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Sunday, December 28, 2008

Body Positions and Directions


To know the relationship of one location of the body to the another, we should understand about body positional and directional terms of Medical terminology.

(1) Anterior or ventral:- This position refers to front side of the body. Ex:- chest is anterior to the back. In a human anterior and ventral are the same position, but in four-legged animals anterior refers to front side of the body near the head and ventral refers to the abdomen side.

(2) Posterior or dorsal:- Posterior or dorsal refers to the back side of the body. Back is the posterior or dorsal to the chest.

(3) Deep:- This refers to away from the surface. Ex:- Bullet went deep into the chest.

(4) Superficial:- This refers to on the surface. The shore is on the superficially infected.

(5) Proximal:- This position refers to near the point of attachment or near the beginning of a structure. Ex:- The proximal end of the femur attaches with the hip bone.

(6) Distal:- This position refers to far from the point of attachment or far from the beginning of a structure. Ex:- The distal end of the stomach is at the small intestine.

(7) Inferior:- This position refers to below another structure. Ex:- Colon lies inferior to the stomach and the liver. The another name for inferior is the term Caudal, which means pertaining to the tail.

(8) Superior:- This position refers to above another structure. Ex:- Head is located superior to the neck. The another name for superior is cephalic, which means pertaining to the head.

(9) Medial:- This position refers to nearer or middle of the medial plan of the body. Ex:- Neck is medial of the shoulders.

(10) Lateral:- This position refers to pertaining to the side. Ex:- Left or right hand is lateral to the body.

(11) Supine (Face is up):- This position refers to lying on the back. Ex:- The patient is supine during the surgery in the neck.

(12) Prone (lying on the face):- This position refers to lying on the belly. Ex:- The buttocks area of the patient can be examined when he is in prone position.

Now we see about planes of the body. We can imagine three types of planes such as;
(1) Frontal or coronal
(2) Sagittal or lateral
(3) Transverse or cross-sectional

We will see each plane in detail.

(1) Frontal or coronal:- This plane divides the body structure into posterior and anterior portions. The another name for this plane is anterioposterior. An anterioposterior x-ray is taken in the frontal plane.

(2) Sagittal or lateral: This plane divides the body structure into right and left sides. The midsagittal plane divides the body into left and right halves. A lateral chest x-ray is taken in this plane.

(3) Transverse or cross-sectional: This plane divides the body into upper and lower portions. This plane is also called as cross-sectional. A computerized tomography (CT), a series of x-rays taken in this plane.

In the next lesson, we will learn more new combining forms, prefixes, and suffixes. COME ON.