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Thursday, December 26, 2013

Use of Gerunds in English Grammar


Use of Gerunds in English Grammar is the content of this lesson.  We learned about superlatives in the last lesson. That is in conversation of simple sentences, we use the parts of a sentence in a manner subject-Auxiliary-Verb. This can be of any tense either of the 16 tenses. Let us see the following more examples on this infinitives. 
1. I am going 'to see' my aunt at 4 a.m. (Present Continuous)
2. Mrs. Sekar is fast 'to catch' her train. (Present)
3. Jil ran 'to escape' from his assailant. (simple past)
4. Anjali was present in the class 'to give' her attendance. (past)
5. Pooma was delighted 'to capture' the intruder. (past)
6. I am here 'to talk' to the Maths teacher. (present)
7. The students will arrive here soon 'to appear' for the interview. (future)
8. The drama participants will be coming now 'to eat' their dinner. (future continuous)
9. The post man has been waiting here for 30 minutes 'to deliver' the M.O. to you. (present perfect continuous)
10. Why hadn't you told the receptionist 'to wait' for my return? (past perfect)
11. The parents had been advising the children not 'to tell' lies with anyone. (past perfect continuous)
12. His father will have left the house by now 'to fly' to Switzerland. (future perfect)
13. John will have been running at best for two hours 'to reach' my office. (future perfect continous)
14. He should have spoken in a different tone 'to calm' down his room mate. (future in the past)
15. The Vice Principal ought not to have been holding that honorary post 'to satisfy' his own ego. (future in the past continuous)

Let us also see some examples regarding some emphatic questions.
1. I do stand first in Mathematics every year. (emphatic)
2. I stand first in Mathematics every year. (normal)
3. Luis does fight with his brother almost daily. (emphatic)
4. Luis fights with his brother almost daily. (normal)
These are in the simple present tense forms.

1. The lecturer did advise me against copying from other papers. (emphatic)
2. The lecturer advised me against copying form other papers. (normal)

In the next post we learn some more about infinitives. Learn Free Medical Transcription Course Blog.

Tags: infinitives, infinitives gerunds, gerunds and infinitives, gerund, gerunds verbs, gerunds exercises, infinitive

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Wednesday, December 25, 2013

Superlative Degree and Infinitive

Therefore we came to the conclusion that we use the superlatives in answers to any kind of general or specific questions. Let us know the way how to identify a particular person or thing out of so many which are in the top position? In some cases we use the expression "one of the" before the superlative and we also use the noun in plural after the superlative adjective, i.e., "students", "posts". Some of the examples are:
1. Hazel is one of the best students in our school.
2. Isn't Tennyson one of the greatest poets that ever lived?
3. M.F.Hussain was not the greatest of all painters but one was one of the greatest painter.
4. Russia is one of the most technological country in the world.
5. One of the best singers of the team arrives today.
6. None of the most perfect disciples was ready to preach to the people in this city.
6. Isn't lemon one of the best fruits we saw in our country?
7. This is one of the most expensive car in the market.
8. Wasn't Ranasingh one of the most successful bowlers in the last foreign tour?

Then upto this portion, we studied about degrees of comparision. Now let us study about infinitives. Then what is an infinitive? 

An infinitive is a simple sentence which can have more than one verb but that verb must be in a a modified form. If we use the preposition "to" before any present form of verb, the combination is known as infinitive. 

Infinitive Verb: An infinitive verb must always come after the first verb. In other words, an infinitive will always be the second verb in a sentence.

Some sentences may have two infinitive verbs as shown in the following example:
1."Uncle Jim lives in my house to help, to guide my school going kid".

Two infinitive verbs may be joined by the conjunction, 'and' like this:  "The king led his troops to conquer and to annex the nearby country".

In the next post we learn some more about infinitives.  Learn Free Medical Transcription Course Blog.

Saturday, December 21, 2013

Comparison of Adjectives

In the recent post you have seen that three kinds of adjectives usage. Now in this post we would learn further information about the degrees of comparison.

Then how and when to use the Comparative degree? The comparative degree is used whenever the quality is expressed which is superior to positive degrees. We note that the value of two qualities, one will overcome the other in some way. Inorder to express the difference in the quality, this comparative degree is used. A comparative my work like positive in its job as an adjective. Hence we describe it as a noun, and we must place it just to the left of a noun.  For Example: 1. Rita is a prettier girl than Dancy. In this example we have used the comparative degree - PRETTIER - followed by the word 'than'. We must use 'than' in sentences of comparative degree or otherwise the sentence is wrong. Here in the above example we have compared Dancy with Rita or Rita with Dancy. We have given result positively about Rita.
Read more.

If we write the above sentence as "Rita is prettier than Dancy", the sentence will be wrong because "Prettier"  is not describing any noun. Thus "prettier" would turn out to be an Adverb and not an Adjective. Hence we used as a noun after the comparative.

Example 2. Lusy is a sweeter person than her sister is.

Example 3. This candle is longer one than that candle is.

In the above examples we often compare one thing with another, one person with another, and in this comparision will always result that one is better than the other. Whenever we talk of two situations, discuss two persons or two things, we always end up in comaparision. In the above two sentences which are complex sentences because "than" is acting as a conjuction. Like in the above examples we should remember than an auxiliary and verb are very much present in the second sentence.


Tags:  degrees of adjectives, degree of comparison, comparison degree, list of degrees, comparative degree

In the next post we would learn some more about this "comparative degree".  We are studying Free Medical Transcription Course in this blog.

Saturday, December 14, 2013

Degrees of Comparison in English Grammar

In the last lesson this post we would learn the remaining portion of adjective.  This posts explains about Degrees of Comparison.  We are learning Medical Transcription Course for Free here.
Degrees of Adjectives: The adjectives which we are using in simple are said to be in positive degree. There are two more degrees. They are comparative degree and superlative degree. In most of the comparative degrees we add the letters er, ier to the positive degree and for the superlative degrees we add the letters est, iest to the positive degree. For adjectives of multi syllables or long words, we add more (or less) for the comparatives and most (or least) for superlatives like this,
Let us see some of the words and their degrees of comparison.

SL.NO POSITIVE                       COMPARATIVE                        SUPERLATIVE
1.          Sweet                                Sweeter                                       Sweetest
2.           Happy                              Happier                                       Happiest
3.           Brave                               Braver                                         Bravest
4.           Long                                Longer                                         Longest
5.           Sad                                  Sadder                                          Saddest
6.           Hot                                  Hotter                                           Hottest
7.           Young                             Younger                                       Youngest
8.           Wealthy                           Wealthier                                     Wealthiest
9.           Great                                Greater                                         Greatest
10.         Abnormal                        More abnormal                             Most abnormal
11.         Cheerful                          More cheerful                                Most cheerful
12.         Favourable                      More favourable                            Most favourable
13.         Negligent                        More negligent                              Most negligent
14.         Useful                             More useful                                    Most useful
15.         Unfortunate                     More unfortunate                           Most unfortunate
16.         Troublesome                   More troublesome                          Most troublesome
17.         Useful                             More useful                                     Most useful
18.         Expensive                       More expensive                               Most expensive
19.         Expensive                       Less expensive                               Least expensive
20.         Impressive                       Less impressive                             Least impressive
21.         Colourful                        Less colourful                                 Least colourful

But for some of the adjectives, the comparatives and superlatives ar totally different words with different spellings and without any relationship to the positive degree. Such adjectives are only a few.
Sl. No.              Positive                         Comparative                       Superlative
1.                      Good                              Better                                 Best
2.                      Bad, Evil, Ill                  Worse                                 Worst
3.                      Little                              Less, Lesser                        Least
4.                      Far                                 Farther                                 Farthest
5.                      Much                             More                                    Most
6.                      Many                             More                                    Most

Every adjective can be written into three categories.  The next article will explain more about Comparative Degree.

Wednesday, November 27, 2013

Past Perfect Conditional Statements

Prior Lesson

In this post we come to learn about ‘past perfect conditional statements’ and usage of ‘unless’ in conditional statements.  We use the ‘past perfect conditional statements’ only for past tense cases. In one past of the sentence we use ‘future in the past’ auxiliaries like would, have, ought to have, etc., and any past perfect or past perfect continuous form of verb in the other as shown in the following examples. 
1. Wouldn’t I have gone to the spot if you had told me earlier?
2. If the teacher had not guided me, I couldn’t have come in this position.
3. The doctor might not have stumbled upon this medicine if his patients had not been complaining about the ever increasing temperature.
4. The actors ought to have reported for shooting early this morning if the film Director had been reminding them about it for 2 days.
5. I could have killed that snake if I had had a stick in my hand.
6. You could have borrowed your friend’s notes if you had not attended relished it.
7. I must have put too much of salt in the fish curry if the guests had not relished it.

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Use of ‘unless’ in conditional statements.
‘Unless’ is equal to ‘if not’. Unless has a negative meaning.
Here are some of the examples:
1. Couldn’t you go to the practice classes regularly unless you were sick.
2. I shall go to the practice class unless I am sick.
3. I will spoil the pudding unless you stop your adverse criticism.
4. You should not play outside unless there was good sun-shine.
5. You would not come first in the class unless you had prepared well.
6. The crowd ought to have kept quiet unless they had disliked the speakers.

In the next post we would learn about ‘usage of never in a sentence’.

Wednesday, November 20, 2013

Past Conditional Statements

Now in this post we would learn about ‘past conditional statements’.  The auxiliaries like would, should, could or might is used in one part of the complex sentence and any past or continuous form of verb including auxiliary cum verb or past perfect form, in the other. But, in the meanwhile the tense of the statement remains in present time. Let us study the following examples from the view of the period of the time of the statement:

1. Would you help my daughter in her studies? (simple present tense)
2. I would help him if he asked me.
3. I couldn’t help her if she did not ask for it.
Note: Under the present conditional statements there is no difference between the above three statements. In this case the auxiliaries used are different. Another way of determining this types of sentences are if we use a past equivalent form of auxiliary in one part of the sentence, we must use a past form of verb in the other. Yet, the entire sentence will belong to “present time”. If the verb used in one part is of present form, the auxiliary used in the other part must also belongs to the present tense. We should remember one thing that ‘will’ and ‘shall’ are also simple present tense auxiliaries used for giving orders or commands in present time.

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Now let us see the following examples:
1. Could I talk to you if I contact through your mobile number?
2. The students should not be arguing unnecessarily if they wanted the exam.
3. Nancy could withdraw her name from the dance competition if it was necessary.
4. The teacher might oblige you if you were persistent.
5. The bright students should help the weak students if the latter were asking for it, shouldn’t they?
6. Louis could not come first in the race even if she put in extra energy, might she?
7. If she felt sick, she should not attend the class.
8. The doctor would attend to the patient if he had felt very uneasy.

In the next post we would learn about ‘past perfect conditional statements’.

Wednesday, November 13, 2013

Conditional Statements

In the prior lesson, we have read about 'how to use 'Dare' as an auxiliary verb'.  Now, let us come to study about a new topic namely ‘conditional statements’. 

What is a Conditional Statement?

A conditional statement is a statement or an undertaking wherein we agree or obey to do a work on the fulfillment of some conditions mentioned in the statement.  The tense rules are strictly followed in this types of conditional statement also called a complex sentence. In this type of complex sentences we use all the universal auxiliaries. These conditional statements are classified into three categories mainly. They are 1. Open conditional statements 2. Past conditional statements and 3. Past perfect conditional statements  Now let us see how is this open conditional statements used in the sentences.  We are learn medical transcription lessons in this blog.

OPEN CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS: This statement is made only for simple present tense cases or instances. Here the auxiliaries that are used are CAN, MAY, SHALL, MUST, WILL or OUGHT TO in one part of the complex sentence and any present form of verb including the verbs in auxiliary forms in the other along with the conjunction as shown in the following examples.

1. Will you help my brother in his studies?
2. I shall help him if he asks me.
3. I cannot help him if he does not ask me.
4. Can I see you if I come to your office before 5 p.m.?
5. You may catch headache if you walk in this hot day.
6. You must take food if it gets hunger. Don’t take fasting.
7. They ought not to play the game if the board is not there.
8. Can’t the boy reach the ground if he runs now?
9. You must work very hard if you want to win a place in the merit list.
10. I will look after my puppy dog, if you open the door.
11. The guests ought to attend the party if others expect it.
12. He shall do this job if the doctor orders him, Shan’t he?
13. Your friend cannot solve this problem even if he tries, can she?
14. How can Patrick make it to the finals if he doesn’t try hard?
15. If I write fast, can’t I leave the classroom hall early?

Note: We should not only use the conjunction in the middle of a complex sentence. If it is very close to the meaning or appropriate then we may start the sentence with the conjunction.

In the next post we would learn about the past conditional statements.

Monday, November 11, 2013

How To Use 'Dare' in Sentences as an Auxiliary Verb?

DARE:   Dare is an auxiliary and also a verb. The uses of dare as an auxiliary are: 1. When we want to give the exact meaning “be brave enough to----“ in a sentence. 2. This auxiliary is used only in simple present tense. Related to the auxiliary verb ‘dare’ only one rule is observed.
In simple present tense, the auxiliary verb ‘dare’ is used in present form. Example of the structure of the sentence is: 1. How dare you talk to me like this? 2. I dare not insult you madam. Someone has misinformed you. Note: In the general questions form, we can use only ‘how’, we cannot use other interrogatives. In the above question the starting is with ‘how’ but it need not to be with dare. It may be with any other suitable present auxiliaries.  We are learning free MT course in this blog.

Some more examples are given below.
1. Do you dare touch a live tiger?
2. The dog dare not attack the visitors.
3. That man dare not hit my daughter in my presence.
4. They dare not proceed on the talks without me.
5. Does my brother dare disobey me?

In the last lesson How to use 'NEED' in Sentences as an Auxiliary Verb? In this post, we came through the ideas of some of the auxiliary verbs. From the next post we would try to learn about some of the conditional statements.

Sunday, October 27, 2013

How to use 'NEED' in Sentences as an Auxiliary Verb?

Last lesson dealt in our free MT course blog was about how to use 'ought to' as an auxiliary verb. In this post we would learn about a new topic of auxiliary verb ‘need’.  Need is a verb and an auxiliary, by using need in any tense needed is used in any tense with the appropriate auxiliary. Use of need as an auxiliary:  1. When we want to give the meaning ‘necessity or importance or obligation’ in a sentence. 2. In the question forms usually. Some of the rules and regulations of this auxiliary verb are: 1. In the simple present tense the auxiliary ‘need’ is used in the present form of the verb. 2. In the present continuous tense the auxiliary ‘need be’ is used in the present ending in –ing  form of the verb. 3. In the future in the past tense, the auxiliary ‘need have’ is used in the past participle form of the verb. 4. In the future in the past continuous tense, the auxiliary ‘need have been’ is used in the present in –ing form of the verb. Whenever the sentence of the structure is in the present tense, then the following examples are given below:

    1. Need You tell him anything more?
  1. She needn’t tell him anything more?
  2. Scott need not return to this Office next year.
  3. Need you all go to a museum on Christmas day?
 (Using of ‘need ‘ in the sentence sounds very polite and diplomatic when compared to ‘should’ which is appropriate
5. We needn’t go to the function today.
6. Need I get up from bed so early on a holiday morning?
7. She needs to tell us more on this subject.
8. Samson needs to return to meeting next year.
9. We need to go to the movie today.
In all the above sentences, need has become a verb When ‘need’ is used as a verb we are forced or compelled to use an infinitive-verb.

Whenever the sentence of the structure is in present continuous tense, then some of the examples of the sentences are given below:
1. Need you be doing this assignment all by yourself?
2. I needn’t be going to the function today.
3. I needn’t be doing this assignment at all.
4. He needn’t be interfering with your family matters at all.
5. She needn’t be doing this work at all.
6. I needn’t be going to the movie today.

NOTE: By using simple present tense ‘need’. So, this auxiliary is not normally used in the continuous tense although by rule we can.

Whenever the structure of the sentence is in future in the past continuous, then the examples of the sentences are given below.
1. Need Alex have beaten up this child so badly for a simple mistake?
2. She need not have beaten up the child at all.
3. I needn’t have attended the class at all today.
4. Need they have purchased so many dresses?
5. They needn’t have purchased more than 5 sets.

Whenever the structure of the sentence is in future in the past continuous tense then the  examples of the sentences are given below.
1. The students need not have been running after the money-lender for this loan.

In the next post we would learn about a new topic of auxiliary verb ‘DARE’.

Monday, October 21, 2013

How to use 'OUGHT TO' in sentences as an Auxiliary Verb?

Last lesson in our free MT course blog dealt about the usage of 'MUST' as an auxiliary verb. Now we will see about the uses of  “Ought to”: 1. To show or express duty or obligation (Ought to is stronger than Must) or expectations. 2. It is used in the future in the past tense.  Some of the rules for ought to are: 1. In simple present tense this auxiliary ‘ought to’ is used in the present form of the verb. 2. In present continuous tense this auxiliary ‘ought to be’ is used in the verb in the present form of –ing. 3. In future in the past tense this auxiliary ‘ought to have’ is used in the verb in the past participle of the verb.  4. In future in the past continuous tense this auxiliary ‘ought to have been’ is used in the verb in the present ending in –ing form. Whenever the sentence of the structure expresses duty or obligation, then some of the examples of the structures of the sentences are given below.

1. The passengers ought to report at the enquiry office in the arrival of the train. (This is in simple present tense form)
2. We ought to be leaving the station now.
3. The spectators ought not to go beyond this line. (This is in simple present tense form)
4. The teacher ought to be advising her students frequently about the discipline. (This is in present continuous tense form)
5. All of us ought to render help to orphanage. (This is in simple present tense form).
6. This film ought to do well at the box office. (This is in expectation-simple present tense form).

Whenever the sentence of the structure represents future in the past, then some of the examples of the structures of the sentences are given below.
1. You ought to have gone to the drama hall for the reception ceremony.
2. They ought not to have violated the college rules and regulations.
3. The week students ought not to have been spending much time on playing games. (This is in the future in the past continuous tense form)
4. The doctors ought to have looked after the patients better.
In the next post we would learn about a new topic of auxiliary verb ‘need’ in the sentences.

Friday, October 18, 2013

How to use 'MUST' in sentences as an Auxiliary Verb?

In the series of learning medical transcription course, we dealt about 'WOULD' usage in the prior lesson. Now we will study about the use of MUST as an auxiliary verb in English grammar.  Uses of  ‘must’: 1. Must is used as an auxiliary to show duty or obligation (Here ‘must’ is stronger than ‘should’) 2. Must is used in future in the past tense. Let us come to know certain rules which is used in the tense of auxiliary form of the verb. A. In the simple present tense form the auxiliary ‘must’ is used in the present form of the verb. B. In the present continuous tense form the auxiliary ‘mustbe’ is used in the present form ending with –ING. C. In the future in the past tense the auxiliary ‘must have’ is used in the past participle form. D. In the future in the past continuous tense ‘must have been’ is used in the present form ending in –ing.

Whenever the structure of the sentence expresses duty or obligation, the structures is shown as below examples: 1. We must obey the office rules and regulations faithfully. (This is in the simple present tense) 2. We must not work against the interests of others. (This is in simple present tense) 3. Must we visit all the schools in this town everyday? (This is in simple present tense) 4. We must not be waiting for too long. (This is in the present continuous tense) 5. You must speak to the prinicipal today itself, mustn’t you? (This is in simple present tense).

Note: The short form of ‘must not’ is mustn’t. Here the silent letter is first t, so we pronounce the word as musn’t

Whenever the structure of the sentence is in the form of ‘future in the past’ then the examples are shown below: 1. Elizabeth must have set a record by now in modeling.
2. All teachers mustn’t have gone for meeting today. Some must have stayed behind.
3. The doctor have been examining the patient when you called at my clinic. (This is in the future in the past continuous tense) 4. All the members in our family must have returned from vacation by today.

In the next post  we would learn about a new topic of auxiliary verb 'OUGHT TO' in the sentences.

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

How to use 'WOULD' in sentences as Auxiliary Verb?

Last post in our free medical transcription course dealt about the usage of SHOULD as an auxiliary verb.  This post aims to define the use of WOULD in the structure of sentences as shown.  Whenever the sentence of the structure is in the past equivalent of will in complex sentences, for that instance the examples are shown below. 1. Steve answered that he would be 40 next December. 2. The Lab Assistant promised that he would take a decision soon on our records to the training course. 3. You would tell me when you received your convocation certificate, wouldn’t you? 4. Didn’t you reply the Principal that the students would copy the answer sheet, Wouldn’t you? 5. You wouldn't return to your room until you had finished your office work, would you? 

Whenever the sentence of the structure is used in ‘regular habit of present time or past time’, for that instance the examples are shown below. 1. Your dog would play with my small sister every morning. (This tense is in the past and present habit). 2. This stray cat would come to my house every evening for the left over milk. (This tense is in the past and present habit). 3. That uncle would meet my family during every summer vacation. (This tense is in the past habit of action). 4. This member would come to temple only on Independence day. (This tense is in the past habit of action).

Whenever the sentence of the structure is used in ‘stronger form of determination’, for that instance the examples are shown below. 1. I would talk to the Owner tomorrow itself. (This is in simple present tense). 2. Your daughter wouldn’t talk to me at all about her personal problem. (This is in simple present tense). 3. My children would never cheat in any examination. (This is in simple present tense). 4. Wouldn’t you say sorry to Williams and shake hand with him? This is in simple present tense).

In the next post we would learn some more about ‘would’.

Monday, October 14, 2013

How to use 'SHOULD' and 'WOULD' as an Auxiliary Verb ?

Our blog for free MT course explained about how to use SHOULD as an auxiliary verb in English language.  In this post we would learn about the remaining topic of ‘should’ as an auxiliary. ‘Should’ as an auxiliary is used the structure of the sentence as for the surprise or annoyance. Some of the examples are: 1. How should you know where mother keeps the provisions? (This is in the Simple Present form). 2. Why should I know anything about Leukemia? (This is in the Simple Present form). 3. Why should I keep this book when he gives a bunch of papers related to the topic completely? (This is in the Simple Present form).  Whenever the sentence structure has the form of probability or expectations, the examples are 1. The students should be in their college now. (This is in the simple present form) (Be is used as verb here). 2. You should not reject formal invitations from seniors. (This is in the simple present form). 3. At this time, the Examiner should be going rounds on his duty for inspection. (This is in the Present continuous form). 4. Shouldn’t you give an apology for her rudeness. (This is in the Simple present form). 5. Shouldn’t you have sent your condolences when you heard about your grandma’s sudden death? (This is in the future in the past tense form).

Whenever the sentence structure has the form of What is advisable, some of the examples are given below 1. She should eat her meal when it is warm. (This is in the simple present form). 2. Everyone should feed when the sun shines. (This is in the simple present form).

3. We should not take advantage of someone’s helplessness. (This is in the simple present form). 4. Shouldn’t you help those in trouble or problems? (This is in the simple present form). 5. We should donate blood to the people who are in need of blood, shouldn’t we?

In the next post we would also learn about the remaining topic dealing with an auxiliary ‘WOULD’.

Thursday, October 10, 2013

How to use SHOULD as an auxiliary in English?

In this lesson we would learn about the uses of ‘should’ as an auxiliary. 'Should' is used as follows: 1. This is used as the past equivalent of shall in sentences like complex sentences. Although, ‘shall’ is a future tense auxiliary, for issuing a command or order we use this ‘should’ in simple present tense or acknowledging it. 2. It is also used to express or exhibit duty or obligation on one’s part. 3. When we want to say, what is advisable in certain or particular situations or circumstances. 4. When expressing duty or obligation on one’s part. 5. It is also used in the ‘future in the past’ tense. 6. It is also used in simple present tense interrogatives to express surprise or annoyance.

There are some rules regarding this auxiliary ‘should. They are: 1. In the simple present tense, the auxiliary ‘should’ is used in the verb of the present form. 2. In the present continuous tense, the auxiliary ‘should be’ is used in the verb of the present form. 3. In the future in the past tense, the auxiliary ‘should have’ is used in the verb of the past participle form. 4. In the future in the past continuous tense, the auxiliary ‘should have been’ is used in the verb of the present form ending with –ing.

Now we would come across the above conditions in the structural sentences.
When ever the sentence structure has past equivalent of shall, the examples are:
1. I asked the class teacher whether the students should wait or leave.
2. My daughter made sure that my husband should not hear the bad news.
3. The HR warned us that we should not repeat such mistakes.
4. Shouldn’t you have informed the couple earlier that they were going to make their breakfast in the Star Hotel?

Whenever the sentence structure has for duty/obligation in simple present tense, the examples are:
1. We should obey the rules of the job without exception.
(This is in the simple present tense form)
2. You should keep your words in true always.
(This is in the simple present tense form)
3. The children should not look at the films beyond 9 p.m.
(This is in the simple present form)
4. Young boys and girls should play games regularly.
(This is in the simple present form)
5. The Principal should be reading the newspaper now.
(This is in the present continuous form).

In the next lesson we would learn the remaining topic of ‘should’ as an auxiliary.

Ok…………..

Tags: english grammar modal, auxiliary verb english, auxiliary verb in english, auxiliary verbs english, grammar modal verb, grammar modal verbs, verb should, modal verb should, should verb, auxiliary verbs in english, should modal verb

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Friday, October 4, 2013

How to use COULD as an auxiliary in English?

We use this auxiliary ‘could’ in many cases. 1. In as the past equivalent of ‘can’ in complex sentence. 2. In past tense for past actions. 3. The term ‘could’ is more polite than ‘may’ which is used for making polite requests in simple present tense and future tense. 4. In simple present tense for purpose of ability or possibility. 5. In future in the past tense this ‘could’ is used.

Let us come to know about some rules of tenses where this ‘could’ be used.
1. For simple present tense in the present form of the verb the auxiliary is ‘could’.
2. For present continuous tense in the present-in-ing form of the verb the auxiliary is ‘could be’.
3. For future tense in the present form of the verb the auxiliary is ‘could’.
4. For future continous tense in the present-in-ing form of the verb the auxiliary is ‘could be’.
5. For simple past tense in the present form of the verb the auxiliary is ‘could’.
6. For future in the past tense in the past participle form of the verb the auxiliary is ‘could have’.
7. For future in the past continuous tense in the present-in-ing form of the verb the auxiliary is ‘could have been’.

Structure of sentence: as past equivalent of CAN
1. In the past equivalent of ‘can’, in complex sentences we use ‘could’ as shown below in the examples.
a. She did not solve that problem because she could not follow the steps of instructions.
b. Could you sleep for a while because it is raining heavily today?
c. Could you give me a party dress for the function which is held in the evening?

Structure of sentence: For actions in the past
1. I could not write this answer. (simple past)
2. Lakshmi could not go to office last week. (simple past)
3. The mechanic could not repair my car till yesterday. (simple past)
4. I could hear some strange voice in your room last night. (simple past)
The sentence above is also written by somebody like this ‘I heard some strange voice----‘ but when some ability is required to hear a faint voice in the past time we use ‘could’ as equal to the present tense ‘can’.
5. Could you meet the vice-principal yesterday? (simple past)

In the next lesson we would learn some more about ‘COULD’

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Tuesday, October 1, 2013

How to use MIGHT in the Future in the Past Tense...?

Structure of a sentence: Future in the past tense

In the total 14 tenses we covered only two time periods they are 1. Present Perfect tense and  2. Present Perfect Continuous tense. Now in this post we will learn about simple future tense which is used in the past. In this type of sentences for an action we have in mind; action has not started; action will take place only at a future time. So when we frame a sentence like “I will launch a program tomorrow”, in which we look into the future from the present time.

In other case, we imagine that we live in the past time period and see towards the future, from that past time point, so that action is in our mind only. We call such a tense as Future in the past tense.

Some of the examples which show the time period in which the auxiliary for this tense is “might have” and the verb in the PP form.
1. This problem might have solved if you had written in step by step method. (future in the past tense).
2. The boss might have suspended you for such misbehavior. (future in the past tense).
3. She might have attended the function even if she had received your invitation.
4. What might have been the reasons for her suicide? (future in the past tense).
5. I might have been using this pen if it had been with me. (future in the past continuous tense).
6. Who might have been misleading my children? (future in the past continuous tense).
7. We might not have studied this case even if the Collector had asked us.
8. All of us might have taken part in the festival if the villagers had been taken interest to us.

In the next post we would learn about “COULD”.

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Saturday, September 21, 2013

How to Use 'MIGHT' in Simple Present and Present Continuous Tenses?

may and might In the recent post we came through the forms of might.
In this post we will discuss about “might” in more.
Remember the following points:
1. The short form of might not is might n’t but we do not use the short form.
2. We should not frame negative or positive question. Negative general questions with an appropriate interrogative will be possible.
Structure of a sentence - To reveal dissatisfaction:
Using ‘might’ in simple present tense with present form of verb.
1. You might come to the meeting on time.
(Here a nice way of conveying your displeasure when a staff comes late habitually is happening).
2. You might convey your wishes here and now.
(Here a simple present tense is used in the above sentence).
3. You might not spend your free time in your friend’s house every week end.
(Here also the same simple present tense is used).

Structure of a sentence - For a future distant possibility:
We use ‘might’ along with a present form verb for a future possibility. This sentence structure must denote the timing of the action in a coming time. Then this will be a ‘future tense’ sentence.
We denote the possibility in at present time and also in which case either it s a simple present or present continuous tense with ‘might’ and a present form of a verb.

Some of the examples are:
1. This exams might helps you in the future.
2. You might not consider this argument.
3. I might attend your music class tomorrow.
4. The bus might arrive by evening.
In all the above sentences future tense has been used.

This present tense can also be expressed in the possible forms as below.
1. My father might be wondering about my safety.
2. My brother might not be expecting me in the railway station this morning.
In all the above sentences present continuous has been used.

3. He might not believe in his professional abilities.
In the above sentence simple present tense is used.

We came to the conclusion that we use might in future and present tenses.

Keywords:  may and might, may might could, may or might, might be grammar, might can grammar, might could

In the next post we would try to learn about ‘might’ in more.

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How to Use 'MIGHT' as an Universal Auxiliary?

MIGHT
‘Might’ is also used in several ways.
1. It is used to express some unsatisfaction in a simple way.
2. To determine a future distant possibility or happening.
3. For ‘may’ this ‘might’ is used as a past equivalent.
4. In the past tense future this ‘might’ is used.

Let us study about the rules of using ‘might’
1. In simple present ‘might’ is used in the present form of the verb.
2. In present continuous tense ‘might be’ is used in the present ending in –ing form of the verb.
3. In future tense ‘might’ is used in the present form of the verb.
4. In simple past (in complex sentences) ‘might’ is used in the present ending in –ing form of the verb.
5. In future in the past ‘might have’ is used in the past participle form of the verb.
6. In the future in the past continuous ‘might have been’ is used in the present ending in           
-ing form of the verb.

Structure of the sentences:
(Hint: If there is a past tense in one part of a complex sentence the other part should also be in past tense or past equivalent universal auxiliary)
1. I may take sruthi with me if she is ready.
Here both sentences are in present tense and therefore it is correct according to the tense rules.
Note: ‘May’ is a simple present tense auxiliary.
But if ‘may’ is the present tense auxiliary then its past equivalent is ‘might’ . But ‘might’ is not the past form of ‘may’. It is the verbs that have the present form - past form - past participle form and not the auxiliaries.

Let us study this example in the tense rules of complex sentence.
1. I might take Sruthi with me if she was ready.
Here ‘might’ is used in the past tense auxiliary but ‘may’ should not be used.

Given below are some more examples.
1. I thought that the teacher might be in the class.
Using of simple past tense and past equivalent.
2. She felt that you might like a short holiday.
Using of simple past tense and past equivalent auxiliary.
3. The manager might not wait for you if you came after 11 a.m.
Using of past equivalent and simple past.
4. The lab assistant said that I might use the calculator whenever necessary.

In the next post we would try to learn the remaining topic of ‘might’


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Wednesday, September 18, 2013

Universal Auxiliaries

Check out this product to Speak English confidently. Unique product with hundreds of situational conversations  Let us know about universal auxiliaries. So far we have learnt about 14 tenses and the formation of sentences. Now we would come to learn three pure auxiliaries. The three pure auxiliaries are will, shall and be which are used in future tense.But there are still 17 more pure auxiliaries left. They are CAN, MIGHT, MAY, SHOULD, COULD, WOULD, MUST, NEVER, USED TO, DARE, NEED, KEEP, KEPT, OUGHT TO, GOING TO, BEING and BEEN. 

These 17 auxiliaries are also known as UNIVERSAL AUXILIARIES because they are used for all persons and they do not belong to any particular tense. We can use them in more than one tense. Some of the universal auxiliaries will require the help of other auxiliaries.Let us briefly know about each of the auxiliaries:1. CAN Inorder to show the ability or capacity to do a work this “can” should be used. We do not use can in cases where there is no requirement of any kind of special skill. In simple present tense “can” is the present verb form. In present continuous tense “can be” is the present form ending in –ing. Since it is an universal type, we use it with all persons. Structure of sentence:“Can” should be used in these forms also.

Q. 1. Can you run one kilometer in one minute?
A1. I can run one kilometer in 3 minutes.
A2. I cannot run one kilometer in one minute.      In the above questions and answers 

1. “CAN” is used to justify.
2. “CAN” is used in negative form and the short form for can is “can’t”.

Examples of negative questions are:
1. Can’t Sasi do this work within an hour?
A1. He can do this work in an hour.
A2. He cannot do this work in one hour.

Examples of emphatic questions:

1. You can read German, can’t you?
A1. I can read German.
A2. I cannot read German.

2. Deepthi cannot lift this bottle on her own, can she?
A1. She can lift this box on her own.
A2. She can’t lift this box on her own.

3. Can the students be in library by 5.30 a.m.?
A1. They can be in the library by 5.30 a.m.
A2. The students can’t be in the library by 5.30 a.m.

By identifying the above words in the last question. Can – auxiliary of simple present tense, the students – subject, be – verb (present form), in – preposition, the – article, library – noun (but used as adverb of place), by – preposition, 5.30 a.m. – noun ( but used as adverb of time).In the next lesson we would learn about the remaining auxiliaries.

Tags:  auxiliary verbs english, auxillary verb, auxillary verbs, correct english grammar, english grammar help, english grammar terms, english grammer software, help with grammar

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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...