ADMINISTRATION OF DRUGS
The route of administration of drugs can be used to determine the rate and completeness of its absorption into the bloodstream and the speed and duration of the drug. The route of administration of drugs can be broadly classified into four types.
1. Oral administration,
2. Sublingual administration,
3. Rectal administration, and
4. Parenteral administration
These administration of drugs are briefly described below
1. Oral administration:-
These drugs are given by mouth and they are slowly absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach or intestinal wall. People who have difficulty swallowing pills or capsules may find it easier to swallow the medication if they look up as they swallow. After swallowing pills people should be given sufficient amount of water so that to dissolve the solid medications. Sometimes it is also ineffective because whenever the drug is unable to pass through the intestinal mucosa. So there are some disadvantages also with this administration. If time is a factor in therapy it is also disadvantageous.
2. Sublingual administration:-
These drugs are swallowed but are placed under the tongue and allowed to dissolve in the saliva. The drug can be placed under the ventral surface of the tongue for dissolution and absorption through the mucous membrane. Nitroglycerin tablets are taken in this way to treat attacks.
3. Rectal administration:-
These drugs are cone-shaped and aqueous solutions are inserted into the rectum. Whenever the patient is feeling unpleasant feeling or urge to vomit at that time drugs are given by rectum.
4. Parenteral administration:-
This desired effect is systemic, substance is given by routes other than the digestive tract. i.e, it is accomplished by injection of the drug from a syringe through a hollow needle placed under the skin, into a muscle, into a vein or into a body cavity. There are some
varieties of parenteral injections.
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