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Sunday, January 31, 2010

TYPES OF ADMINISTRATION OF DRUGS-LESSON 157

ADMINISTRATION OF DRUGS
The route of administration of drugs can be used to determine the rate and completeness of its absorption into the bloodstream and the speed and duration of the drug. The route of administration of drugs can be broadly classified into four types.
They are
1. Oral administration,
2. Sublingual administration,
3. Rectal administration, and
4. Parenteral administration
These administration of drugs are briefly described below
1. Oral administration:-
These drugs are given by mouth and they are slowly absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach or intestinal wall. People who have difficulty swallowing pills or capsules may find it easier to swallow the medication if they look up as they swallow. After swallowing pills people should be given sufficient amount of water so that to dissolve the solid medications. Sometimes it is also ineffective because whenever the drug is unable to pass through the intestinal mucosa. So there are some disadvantages also with this administration. If time is a factor in therapy it is also disadvantageous.
2. Sublingual administration:-
These drugs are swallowed but are placed under the tongue and allowed to dissolve in the saliva. The drug can be placed under the ventral surface of the tongue for dissolution and absorption through the mucous membrane. Nitroglycerin tablets are taken in this way to treat attacks.
3. Rectal administration:-
These drugs are cone-shaped and aqueous solutions are inserted into the rectum. Whenever the patient is feeling unpleasant feeling or urge to vomit at that time drugs are given by rectum.
4. Parenteral administration:-
This desired effect is systemic, substance is given by routes other than the digestive tract. i.e, it is accomplished by injection of the drug from a syringe through a hollow needle placed under the skin, into a muscle, into a vein or into a body cavity. There are some
varieties of parenteral injections.
In the next post we would introduce a new topic called Analgesics and Anesthetics. Okay

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To go to the prior lesson please click the link below


PHARMACOLOGY- ANESTHETICS, ANALGESICS, AND ANTIBIOTICS-LESSON 156

ANALGESICS:- Analgesics are the drugs used to kill pain. They induce condition of near unconsciousness with the brain's interpretation of the signals. They may produce habit formation and tolerance. There are basically two kinds of analgesics. They are 1. Non-narcotics and 2. Narcotics. The best example for Non-narcotics analgesics is acetaminophen and for Narcotics analgesics is Morphine.
Some of the drugs of non-narcotic drugs reduce fever, pain and inflammation in joint disorders. These agents are not steroid harmones and are known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Examples of nonsteroidal antiflammatory drug are libuprofen (Motrin, Advil) and naproxen (Naprosen).

ANESTHETICS:- An anesthetic is an agent that reduces or eliminates sensation. If the affect is on the whole body then it is said to be general anesthetic or if the effect is on the particular region then it is said to be local anesthetic.

Generally these anesthetics are used for surgical procedures and depress the activity of the central nervous system, producing loss of consciousness. i.e, in general these anesthetics are used to create numbness in the body wherever we want. Local anesthetics inhibit the conduction of impulses in sensory nerves in the region in which they are injected or applied.s
Examples of general anesthetics are ether-hatothane (Fluothane), oxide-thiopental (Pentothal) and local anesthetics are hydrocortisone acetate (Orabase), lidocaine (Xylocaine).

ANTIBIOTICS:- A chemical substance produced by a microorganism that inhibits or stops the growth of bacteria, fungi or parasites is said to be antibiotics. Example for microorganism are bacterium, yeast or mold). These antibiotics are largely used to control many diseases such as rheumatic fever, pneumonia, malaria, dengue etc. Pencillin was the first antibiotic used in the year 1945. The use of antibiotics is warranted because they are some powerful agents. Pathogenic organisms can develop resistance to the antibiotic and thus destroy the disease. Thus antibiotics are having the capacity of disease-fighting capability.
In the next post we would know the different types of antibiotics and their examples. Okay.
To go to the next lesson please click the link below.