In this lesson, we are going to study about cataract of the eyes. As a free medical transcription course learner, you should all know about cataracts of the eye. The dictators will dictate about cataract in dictation files in the surgical history of the patient or about the surgery files about cataracts etc. You should know about what is cataract and what are the surgical methods to remove cataracts. The reasons for cataract is a change in the protein structure, as well as the water stuff inside the lens. Changes in the protein affects the clarity of the vision. These changes in the crystalline lens create clouding in the eyes. Cataract is a disease. In the cataract disease, the lens is the primary thing affected by clouding process, from its normal clarity. Cataract affects the retina to focus the light rays on the lens. Cataract means waterfall in the latin language. Some patient with cataract would also have diabetes and they may meet complications while the physician decides to do surgery to remove the cataract due to high sugar in the blood. The main sign of cataract is the blurred vision and also difficulty in vision during nights, light sensitivity, fading of light colors, and sometimes double vision. Some old age patients may get cataract and glaucoma at the same time due to the ageing process.
Types of cataracts: If the older people get cataract due to ageing process, it is called senile cataract. There is another type of cataract, which is named as Morganian cataract, in which a liquid like milk is formed in the lens. If the cataract form in a child, it is called congenital cataract.
Cataract Surgeries: Now we will see the surgical methods to remove the cataracts. In common there are two methods to remove cataracts. They are intracapsular and extracapsular methods. In the intracapsular method, the lens is removed totally with lens capsule. In the extracapsular extraction method, the posterior portion of the lens is kept in place, but the lens tissue is removed entirely. The extracapsular lens is removed by a method called aspiration-irrigation technique. In this process, the lens material is absorbed using a needle and the lens is broken using phacoemulsification method, in which an ultrasonic vibration is passed to break the lens. Intraocular lens, shortly termed as IOL is then implanted if the patient gets cataract again after extracapsular surgery.
In the next lesson, other surgical processes of the eye. Okay. Come on.
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