36. Protocol: An explicit, detailed plan for treatment.

37. Radiation: Energy carried by a stream of particles. Various forms of radiation can cause cancer.

38. Radiocurable tumor: Cells that are eradicated by radiation therapy.

39. Radioresistant tumor: Cells that require large doses of radiation to be destroyed.

40. Radiosensitive tumor: A tumor in which radiation can cause death of cells.

41. Radiosensitizers: Drugs that increase the sensitivity of tumors to x-rays.

42. Radiotherapy: Treatment using radiation.

43. Relapse: Return of symptoms of disease.

44. Ribonucleic acid or RNA: Cellular substance located within and outside the nucleus hat along with DNA, plays an important role in the synthesis of proteins in a cell.

45. Sarcoma: Cancerous tumor derived from connective tissue.

46. Serous: Pertaining to thin, watery fluid called serum.

47. Sessile: Having no stem characteristic of some polypoid tumors.

48. Solid tumor: Tumor composed of mass of cells.

49. Staging of tumors: System of evaluating the extent of spread of tumor. For instance is the TNM system i.e. tumor, nodes, and metastasis.

50. Steroids: Complex naturally occurring chemicals for example hormones that are used as chemotherapeutic agents.

51. Surgical procedures to treat cancer: Cryosurgery, en bloc resection, excisional biopsy, exenteration, fulguration, and incisional biopsy.

52. Ultraviolet radiation: Rays given off by the son.

53. Viral oncogenes: Pieces of DNA from viruses that infect a normal cell and cause it to become malignant.

54. Virus: An infectious agent that reproduces by entering a host cell and using the host's genetic material to make copies of itself.

In the next lesson we will learn about Cancer Combining Forms. Okay.

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IMPORTANT CANCER TERMS-2-LESSON 128


This lesson is the continuation of the LESSON 127.
15. Electron beams: Low-energy beams of radiation for treatment of skin or surface tumors.
16. Encapsulated: Surrounded by a capsule. Benign tumors are generally encapsulated.
17. Fractionation: Giving radiation in small, repeated doses.
18. Grading of tumors: Evaluating the degree of maturity of tumor cells.
19. Gross description of tumor: Visual appearance of tumors, cystic, fungating, inflammatory, medullary, necrotic, polypoid, ulcerating, and verrucous.
20. Infiltrative: Extending beyond normal tissue boundaries.
21. Invasive: Having the ability to enter and destroy surrounding tissue.

22. Linear accelerator: Device that produces high-energy x-ray beams for treatment of deep-seated tumors.

23. Malignant: Tending to become worse and result in death. Tumors having the characteristics of invasiveness, anaplasia, and metastasis.

24. Metastasis: Spread of a malignant tumor to a secondary site. Literally beyond control (meta means beyond and stasis means control).

25. Microscopic description: The appearance of tumors as seen under the microscope. Those are alveolar, carcinoma in situ, diffuse, dysplastic, epidermoid, follicular, nodular, papillary, pleomorphic, scirrhous, and undifferentiated types of cancer are microscopic.

26. Mitosis: Replication of cells. This is a stage in the cell life cycle involving the production of two identical cells from a parent cell.

27. Mixed-tissue tumors: Tumors composed of different types of tissue such as epithelial as well as connective tissue.

28. Modality: Method of treatment, such as surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation.

In the next post we will see the continuation of this post. Okay.

Come on.
To go to the next lesson please click the link below15. Electron beams: Low-energy beams of radiation for treatment of skin or surface tumors.

16. Encapsulated: Surrounded by a capsule. Benign tumors are generally encapsulated.

17. Fractionation: Giving radiation in small, repeated doses.

18. Grading of tumors: Evaluating the degree of maturity of tumor cells.

19. Gross description of tumor: Visual appearance of tumors, cystic, fungating, inflammatory, medullary, necrotic, polypoid, ulcerating, and verrucous.

20. Infiltrative: Extending beyond normal tissue boundaries.

21. Invasive: Having the ability to enter and destroy surrounding tissue.

22. Linear accelerator: Device that produces high-energy x-ray beams for treatment of deep-seated tumors.

23. Malignant: Tending to become worse and result in death. Tumors having the characteristics of invasiveness, anaplasia, and metastasis.

24. Metastasis: Spread of a malignant tumor to a secondary site. Literally beyond control (meta means beyond and stasis means control).

25. Microscopic description: The appearance of tumors as seen under the microscope. Those are alveolar, carcinoma in situ, diffuse, dysplastic, epidermoid, follicular, nodular, papillary, pleomorphic, scirrhous, and undifferentiated types of cancer are microscopic.

26. Mitosis: Replication of cells. This is a stage in the cell life cycle involving the production of two identical cells from a parent cell.

27. Mixed-tissue tumors: Tumors composed of different types of tissue such as epithelial as well as connective tissue.

28. Modality: Method of treatment, such as surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation.

In the next post we will see the continuation of this post. Okay.

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IMPORTANT CANCER TERMS AND ITS MEANINGS-LESSON 127


1. Adjuvant therapy: Assisting primary treatment. Drugs are given early in the course of treatment along with surgery or radiation to attack cancer cells that may be too small to be detected by diagnostic techniques.

2. Alkylating agents: Synthetic chemicals containing alkyl groups that interfere with DNA synthesis.

3. Anaplasia: Loss of differentiation of cells. Reversion to a more primitive cell type.

4. Antibiotics: Chemical substances produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of cells used in cancer chemotherapy.

5. Antimetabolites: Chemicals that prevent cell division by inhibiting the formation of substances necessary to make DNA and used in cancer chemotherapy.

6. Apoptesis: Programmed cell death. Apo- means off, away, and -ptosis means to fall. Normal cells undergo apoptesis when they are damaged or aging. Some cancer cells have lost the ability to undergo apoptesis and live forever.

7. Benign: Noncancerous.

6. Biological response modifiers: Substances produced by normal cells that either directly block tumor growth or stimulate the immune system.

7. Biological therapy: Use of the body's own defense mechanism to fight tumor cells.

8. Carcinogens: Agents that cause cancer. Chemicals and drugs, radiation, and viruses.

9. Cellular oncogens: Pieces or DNA hat when broken or dislocated can cause a normal cell to become malignant.

10. Chemotherapy: Treatment with drugs

11. Combination chemotherapy: Use of several therapeutic agents together in the treatment of tumors.

12. Dedifferentiation: Loss of differentiation of cells. Reversion to a more primitive, embryonic cell type anaplasia.

13. DNA or deoxyribinucleic acid: Genetic material within the nucleus of a cell that controls cell division and protein synthesis.

14. Differentiation: Specialization of cells.

In the next post we will see the continuation of this post. Okay.

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