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Wednesday, April 28, 2010

Psychiatric Therapies - Lesson 190

Now coming to the vocabulary of therapies used in psychiatry.
1. Amphetamines:- To treat depression the central nervous system stimulants may be used.
2. Behavior therapy:- To relieve anxiety and improve symptoms of illness that is changing or conditioning behavior patterns by training and repetition.
3. Electroconvulsive therapy:- In the treatment of depression the electric current is used to produce convulsions.
4. Family therapy:- To resolve and understand conflicts the treatment of an entire family can be done.
5. Free association:- The patient verbalizes without censorship the passing contents of his or her mind is a psychoanalytic technique.
6. Group therapy:- The similar problems gain insight into their personalities through discussion and interaction together of group of patients.
7. Hypnosis:- To increase the pace of psychotherapy trance is used or the state of altered consciousness is held.
8. Lithium:- The manic stage of manic-depressive illness of a substance is used.
9. Neuroleptic drug:- Any drug that favorably modifies psychotic symptoms. Examples are phenothiazines.
10. Phenothiazines:- The tranquilizers used to treat psychoses.
11. Playtherapy:- The treatment in which a child, through use of toys and playroom setting, expresses conflicts and feelings unable to be communicated in a direct manner.
12. Psychoanalysis:- The inner emotions and conflicts which explored by the patient to understand and change current behavior for the treatment.
13. Psychodrama:- Group therapy in which a patient expresses feelings by acting out roles with other patients.
14. Sedatives:- Drugs that lessen axiety.
15. Transference:- The psychoanalytic process which the patient relates to the therapist as he or she had to a prominent childhood figure.
16. Tricyclic antidepressants:- The drugs which are used to treat severe depression three-ringed fused structure.

In the next post we will try to learn some of the Combining forms, Suffixes and Prefixes  and Terminlogy.


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Monday, April 26, 2010

Psychiatric symptoms and disorders - 2 - lesson 189

Psychiatric symptoms and disorders terminologies.
Paraphilia:- The involvement of unusual objects activities, or situations with recurrent intense sexual urge, behavior, or fantasy.
Personality disorders:- The inflexibility and impairment of social functioning were marked by lifelong personality patterns.
Phobia:- The disabling or irrational fear of an object or situation.
Post-traumatic stress disorder:- For a traumatic event the symptoms of anxiety-related appears to personal experience.
Psychosis:- To recognize reality, communicate, and relate to others the impairment of mental capacity is used.
Reality testing:- The severe impaired in psychoses or the ability to perceive fact from fantasy.
Repression:- The unacceptable thoughts, feelings and impulses are pushed into the unconscious by the defense mechanism.

Sexual disorders:- Disorders of paraphilias and sexual dysfunctions.
Schizophrenia:- The withdrawal of disorganized thinking and conflict from reality into an inner world.
Somatoform disorders:- Any actual physical disorder having physical symptoms cannot be explained.
Substance-related disorders:- The psychoactive substances like alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, opioids and sedatives which affect the central nervous system are regularly used.
Superego:- Internalized conscience and moral part of the personality.

In the next post we will try to learn some of the Combining forms, Suffixes and Prefixes  and Terminlogy.


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Sunday, April 25, 2010

Cancer - A brief introduction

Cancer is a fatal disease of growth enlargement of malignant cells inside the body.  Because cancer is a state, in which cells of the body start to breed its offsprings disorderly. 

In ancient times, cancers felt as distended blood vessels due to the tumor or mass inside the body.  The growth of these cells symbolize to the claws of a crab in its appearance.  

The cancer cells nurture quickly and so spread gradually to other cells adjacent to those cells.  Therefore, these cells enter by force to the other cells nearby and enter from one organ to other organs gradually.  This process of spreading is known as metastasis or spread of the cancer. 

Over the centuries the understanding of this fatal disease condition erstwhile steadily grown in the medical field.  Occurrence of cancer is ever increasing in on the whole parts of the world day by day.  Millions of people die with cancer all over the world year by year.  The percentage of death rate is also mounting.

Causes of cancer:

The primary reason for the occurrences of cancer are smoking, various chemical substances usage, air contamination, and the entry of pesticides used in agriculture inside the body etc.

Types of cancer:

In general, cancer affects all the body cells without difference, but mostly affect the breasts as breast cancer, lungs as lung cancer due to heavy smoking and other reasons, prostate gland as prostate cancer, colon as colon cancer, bladder as bladder cancer, and the womb as uterus caner.

Treatment methods for cancer:

1.  Surgery.
2.  Chemotherapy.
3.  Radiotherapy.

How can we reduce the risk of cancer?

Avoiding smoking will reduce 50% of the risk of cancer. Regular exercises will reduce the risk of cancer generally.  Regular intake of vegetables and fruits also minimize the risk of cancer. 

Combating cancer is in a great deal an extensive difficulty, but before time recognition, healing procedures, rehabilitation therapy, and emotional issues encountered by a patient and the family can reduce the risks.  For the last two or three decades significant actions have been made to fight against cancer worldwide.  In short, the knowledge of spread of cancer is the first step towards fighting against cancer.

Tags:  cancer information, cancer info, cancer treatment, cancer causes, cancer risk, types of cancers, what is cancer, metastasis

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Saturday, April 24, 2010


Now in this post we will revise some vocabulary of psychiatric symptoms and disorders.
1. Affect:- External emotion or emotional response.
2. Amnesia:- Memory loss.
3. Anorexia nervosa:- An eating disorder of excessive dieting to maintain an original body weight by refusion.
4. Anxiety disorders:- Unpleasant tension, distress, and avoidance behavior are the characters of this disorders. Examples of this disorders are obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.
5. Apathy:- The absence of emotional involvement or emotions lack of interest absent.
6. Autism:- Withdrawal, more lack of response to other people, inability to interact, and development of retarded language.
7. Bipolar disorder:- Mania and depression with intermixed periods.
8. Bulimia nervosa;- Binge eating followed by vomiting and depression is an eating disorder.
9. Compulsion:- An action which is repeatedly uncontrollably urged to perform.
10. Conversion disorder:- For anxiety and conflict with no organic basis a physical symptom appears.
11. Defense mechanism:- To resolve or hide conflicts and anxiety this person uses unconscious technique.
12. Delirium:- In thinking; false, perceptions and irrational behavior there is confusion. The association with alcohol withdrawal is of Delirium tremens.
13. Delusion:- By logical reasoning or evidence the false belief which is fixed cannot be changed.
14. Dementia:- The impairment of memory, judgment, and reasoning as well as changes in personality with loss of intellectual abilities.
15. Depression:- The chronic sadness, hopelessness, worry, discouragement and loss of energy is occurred with major mood disorder.
16. Dissociative disorder:- The dissociative identity disorder of amnesia and fugue; Chronic or sudden disturbance of memory, identity or consciousness etc.,
17. Ego:- The personality deals with the central coordination branch.
18. Fugue:- From the customary surroundings with Amnesia.
19. Gender identity disorder:- The opposite sex having strong and persistent of cross gender identification.
20. Hallucination:- The perception with false sense.
21. Id:- The greater unconsciousness part of the energy, personality from instinctual drives and desires.
22. Labile:- The rapid undergoing emotional change or which is not stable.
23. Mania:- Inflated self-esteem, hyperactivity, extreme excitement.
24. Mood disorders:- A person's life is dominated with prolonged emotion. Examples of these disorders are bipolar and depressive disorders.
25. Mutism:- The stupor action or non-reactive state.
26. Obsessive-compulsive disorder:- The recurrent thoughts and repetitive acts which dominate behavior is having an anxiety disorder.
27. Paranoia:- Delusions of grandeur or persecution or the mixing of the two.

 In the next post we will learn remaining vocabulary.


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Thursday, April 22, 2010


Now in this post we would learn several types of drug therapies. Neuroleptic drugs are the drugs that modify psychotic symptoms.  Some of the categories of these drugs are mentioned below:
1. Antianxiety Agents:- These drugs treat anxiety also called minor tranquilizers and sedatives.  Examples of these agents are barbiturates and drugs such as diazepam, which is also known as Valium and chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride also known as Librium.
2. Antidepressants:- An imbalance in the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain is the main cause for the basis of depression. For producing feelings of well-being of reverse depressive symptoms these drugs are used. For an example generally fluoxetine also called Prozac is commonly prescribed for antidepressant. This Prozac allows the passage of serotonin also known as a neurotransmitter into nerve cells. So that it improves mood, mental alertness, physical activity, and sleep patterns. In common most of the medications were prescribed by psychiatrists and physicians of their effectiveness and other effects after many studies. The oldest class of antidepressants are Tricyclic antidepressants.

Let us the examples of antidepressants:

1. Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) Inhibitor:- The drug which suppresses an enzyme (MAO) degrades neurotransmitters. These drugs are so powerful that are prescribed for the treatment of depression. These MAOIs should not be combined with other psychoactive substances which are antidepressants, painkillers, stimulants, both legal and illegal etc except under the care of a physician. Sometimes they may cause lethal reactions.  These inhibitors are not as widely prescribed as other antidepressants because serious cardiovascular complications can cause with their use.

2. Stimulants:-  These Stimulants also called psychostimulants which are the drugs for temporary improvements in physical or mental conditions or both. The best examples of these kinds are enhanced alertness, wakefulness, and locomotion, among others. Stimulants are widely used throughout the world as medicinal prescription and as illicit substances of recreational use or abuse. Amphetamines are used to produce elevation in mood. These stimulants are used for both individual and clinical for therapeutic purposes like reducing sleepiness, decreasing appetite and to treat obesity, to improve concentration, and also used to treat clinical depression.

3. Tricyclic Antidepressants:- These heterocyclic chemical compounds are used primarily as antidepressants. These drugs contain three fused rings called tricyclic in their chemical structure. They are named for their structures. So they are closely related group of antidepressant compounds. The newer antidepressants such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.

4. Lithium:- Lithium carbonate is used in the control of the manic phase of bipolar also called manic-depressive illness. It is polymeric in structure and also soluble in water. It is used to treat mania the up phase of the bipolar disorder.

5. Phenothiazines:- This is an organic compound that occurs in various antipsychotic and antihistaminic drugs. This is a tricyclic compound in structure and soluble in benzene, ether, and acetic acid. These phenothiazines structure occurs in various neuroleptic drugs.

In the next post we will learn some vocabulary of psychiatric symptoms and disorders.


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Wednesday, April 21, 2010


As a medical transcription students you must know the 50 states of United States.  Here is the list of States of United States:
  1. Alabama
  2. Arizona
  3. Alaska
  4. Arkansas
  5. California
  6. Colorado
  7. Connecticut
  8. Delaware
  9. Florida
  10. Georgia
  11. Hawaii
  12. Idaho
  13. Illinois
  14. Indiana
  15. Iowa
  16. Kansas
  17. Kentucky
  18. Louisiana
  19. Maine
  20. Maryland
  21. Massachusetts
  22. Michigan
  23. Minnesota
  24. Mississippi
  25. Missouri
  26. Montana
  27. Nebraska
  28. Nevada
  29. New Hampshire
  30. New Jersey
  31. New Mexico
  32. New York
  33. North Carolina
  34. North Dakota
  35. Ohio
  36. Oklahoma
  37. Oregon
  38. Pennsylvania
  39. Rhode Island
  40. South Carolina
  41. South Dakota
  42. Tennessee
  43. Texas
  44. Utah
  45. Vermont
  46. Virginia
  47. Washington
  48. West Virginia
  49. Wisconsin
  50. Wyoming
In the next lesson we will learn about more psychological therapies.  Okay. 

Come on.

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Monday, April 19, 2010


Now in this lesson we will learn about the remaining therapies. Psychoanalysis:- A neurologist by named Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis and also interested to give treatment for neurotic or hysterical patients. This therapy seeks to induce behavior and resolve internal conflicts by treating patients to bring to their unconscious emotions to the surface. Through techniques such as free associations, fantasies, and dreams from which the analyst explains the unconscious conflicts , the patient is able to bring to awareness his or her unconscious emotional conflicts and thus can overcome these problems. The conflicts including the contributing to resistance and those involving transference onto the analyst of distorted reactions, psychoanalytic treatment can briefly describe how the patients unconsciously stimulated by experience of symbolic reactions.

Sex Therapy:- To overcome sexual dysfunctions such as frigidity which is also known as sexual response in women, impotence of which inability of a man to achieve and or maintain an erection, and premature ejaculation  of which release of semen before coitus can be achieved.

Electro-convulsive Therapy (ECT):- To produce convulsions and sometimes unconsciousness in the brain an electric current is applied for the treatment. In order for the serious depression and the depressive phase of bipolar disorder, this treatment is used. The fewer indications of convulsive therapy can be introduced by the therapy called antidepressant drug therapy. Now a days this Electroconvulsive therapy is most often used for the treatment of severe major depression that is not responded to the other treatment.

Drug therapy:-  Drug therapy is the treatment of diseases by using medications. It has several different forms. Sometimes this drug therapy is very helpful to treat mental illness. It is also revealed that mental illness is indeed physical illness. The drug treatment is enhanced by the psychotherapy.
Neuroleptic drugs are the drugs that modify psychotic symptoms.  Some of the categories of these drugs are mentioned below:  

1. Antianxiety Agents:- These drugs treat anxiety also called minor tranquilizers and sedatives.  Examples of these agents are barbiturates and drugs such as diazepam, which is also known as Valium and chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride also known as Librium.

There are some more different types of drug therapies, which we will learn, in the next lesson.

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Friday, April 16, 2010


In this post we will learn about the types of psychotherapies.  1. Behavior Therapy:- This changing behavior patterns without getting discussed internal mental state deals with behavior therapy. The skinner's radical behaviorism accepted as a part of behavior to improve the internal state was through environmental manipulation. The basis of the behavior therapy based is on the principles of classical conditioning and is used to relieve anxiety and treat phobia.

2. Family Therapy: - This therapy is referred to couple and family therapy. It is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples of relationships to have a change and development. To look changes of interaction among family members it becomes as very important factor in psychological health. The treatment of entire family to resolve and understand their conflicts and problems.

3. Group Therapy:- A group of patients with the same problems of gain-insight into their own personalities through discussions and interaction, together.  This term may be referred to any form of psychotherapy when given in the group including Cognitive behavioral therapy or interpersonal therapy. This group process is explicitly used as a mechanism of change by developing, exploring and examining relationships within the group.

4. Hypnosis:- This mental state theory or the set of beliefs usually followed by a system known as hypnotic induction that is generally composed of a series of preliminary instructions and suggestions. These suggestions may be prescribed by a hypnotist in the presence of the subject, or may be self-administered. The usage of hypnotism for these therapeutic purposes is referred to as hypnotherapy. A state of altered consciousness is created to increase the speed of psychotherapy or to help recovery of deeply repressed memories.

5. Play Therapy:- This therapy is the procedural use of theoretical model to establish an interpersonal process wherein play therapists use the therapeutic powers of play to help clients to stop or resolve psycho-social challenges and achieve growth and development. The form of counselling or psychotherapy that therapeutically engages the power of playing to communicate with and help people, especially children, to engender optimal loneliness and integration. This therapy is often useful, as a diagnostic tool. The reason of the traumatized behavior is observed by a play therapist. This play therapy is useful among children in a direct way.

Keywords: Play therapy, hypnosis, group therapy, family therapy, behavior therapy, interpersonal, therapist, therapists, counselling, psychotherapy.

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Thursday, April 8, 2010


In this post we would learn about the remaining drug abused substances. Hallucinogens:- Hallucinogens are the classes of psychoactive drugs which have common that can cause subjective changes in emotion, thought, perception and consciousness. Examples of hallucinogens are lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline (peyote), and phencyclidine (PCP). The hallucinogens are generally episodic because of their psychoactive effects are so frequent, potent use may lead to marked tolerance. Deliriants such as diphenhydramine and atropine may cause hallucinations in the proper sense.

Opioids:- This group of drugs induces both heroin and morphine and synthetic drugs with action of morphine such as codeine and methadone. These compounds are generally prescribed as analgesics, anesthetics, or cough-suppressants. The same symptoms of opioid intoxication are pupillary constriction, euphoria, slowness in movement, drowsiness, and slurred speech. The effects of overdose are slow and shallow breathing, convulsions, coma and possible death. The general symptoms are watery eyes, rhinorrhea, pupillary dilation, abdominal cramps and diarrhea, and muscle and joint pain.

Sedatives, hpnotics or anxiolytics:- The soothing, relaxing, euphoric effects are commonly seen in this drug which produce sleep also called hypnotics. The sleeping pills also include barbiturates such phenobarbital and secobarbital. The other drugs produce a barabiturate-like effect are diazepam also called Valium and meprohamate also called Miltown, Equanil. Intoxication is characterized by slurred speech and disorientation. Effects of overdose are shallow respiration, cold and clammy skin, dilated pupils, weak and rapid pulse, coma, and possibly death.

Upto this we have learned about the drug abuse substances. Now we would study about Therapeutic Terminology

Therapeutic Terminology:- Some of the major Therapeutic techniques for psychiatric disorders are psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy and drug therapy.

Psychotherapy:- Psychotherapy with a psychotherapist aims to increase the individual's sense of their own well-being. Psychotherapists maintain techniques based on building, dialogue, communication and behavior change and that are made to fasten the mental health of a clinet or patient, or to improve group relationships ex: family etc,. This therapy may also be done by different practitioners such as psychiatry, clinical psychology, counselling psychology, rehabilitation counselling, psychoanalysis, and others. This treatment of emotional problems can be reduced by psychological techniques. 

There are different types of psychotherapies which we will learn in brief in the next lesson.

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Tuesday, April 6, 2010


Now in this post we would try to learn about the drug abuse substances examples and their dependence.
1. Alcohol:- The dependence of alcohol is commonly dealt with the use and abuse of other psychoactive drugs such as cannabis, cocaine, heroin, amphetamines. Slurred speech incoordination, unsteady gait, nystagmus which include rapid, rhythmic movement of the eyeball, impairment in attention or memory, stupor or coma these all include in the dependence of signs of alcohol. This is also associated with the depression, but usually the depression appears to be a consequence, not a cause, of the drinking.

2. Amphetamines:- This is a psychostimulant drug that is known to produce wakefulness and focus in dealing with decreased fatigue and appetite. These central nervous system stimulants are taken orally or intravenously. Some of the examples of this amphetamines are:
1. Amphetamine (Benezedrine)
2. Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine) and
3. Methamphetamine (Desoxyn or speed)
Appetite suppressants also known as diet pills are amphetamine like drugs. The two behaviors which are psychological and behavorial changes are associated with amphetamine dependence include anger, tension or anxiety, impaired judgement, inability to enjoy what was in the previous pleasure and social isolation. These physical symptoms include tachycardia or bradycardia, pupillary dilation, nausea, elevated or low blood pressure, and muscular weakness.

3. Cannabis (Marijuana):- The psychoactive properties which are derived from the cannabis plant plus chemically similar synthetic substances all include in this class of drugs. The examples are marijuana, hashish, and purified delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) the major psychoactive ingredient in these substances. Following the smoking of cannabis, these psychological and physical symptoms include euphoria, impaired motor coordination, anxiety, sensation of slowed time, social withdrawal and impaired judgement. Increased appetite, dry mouth, and tachycardia are the other signs of cannabis intoxication.

4. Cocaine:- This stimulant drug produces euphoria as well as vasoconstriction, tachycardia, and hypertension. This comes from the leaves of the coca tree. The most commonly used cocaine is cocaine hydrochloride powder, which is inhaled through the nostril and then absorbed into the bloodstream through mucous membranes. The heroin namely speedball also mixed with this and injected intravenously. This mixture is particularly dangerous because cocaine and heroin act synergistically in depressing respiratory function. The separation of cocaine from its powdered salt forms such as ether, ammonia, or baking soda, the resulting coaine alkaloid is commonly called freebase. The smoked form is known as crack or rock. The user of cocaine is also dependent on alcohol or sedatives, which are taken in an attempt to alleviate the after effects like anxiety, depression, and fatigue of cocaine intoxication.

In the next lesson we would learn about the remaining drug abuse substances.


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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...