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Tuesday, November 16, 2010

Muscular Skeletal joints - Pathological conditions - Lesson 226

In this post we will learn some suffixes and their meanings and some Pathological Conditions.    –desis means to bind or to tie together and its terminology is arthrodesis means bones are fixed across the joint space by surgery which is also called artificial ankylosis. This type of operation is conducted when a joint is very painful, chronically infected, or unstable.    –stenosis narrowing means spinal stenosis in which narrowing of the neural canal or nerve root canals in the lumbar spine. Symptoms like pain, paresthesias, urinary retention, or incontinence come from compression of the cauda equina which means nerves that spread out from the lower end of the spinal cord like a horse’s tail.

Some of the Pathological conditions are:-

1. For Arthritis inflammation of joints in which some of the common forms are:

a. Ankylosing spondylitis:- Chronic, progressive arthritis with stiffening of joints, primarily of the spine. Bilateral sclerosis which means hardening of the sacroiliac joints is a diagnostic feature. Changes in joints are same to those seen in rheumatoid arthritis, and the condition responds to corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory drugs.

b. Gouty arthritis:- Inflammation of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the body.
A defect in metabolism of uric acid causes too much of it to accumulate in blood called
Hyperuricemia, joints and soft tissues near joints. The uric acid crystals known as salts destroy the articular cartilage and damage the synovial membrane. A joint mainly affected is the big toe; hence, the condition is often called podagra in which pod/o means foot, -agra means excessive pain. Treatment consists of drugs to lower uric acid production called allopurinol and to prevent inflammation called colchicines and a special diet that avoids foods that are rich in uric acid, such as red meats.

c. Osteoarthritis:- Progressive, degenerative joint disease characterized by loss of articular cartilage and hypertrophy of bone at articular surfaces. This condition also known as degenerative joint disease, occurs mainly in the hips and knees of individuals who are older in age and is marked by a narrowing of the joint space due to loss of cartilage. Treatment consists of aspirin and other analgesics to reduce inflammation and pain and physical therapy to loosen impaired joints.

Why does the faith provision the advisory contempt?

In the next post we would learn some more pathological conditions.

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