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Monday, July 11, 2011

Cutaneous Skin Lesions - Lesson 252

In this post we are going to learn some more lesions.
11. Ecchymosis: - On the skin a bluish-black mark (macule) present. Ecchymoses(in which ec- means out, chym/o means to pour) into the skin from injury which are caused by the hemhorrhages or spontaneous leaking of blood from vessels. The plural of Ecchymosis is Ecchymoses.

12. Petechia: - It is a small, pinpoint hemorrhage. Petechiae are smaller versions of ecchymoses. The plural of petechia is petechiae.

13. Pruritus: - This means itching. Pruritus is associated with most forms of dermatitis and with other conditions as well. It arises as a result of stimulation of nerves in the skin by enzymes released in allergic reactions or by irritation caused by substances from the blood or from foreign bodies.

14. Purpura: - Merging ecchymoses and petechiae over, any part of the body.

15. Urticaria (hives): - It is an acute allergic reaction in which red, round wheals develop on the skin. Pruritus may be intense, and etiology is commonly allergy to foods such as shellfish or strawberries. Localized edema or swelling occurs as well.

16. Vitiligo: - Loss of pigment (depigmentation) in the skin areas (patches in milk-white color). It is also known as leukoderma. There is an increased association of vitiligo with certain autoimmune conditions such as thyroiditis, hyperthyroidism, and diabetis mellitus. 

Abnormal Conditions: - 

1. Acne: - The conditon of the skin which is in papular and pustular eruption. Acne vulgaris is caused by the buildup of sebum and keratin in the pores of the skin. A blackhead or comedo is a sebum plug partially blocking the pore. The plural of comedo is comedones. If the pore becomes completely blocked, a whitehead forms. Bacteria in teh skin break down the sebum, producing inflammation in teh surrounding tissue. Papules, pustules, and cysts can thus form. Treatment consists of long-term antibiotic use and medications to dry the skin. Benzoyl peroxide and tretinoin (retin-A) are medications to prevent comedo formation; In severe cystic acne, isotretinoin is used also called accutane. 

In the next post we will learn remaining conditions.

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