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Monday, March 12, 2012

Endocrine Glands List - Lesson 306

We will now see main endocrine glands list now. There are 9 important endocine glands in our body. They secrete different types of hormones. Each homones does its unique function inside our body. These hormones directly mix with blood from the glands of its production and so they are named as endocrine glands. Our body also has a system of exocrine glands, such as sweat glands. Exocrine glands have its own ducts to contact with bloodstream. The important endocrine glands are thyroid glands in the neck, parathyroids glands on both sides of thyroid glands, adrenal cortex and medulla in the kidneys, pancreas in the liver, pituitary gland in the brain,  ovaries in female reproductive system, and testes in male reproductive system.

Thyroid and Parathyroid Hormones: Thyroid gland secretes two important hormones, such as, thyroxin and triiodothyroxine. These two hormones help to increase body metabolism in body cells. Another one important hormone secreted by thyroid glands is calcitonin. This hormone helps to lower blood calcium levels in blood. Parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone, This hormone helps to increase blood calcium. Calcitonin and parathyroid hormone are opposite in their actions. 

Adrenal Gland Hormones: Adrenal glands in the kidney secrete a hormone named as aldosterone, the other name of this hormone is mineralocorticoid. This hormone is helpful in increasing re-absorption of sodium. The outer cover of adrenal glands called as adrenal cortex secretes this hormone. The other hormones secreted by adrenal cortex is cortisol, the other name of cortisol is glucocorticoid, and other sexual hormones, such as androgens, estrogens, and progestins. Cortisol is helpful in increasing blood surgar. Androgen, estrogen, and progestin are helpful in maintaining secondary sexual characteristics in both men and women. Medulla is the inner layer of adrenal gland. Medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine hormones. The other name of epinephrine is adrenaline and the other name of norepinephrine is nor-adrenaline. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are responsible for sympathomimetic actions in the body.

Pancreas Hormones: The homones secreted by pancreas are insulin and glucagon. The main function of insulin is to decrease blood sugar by coverting glucose into glycogen. The function of glucagon is to increase blood sugar. Insulin and glucagon are opposite to each other in functions.

Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by pituitary gland are growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 
luteinizing hormone (LH), melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), antidiuretic hormone (ADH), and oxytocin. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) helps to increase skin pigmentation. Luteinizing hormone (LH) helps in promoting ovulation in female, secretion of testosterone, breast growth, and milk production. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) helps in the process of oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Growth 
hormone (GH) helps to increase bone and tissue growth. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) helps to stimulate secretion of thyroxine and development of thyroid gland. Adrenocorticotropic hormone helps to 
stimulate production of hormones from the adrenal gland, mainly the cortisol.

Reproductive Hormones: Ovaries in female and testes in men secrete estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. Estradiol helps in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in female. Progesterone helps in preparation and maintenance of uterus during pregnancy. Testosterone helps to promote development and maintaining secondary sexual characteristics in men.
We have dealt with endocrine glands list now. In the next lesson, we will deal about female reproductive system hormones and functions. Okay. Come on.


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