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Thursday, March 5, 2009


1. Palate- The roof between the nasal and oral cavities in the mouth, those are of muscular (soft palate) and bony (hard palate) in structure.

2. Pancreas-this organ situated beneath the stomach, which produces insulin to convey of glucose into cells and the enzymes essential for the digestion This gland is of both exocrine and endocrine in nature. The exocrine division produces pancreatic juice, and the endocrine division produces insulin and glucagon.

3. Papillae- small nipple-like processes on top of the tongue. The small risings from the tongue.

4. Peristalsis- The alternate wave-like movement of the intestines making contractions and relaxations so that the contents of food are forced forward

5. Pharynx- Long drawn out portion of the digestive tube amid the esophagus under the mouth and nasal cavities called throat. This is the common tube for food from the mouth and air from the nose.

6. Pulp- Soft, soggy, sound solid tissue within a teeth, which contains blood vessels and nerves.

7. Pyloric sphincter- The circular layer of the gastric musculature, which is a ring like structure surrounding the gastroduodenal intersection at the distal area of the stomach.

8. Rugae- It literally means wrinkle, ridge, or a fold, which are on the hard palate and the walls of the stomach.

9. Saliva- A tasteless, odorless, some acidic digestive juice secreted inside the mouth produced by the salivary glands.

10. Salivary glands- These are three in number, they are parotid, sublingual, and submandibular. These are exocrine glands in nature as they have no ducts found in the oral cavity.

11. Sphincter- Muscle ring found and surrounds a tube (especially in the intestinal tube).

12. Sigmoid colon- An S-shaped curve amid the pelvic edge and third sacral part continuous with the rectum. This is the lower portion of the colon.

13. Stomach- This is amid the esophagus and the intestines lying under the diaphragm. This is about 25-28 cm in length and 10-15 cm in diameter with the capacity of about 1 L. This is an muscular organ obtains food as of the esophagus. Digestion starts here and continuing in the duodenum next to it.

14. Triglycerides- Fat molecules large in structure consist of three fatty molecules, the one in three is glycerol.

15. Uvula- A fleshy mass of soft tissue lynching from the soft palate in the mouth.

16. Villi (singular-villus)-Small minute ridges or projections found in the walls of the small intestine. These projections absorb the food nutrients into the bloodstream.

In the next lesson we will study about important gastrointestinal medical terminologies..ok

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1. Emulsification-large fat molecular globules break up into smaller molecular globules. This increases the surface area of the fat and then fat is digested by the enzymes.

2. Enzyme- A protein that speeds up a reaction between chemical substances as a catalyst to induce chemical changes in other substances, itself remaining apparently unchanged by the process.

3. Esophagus- The portion of the digestive canal between the pharynx and stomach. It is about 25 cm long and consists of three parts: the cervical part, from the cricoid cartilage to the thoracic inlet; the thoracic part, from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm; and the abdominal part, below the diaphragm to the cardiac opening of the stomach.

4. Feces- bowel discharge while defecation or excretion, they are solid wastes called stools consist of food residues, epithelium, mucus of the intestines, waste food materials, and bacteria.

5. Fatty acids- the acids developed during fat digestion called hydrolysis. These acids contain long chains of monobasic organic acid.

6. Glycogen- principal carbohydrate reserve found in liver and muscle and converted into glucose. They are animal starch material. These are stored in the liver as glycogen.

7. Glucose- carbohydrates or simple sugars.

8. Gallbladder- on the inferior surface of the liver, there is one sac like pear-shaped structure, which stores bile.

9. Hydrochloric acid- an essential acid for digestion produced by the stomach called gastric juice. Another name is muriatic acid.

10. Hepatic portal system- the small blood capillaries carrying blood to the liver. These vessels are in abdominal viscera.

11. Insulin- the beta cells of islets of Langerhans of the pancreas produces this hormone. This is an polypeptide hormone supports utilization of glucose, protein synthesis, and the production and storage of neutral lipids.

12. Incisor- four frontal teeth in the dental arch

13. Ileum- Intestine-third part, which is the longest part of the small intestine for about 12 feet in length in human, which is slightly twisted in structure. Lesser in diameter than the second part.

14. Jejunum-Second part of the small intestine for about 8 feet in length. This part is probably mostly empty all the time. Larger in diameter with a thicker wall and being more vascular in nature, so in red color.

15. Liver-Largest organ in the right upper quadrant and the largest gland in the body, which lies underneath the diaphragm in the right hypochondrium and the upper part of the epigastric region. The liver only secretes bile and stores glucose and vitamins, and manufactures blood proteins, and also wipe out red blood cells. The normal adult liver weight is 2.5 to 3 pounds.

16. Mastication- the process of chewing food preparing for swallowing the food and digestion. Teeth grind food by communicating with the food.

17. Parotid gland- This is the largest salivary gland situated inferior and anterior to the ear on either side of the face.

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1. Anus- The lower opening of the digestive tract, lying in the cleft between the buttocks, through which fecal matter is extruded.

2. Amylase- One of a group of hydrolyzing enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen secreted by the pancreas.

3. Amino Acids- acids containing ammonium digest protein and are the building material of proteins.

4. Appendix- A wormlike intestinal diverticulum extending from the blind end of the cecum; it varies in length and ends in a blind extremity. (ap-means on, pend/o means hanging).

5. Alimentary canal-food canal i.e. gastrointestinal tract. Alimentum means nourishment.

6. Absorption-Taking in of food through the intestinal walls and then absorption of it into the bloodstream.

7. Bowel- Intestine

8. Bilirubin- A yellow bile pigment found as sodium bilirubinate (soluble), or as an insoluble calcium salt in gallstones; formed from hemoglobin during normal and abnormal destruction of erythrocytes by the reticuloendothelial system; a bilin with substituents on the 2, 3, 7, 8, 12, 13, 17, and 18 carbon atoms and with oxygens on carbons 1 and 19. Excess bilirubin is associated with jaundice.

9. Bile- The yellowish brown or green fluid secreted by the liver and discharged into the duodenum where it aids in the emulsification of fats, increases peristalsis, and retards putrefaction; contains sodium glycocholate and sodium taurocholate, cholesterol, biliverdin and bilirubin, mucus, fat, lecithin, and cells and cellular debris.

10. Common bile duct-This carries the bile from the liver, gallbladder, and duodenum.

11. Cecum- The cul-de-sac, about 6 cm in depth, lying below the terminal ileum forming the first part of the large intestine.

12. Colon- The division of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum, which consists of ascending, transverse, and descending parts.

13. Canine teeth-referring to the cuspid or point, dog-like, canine, distal to the incisors. The another name for this teeth is eyeteeth.

14. Deglutition-the act of swallowing.

15. Dentin-this is a protective layer covered by enamel in the crown of a teeth, which is composed of cementum.

16. Digestion- The mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic process whereby ingested
food is converted into material suitable for assimilation for synthesis of tissues or
liberation of energy.

17. Duodenum- The first division of the small intestine, about 25 cm or 12 fingerbreadths in length, extending from the pylorus to the junction with the jejunum at the level of the first or second lumbar vertebra on the left side.
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