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Wednesday, September 30, 2009


CANCER TREATMENT USING CHEMOTHERAPY:  Using drugs to treat a cancer disease is called chemotherapy. Normally chemotherapy is used to treat countless kinds of cancers. Chemotherapy brings into being makes well of a large amount of patients who have testicular cancer, choriocarcinoma, acute lymphocytic leukemia, or Hodgkin's disease etc. Chemotherapy possibly used unaccompanied with anyone or in mixture by way of surgical procedure with irradiation.

Pharmacokinetics is an area of study of allocation and vanishing of drugs inside the body. Apparently it is the best method to build up drugs that take like of a hefty number of tumor cells without damaging the normal cells while action. For the reason that a few normal tissue cells, for example bone marrow and gastrointestinal lining cells have a fast dividing of their cells, they put up with extensive smash up on or after antitumor drug application inside the body.

Scientists operational in pharmacokinetics area look at carefully the manifestation and fading of drugs in body fluids in various places in the body for instance blood plasma and urine. They use this knowledge in turn to plan drug dosages and programs of dispensation so as to accomplish the furthermost tumor attack with the smallest amount of toxicity to normal cells in our body.

A blend of usage of drugs to cure cancer called chemotherapy refers to make use of more than one antitumor drug jointly to take life of cancerous cells of a specific type of malignant expansion in our body. In this chemotherapeutic method of drug administration, drugs are prearranged concurrently to a in black and white set of rules called protocol. In that drug plan all the details of application of drugs are noted unerringly how the drugs will be given.

As a rule drug rehabilitation treatment called chemotherapy is unrelenting in anticipation of the patient to accomplish an absolute remission of the disease, so as to the patient to get nonappearance of all signs of cancer. From time to time drug application method is given as an adjuvant or to give support to surgical procedure after chemotherapy to slaughter potential concealed disease in patients who subsequent to surgery to be free of any evidence of malignancy.

In the next lesson we will see about categories of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Okay.

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Tuesday, September 8, 2009


Tumors are classified on the basis of their location, microscopic appearance, and extent of spread. Of particular importance are the tumor's GRADE that is the degree of maturity or differentiation under the microscope and STAGE that is the extent of spread within the body. These two properties influence the prognosis that is the chances of successful treatment and survival and determine the specific treatment to be used.

When grading a tumor, the pathologist is concerned with the microscopic appearance of the tumor cells, specifically with their degree of maturation or differentiation. Often, four grades are used. Grade I tumors are very well differentiated, so that they closely resemble the normal parent tissue of their origin. Grade IV tumors are so undifferentiated or anaplastic that even recognition of the tumor's tissue of origin may be difficult. Grade II and III are intermediate in appearance, moderately or poorly differentiated, as opposed to well differentiated that is grade I and undifferentiated grade IV.

Grading is often of value in the prognosis of certain types of cancers, such as cancer of the urinary bladder and ovary and brain tumors such as astrocytomas. Patients with grade I tumors have a high survival rate, and patients with grades II, III, and IV tumors have a poorer survival rate. Grading is also used in evaluating cells obtained from body fluids in preventive screening tests, such as Papanicolaou's or Pap smears of the uterine cervix, tracheal secretions, or stomach secretions.

The staging of cancerous tumors is based on the extent of spread of the tumor rather than on its microscopic appearance. An example of a staging system is the TNM staging system. It has been applied to malignancies such as lung cancer, as well as many other tumors. T refers to the size and degree of local extension of the tumor. N refers to the number of regional lymph nodes that have been invaded by tumor. M refers to the presence or absence of metastases that is spreads to distant sites of the tumor cells. Subscripts are used to denote size and degree of involvement. For instance 0 indicates undetectable and 1, 2, 3, and 4-a progressive increase in size or involvement. A tumor may be described as T1, N2, M0 that is a small tumor with spread to regional nodes, but no distant metastases.



T0-No evidence of primary tumor

T IS-cancer in situ

T1, T2 T3 T4-Progressive increase in tumor size and involvement

TX-tumor cannot be assessed


N0-regional lymph nodes not demonstrably abnormal

N1, N2, N3, N4-increasing numbers or increasingly distant location of spread to regional lymph nodes.

Nx- regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed clinically.


M0- no evidence of metastasis.

M1, M2, M3, M4-Ascending degrees of distant metastasis

In the next lesson we will study about Cancer Treatment Methods and Its Administration Types. Okay.

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TYPES OF TUMORS AND THEIR ORIGINS:  1. Alveolar: Tumor cells outline prototypes bearing resemblance to tiny and microscopic pouches. They are normally brought into being in tumors of muscle, bone, fat, and cartilage.

2. Carcinoma in situ: This microscopic term of cancer refers to confined to a small area and tumor cells that have not marched into neighboring formations. Cervical cancer of possibly will start in on at the same time as carcinoma in situ.

3. Diffuse: Distribution in an even way all the way through the affected tissue. Malignant lymphomas may display diffuse attachment of lymph nodes.

4. Dysplastic: With reference to atypical development of cells. These tumors exhibit a exceedingly abnormal other than not obviously cancerous look. Dysplastic nevi such as moles of skin are the examples of this type.

5. Epidermoid: Similar to squamous epithelial cells. They are thin and plate-like. They are over and over again taking place in the respiratory tract.

6. Follicular: Appearing tiny and microscopic and gland like pouches. Thyroid gland is an case in point.

7. Nodular: Forming multiple parts of closely packed bunches of cells by way of gently populated areas stuck between.

8. Papillary: Bladder cancer possibly illustrated as papillary. They are forming tiny finger-like or nipple-like protuberances of cells.

9. Pleomorphic: They are composed or collected of a variety of type of cells. The examples for pleomorphic type cells is mixed-type tumors.

10. Scirrhous: Scirrhous means hard. They are tightly jam-packed tumors. They are untidy growths with rubbery tough tissue. They are frequently in breast or stomach cancers.

11. Undifferentiated: They are not deficient in microscopic formations having the characteristic of typical full-grown healthy cells.

In the next lesson we will learn about Grading and Staging of Cancer. Okay.

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Wednesday, September 2, 2009


1. Cystic: Creating huge open spaces filled with fluid. Mucinous tumors are packed with mucus for example as solid and muggy fluid and serous tumors are filled wit a lanky and dilute fluid similar to serum. The largest part widespread of site of cystic tumors is in ovaries.

2. Fungating: Tumors originate in the colon are of this category. Rapidly increasing pattern of growth wherein tumor cells stack one on another and project from a tissue outside.

3. Inflammatory: These growths of cancer typically take place in the breasts. Comprising the features of tenderness and swelling with redness, swelling, and heat.

4. Medullary: Mostly thyroid and breast tumors possibly of medullary type. These varieties of cancers are appropriate to large, pliable, thickset tumors.

5. Necrotic: Some type of tumor can outgrow its blood supply and undertake necrosis. Necrotic tumors contain full of dead tissues.

6. Polypoid: Together benign and malignant tumors of the colon may develop at the same time as polyps. Developments those are similar to outcrops making longer outward from a foundation. Sessile polypoid tumors make longer from a wide base and pedunculated polypoid tumors make bigger from a stem or stalk.

7. Ulcerating: Ulcerating tumors are over and over again brought into being in the stomach, breast, colon, and skin. This type of cancer is differentiated by an open, uncovered outside ensuing on or after death of overlying tissue.

8. Verrucous: These types of tumors are usually on gingiva (cheek). They are similar to a wart-like growth.

In the next post we will learn about Cancer Pathology Explanations-2. Okay.

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In this post we will learn about Connective tissue Sarcomas from which they arise.
Embryonic nerve tissue-Neuroblastoma
Neurological tissue-Astrocytoma.
1. Smooth visceral muscle: Leiomyosarcoma.
2. Striated visceral muscle: Rhabdomyosarcoma.








Osteosarcoma or osteogenic sarcoma.




Leukocytes: Leukemia.

1. Hodgkin's disease.
2. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
3. Burkitt's lymphoma.

Plasma Cells-Multiple myeloma.


Kidney- Wilms' tumor or embryonal adenosarcoma.

Ovaries and Testes-Teratoma.

In the next post we will learn about Cancer Pathology Explanations. Okay.

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Carcinomas and Epithelial Tissues

1. Squamous cell layer: Squamous cell carcinoma.
2. Basal cell layer: Basal cell carcinoma.
3. Melanocyte: Malignant melanoma.

1. Adenocarcinoma of the lung.
2. Small cell carcinoma.
3. Epidermoid carcinoma.

1. Esophagus: Esophageal carcinoma.
2. Stomach: Gastric adenocarcinoma.
3. Liver: Hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatoma.
4. Colon: Adenocarcinoma of the colon.

1. Thyroid: Carcinoma of the thyroid.
2. Adrenal Glands: Carcinoma of the adrenals.
3. Pancreas: Carcinoma of the pancreas or pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
4. Breasts: Carcinoma of the breasts.
5. Prostate: Carcinoma of the prostate.

1. Cystadenocarcinoma of the ovaries.
2. Adenocarcinoma of the uterus.
3. Squamous cell carcinoma or epidermoid carcinoma of the vagina or cervix.
4. Carcinoma of the penis.
5. Seminoma and embryonal cell carcinoma of the testes.
6. Choriocarcinoma of the uterus or testes.

1. Renal cell carcinoma or hypernephroma.
2. Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

In the next post we will learn about Sarcomas from each organ. Okay.

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Cancerous Tumors Lesson 102

About half of all cancer deceases are caused by malignancies that instigated in lung, breast, or colon. On the other hand in all there are in excess of 100 divergent types of cancer, each having a exclusive set of symptoms and requiring a specific kind of therapy. It is likely to divide these specific varieties of cancer into three extensive groups of the basis of histogenesis that is by identifying the particular tissue (hist/o) from which the tumor cells arise (-genesis). These major groups are called carcinomas, sarcomas, and mixed tissue tumors.

Carcinomas:  They are the major group are solid tumors that are resulting from epithelial tissue that lines external and internal body surfaces, including skin, glands, and digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs. Something like 90 percent of all malignant neoplasms are carcinomas.

Benign tumors of epithelial source are more often than not designated by adding the suffix -oma to the type of tissue in which the tumor occurs. For example a gastric adenoma is a benign tumor of the glandular (aden/o) epithelial cells lining the stomach. Malignant tumors of epithelial origin are named by using carcinoma added to the type of tissue in which the tumor occurs. Thus a gastric adenocarcinoma is a cancerous tumor arising from glandular cells lining the stomach.

Sarcomas:  Sarcomas are less common than carcinomas and are derived from supportive and connective tissue such as bone, fat, muscle, cartilage, and bone marrow, and from cells of the immune (lymph) system. Sarcomas account for approximately 5% of all malignant neoplasms.

Mixed Tissue Tumors:  Mixed tissue tumors are derived from tissue that is capable of differentiating into both epithelial and connective tissue. These uncommon tumors are thus composed of several different types of cells. Mixed tissue tumors can be found in the kidney, ovaries, and testes.

In the next post we will learn about carcinomas from each organ. Okay.

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Cancer Formation - Environment and Heredity

In this post we will see about cancer formation due to Environmental and Heredity reasons. Environmental Reasons for Cancer Formation:  Driving forces as of the surroundings for example chemicals and medicines, emission, and germs can source adjustments in DNA and as a result bring into being malignant cells. These ecological aspects outlining cancer are called carcinogens.

Substance carcinogens:  Chemical Carcinogens are brought into being in a variety of goods and drugs comprise hydrocarbons such as automobile drains, cigarette, cigar, pipe smoke, insecticides, dyes, industrial chemicals, radiation insulation, and hormones. For example, the hormone diethylstilbestrol or DES creates a malignant tumor, carcinoma of the vagina in females.

Radiation is a wave of energy. There are countless of sources for example sunbeams, x-rays, radioactive substances, muscular fission produce energy waves containing radiation. Whilst these resources act together with DNA it causes breaks or mutations that bring about cancer. Consequently leukemia is a job-related exposure of radiologists who are habitually exposed to x-rays. There is also a high occurrence of leukemia and other cancers among survivors of atomic bomb explosions, as at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Ultraviolet emission emitted by the sun can cause skin cancer for example as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma, principally in persons with lightly pigmented or fair skin.

A number of viruses have been provided evidence to be carcinogenic in a variety of animals. For case in point, the human T cell leukemia virus or HTLV causes a outward appearance of leukemia in adults. An interconnected virus, HIV or human immunodeficiency virus causes AIDS or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Additional viruses have been implicated as the cause of cervical cancer caused by papilloma virus and Burkitt's lymphoma caused by EBV or Epstein-Barr virus.

Oncogenic viruses go down into two categories for example RNA viruses and DNA viruses. RNA viruses compiled of RNA and so they are called retroviruses. DNA viruses are collected of DNA. As well to spread of cancer by entire viruses, pieces of viral DNA called viral oncogenes or similar broken or dislodged pieces of human DNA or cellular oncogenes can cause normal cells to turn into malignant if they are made active by mutations. An oncogene is a piece of DNA whose activation is associated with the conversion of normal cells into cancer cells.

Heredity Reasons for Cancer Formation:

Causes of cancer not only come from the environment, but may also originate within the body. Susceptibility to some forms of cancer is transmitted from parents to offspring through defects in the DNA of the egg and sperm cells. Examples of known inherited cancers are retinoblastoma or tumor of the retina of the eye, xeroderma pigmentosum or tumors o skin exposed to sunlight, and certain types of malignant melanoma, and polyposis coli syndrome or polyps that grow in the colon and rectum. Each of these diseases is believed to be caused by definite breaks or rearrangements of the DNA code. These changes can be seen in special studies of the DNA molecule.

In many cases it is supposed that these tumors take place for the reason that of inherited or get hold of abnormalities in alleged suppressor genes. In normal individuals these suppressor genes control growth and differentiation. Loss of a normal suppressor gene in effect takes the brake off the reproductive process leading to cancer.

In the next post we will learn about CLASSIFICATION OF CANCEROUS TUMORS. Okay.

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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...