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Monday, January 19, 2009

Anemia - Lesson 42

Anemia means less number of erythrocytes or red blood cells in blood. qualitative or quantitative deficiency of hemoglobin, a molecule found inside red blood cells (RBCs). Since hemoglobin normally carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, anemia leads to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in organs. Since all human cells depend on oxygen for survival, varying degrees of anemia can have a wide range of clinical consequences. Anemia is also caused by a lack of iron in the body.

The three main classes of anemia include excessive blood loss (acutely such as a hemorrhage or chronically through low-volume loss), excessive blood cell destruction (hemolysis) or deficient red blood cell production (ineffective hematopoiesis).

Anemia is the most common disorder of the blood. There are several kinds of anemia, produced by a variety of underlying causes. Anemia can be classified in a variety of ways, based on the morphology of RBCs, underlying etiologic mechanisms, and discernible clinical spectra, to mention a few.

Anemia goes undetected in many people, and symptoms can be small and vague. Most commonly, people with anemia report a feeling of weakness or fatigue in general or during exercise, general malaise and sometimes poor concentration. People with more severe anemia often report dyspnea (shortness of breath) on exertion. Very severe anemia prompts the body to compensate by increasing cardiac output, leading to palpitations and sweatiness, and to heart failure.

Pallor (pale skin, mucosal linings and nail beds) is often a useful diagnostic sign in moderate or severe anemia, but it is not always apparent. Other useful signs are cheilosis and koilonychia.
Pica, the consumption of non-food based items such as dirt, paper, wax, grass, ice, and hair, may be a symptom of iron deficiency, although it occurs often in those who have normal levels of hemoglobin.Chronic anemia may result in behavioral disturbances in children as a direct result of impaired neurological development in infants, and reduced scholastic performance in children of school age.

1. Microcytic anemia-Microcytic anemia is primarily a result of hemoglobin synthesis failure/insufficiency. The kinds of this type of anemia are:

a. iron deficiency anemia.
b. sideroblastic anemia
c. thalassemia.

2. Macrocytic anemia or Megaloblastic anemia- the most common cause of macrocytic anemia, is due to a deficiency of either vitamin B12, folic acid or both. The kinds of this type of anemia are:
a. Pernicious anemia.

3. Normocytic anemia-Normocytic anaemia occurs when the overall hemoglobin levels are always decreased, but the red blood cell size (Mean corpuscular volume-MCV) remains normal.
The kinds of this type of anemia are:
a. aplastic anemia.
b. hemolytic anemia.
4. Dimorphic anemia-When two causes of anemia act simultaneously, e.g., macrocytic hypochromic, due to hookworm infestation leading to deficiency of both iron and vitamin B12 or folic acid or following a blood transfusion more than one abnormality of red cell indices may be seen. Evidence for multiple causes appears with an elevated RBC distribution width (RDW), which suggests a wider-than-normal range of red cell sizes
5. Heinz body anemia-Heinz bodies form in the cytoplasm of RBCs and appear like small dark dots under the microscope. There are many causes of Heinz body anaemia, and some forms can be drug induced. It is triggered in cats by eating onions or acetaminophen (Tylenol). It can be triggered in dogs by ingesting onions or zinc, and in horses by ingesting dry red maple leaves

Generally oral supplement and blood transfusions are the treatment for anemia.
Now we have seen briefly about anemia. As a medical transcription learner one should know about this compulsorily.

In the next lesson we will see about ischemia..ok

Come on...

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.

Blood Cells Lesson 41

Our bright red blood contains seven types of cells, such as:

I. Red blood cells.

II. White blood cells or leukocytes.

III. Thrombocytes or platelets (clotting cells).

We will see importance of each type of cell one by one now.

I. Red blood cells or Erythrocytes: These cells are made in the bone marrow (soft tissue in the center of certain bones) and are necessary to carry oxygen from the lungs through the blood to all body cells. The oxygen is then used up by body cells in the process of converting food to energy (catabolism). Hemoglobin (globin is a protein) is an important protein in erythrocytes that carries the oxygen through the bloodstream.

II. White Blood Cells or Leukocytes: Leukocytes are of two types.

a). Granulocytes

b). Agranulocytes

Granulocyes- Granulocytes-these cells containing dark-staining granules in their cytoplasm, and these cells are formed in bone marrow. They are further divided into three types of cells such as

A). Eosinophils-these cells granules of stain red (eosin/o means rosy) with acid stain) are thought to be active and elevated in allergic conditions such as asthma. About 3% of leukocytes are Eosinophils.

B). Basophils-these cells containing granules staining blue with basic (bas/o means basic) stain). The function of basophils is not clear, but they play a role in inflammation. Less than 1% of leukocytes are basophils.

C). Neutrophils-these cells containing granules staining blue and red (purple) with neutral stain) are important disease-fighting cells. They are called phagocytes (phag/o means eating or swallowing) because they engulf and digest bacteria like tiny Pac men. They are most numerous disease-fighting soldiers, and are also called as polymorphonuclear leukocytes because of their nucleus, which is multilobed (poly means many, moroph/o means shape). Almost 60% of leukocytes are neutrophils.

Agranulocytes are cells without dark-staining granules in cytoplasm) and are produced by lymph nodes and spleen. They divided into two types of cells such as:

A). Lymphocytes-these cells (lymph cells) fight disease by producing antibodies and thus destroying foreign cells. They may also attach directly to foreign cells and destroy them. Two types of lymphocytes are T cells and B cells. About 32% of leukocytes are lymphocytes.

B). Monocytes-these cells with one (mono means one) very large nucleus) engulf and destroy cellular debris after neutrophils have attacked foreign cells. Monocytes leave the bloodstream and enter tissues (such as lung and liver) to become macrophages, which are large phagocytes. Monocytes make up about 4% of all leukocytes.

III. Thrombocytes or Platelets-These cells are tiny fragments of blood cells are formed in bone marrow and are necessary for blood clotting.

We have seen something about blood cells now. In the next lesson we will see about anemia, ok

Come on…

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.

The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...