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Friday, January 30, 2009

Medical Transcription Exercises - Module-I-Part-1


A. COMPLETE THE SENTECES OF THE FOLLOWING:

1. The foundation of a word is known as the ____________________.
2. Word endings are called ____________________.
3. Word beginning are called ____________________.
4. A letter linking a suffix and a root, or linking two roots, in a term is called the ____________________.


B. GIVEN THE MEANINGS FOR THE FOLLOWING COMBINING FORMS:

1. cardi/o ____________________.
2. ade/o ____________________.
3. bi/o ____________________.
4. cerebr/o ____________________.
5. cephal/o ____________________.
6. arthr/o ____________________.
7. carcin/o ____________________.
8. cyst/o ____________________.
9. dermat/o ____________________.
10. derm/o ____________________.
11. encephal/o ____________________.
12. electr/o ____________________.

C. GIVE THE MEANING OF THE FOLLOWING SUFFIXES:

1. -oma ____________________.
2. -al ____________________.
3. –itis ____________________.
4. –logy ____________________.
5. –scopy ____________________.
6. –ic ____________________.
7. –gram ____________________.
8. –opsy ____________________.


D. GIVE THE MEANING OF EACH COMBINING FORM AND GIVE SLASHES WHERE REQUIRED

1. cerebral ____________________.
2. biopsy ____________________.
3. adenitis ____________________.
4. cephalic ____________________.
5. carcinoma ____________________.
6. cystoscopy ____________________.
7. electrocardiogram ____________________.
8. cardiology ____________________.
9. electroencephalogram ____________________.
10. dermatitis ____________________.
11. arthroscropy ____________________.
12. cytology ____________________.

E. GIVE THE MEANING FOR THE FOLLOWING COMBINING FORMS:

1. erythro/o ____________________.
2. enter/o ____________________.
3. gastr/o ____________________.
4. gnos/o ____________________.
5. hemat/o ____________________.
6. cis/o ____________________.
7. nephr/o ____________________.
8. leuk/o ____________________.
9. iatr/o ____________________.
10. hepat/o ____________________.
11. neur/o ____________________.
12. gynec/o ____________________.
If you have any queries, please write your queries to sasikrishna4@gmail.com to get email answers..ok...next posting will continue this test paper...
Come on...

Antigens and Antibodies - Lesson 48


An antigen is a substance, usually foreign to the body (such as a poison, virus, or bacterium), that stimulates the production of antibodies. Antibodies are protein substances made by white blood cells in response to the presence of foreign antigens. For example, the flu virus (antigen) enters the body, causing the production of antibodies in the bloodstream. These antibodies will then attach to and destroy the antigens (viruses) that produced them. The reaction between an antigen and an antibody is called an immune reaction (immune/o means protection).

Another example of an antigen-antibody in the Rh condition. A person who is Rh+ has a protein coating (antigen) on his or her red blood cells (RBCs). This antigen factor is something that the person is born with and is normal for him or her. A person who is Rh- has normal RBCs as well, but they do not carry the Rh factor antigen.

If an Rh- woman and Rh+ man conceive an embryo, the embryo may be Rh- or Rh+. A dangerous condition arises only when the embryo is Rh+, during delivery of the first Rh+ baby, some of the baby’s blood cells containing antigens may escape into the mother’s bloodstream. This sensitizes the mother so that she produces a low level of antibodies to the Rh+ antigen. Because this occurs at delivery, the first baby is generally not affected and is normal at birth. Sensitization can also occur after a miscarriage or an abortion.

Difficulties arise with the second Rh+ pregnancy. If the embryo is Rh+ again, during pregnancy the mother’s acquired antibodies will enter the infant’s bloodstream and attack the infant’s RBCs (Rh+). The infant’s RBCs are destroyed, and the infant attempts to compensate for this loss of cells by making new immature RBCs (erythroblasts). The infant is born with a condition known as erythroblastosis fetalis or hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). One of the clinical symptoms of erythroblastosis fetalis is jaundice, or yellow skin pigmentation. The jaundice results from the excessive destruction of RBCs, which causes a substance called bilirubin (chemical pigment produced when hemoglobin from the RBCs is broken down) to accumulate in the blood.

To prevent HDN: Rh immunoglobulin is given to the mother at 28 weeks of pregnancy and within 72 hours after each Rh delivery or after every abortion and miscarriage if the father is Rh+. The globulin binds to Rh cells that have escaped into the mother’s circulation, and thus prevents the mother from making Rh+ antibodies. This ensures that future babies will not develop HDN.

Acromegaly - Lesson 47


As an medical transcription learner, you must know about more disease conditions and its causes, so I am trying to give you appendices of terms to improve your knowledge. In this lesson, we will learn what is acromegaly...ok

WHAT IS ACROMEGALY?
Acromegaly is an example of an endocrine disorder. The pituitary gland attached to the base of the brain produces an excessive amount of growth hormone after the completion of puberty. So, a person with Acromegaly is of abnormal height. Because the long bones have stopped growth after puberty, but has an abnormally large growth of bones and tissue in the hands, feet, and face. High levels of growth hormone before completion of puberty produce excessive growth of long bones (gigantism) as well as Acromegaly.

Acromegaly (from Greek akros "extreme" or "extremities" and megalos "large" - extremities enlargement) is a syndrome that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone (hGH) after epiphyseal plate closure. A number of disorders may affect the pituitary to create this circumstance, although most commonly it involves a GH producing tumor derived from a distinct type of cells (somatotrophs) and called pituitary adenoma.

Acromegaly most commonly affects adults in middle age, and can result in severe disfigurement, serious complicating conditions, and premature death if unchecked. Because of its insidious pathogenesis and slow progression, the disease is hard to diagnose in the early stages and is frequently missed for many years, when changes in external features, especially of the face, become noticeable.

SYMPTOMS OF ACROMEGALY:

Facial aspect of a patient with acromegaly. The nose is widened and thickened, the cheekbones are obvious, the forehead bulges, the lips are thick and the facial lines are marked. The forehead and overlying skin is thickened, sometimes leading to frontal bossing.

As compared with the hand of a normal person (left), the hand of a patient with acromegaly (right) is enlarged, the fingers are widened, thickened and stubby, and the soft tissue is thickened.

Mandibular overgrowth leads to prognathism, maxillary widening, teeth separation and jaw malocclusion.
Features that result from high level of hGH or expanding tumor include:
Soft tissue swelling visibly resulting in enlargement of the hands, feet, nose, lips and ears, and a general thickening of the skin
Soft tissue swelling of internal organs, notably the heart with attendant weakening of its muscularity, and the kidneys, also the vocal cords resulting in a characteristic thick, deep voice and slowing of speech
Generalized expansion of the skull at the fontanelle
Pronounced brow protrusion, often with ocular distension
Pronounced lower jaw protrusion with attendant macroglossia (enlargement of the tongue) and teeth gapping.

CAUSES OF ACROMEGALY:

In over 90 percent of acromegaly patients, the overproduction of growth hormones is caused by a benign tumor of the pituitary gland, called an adenoma. These tumors produce excess growth hormones and, as they expand, compress surrounding brain tissues, such as the optic nerves. This expansion causes the headaches and visual disturbances that often accompany acromegaly. In addition, compression of the surrounding normal pituitary tissue can alter production of other hormones, leading to changes in menstruation and breast discharge in women and impotence in men because of reduced testosterone production.

TREATMENT:

The goals of treatment are to reduce GH production to normal levels, to relieve the pressure that the growing pituitary tumor exerts on the surrounding brain areas, to preserve normal pituitary function, and to reverse or ameliorate the symptoms of acromegaly. Currently, treatment options include surgical removal of the tumor, drug therapy, and radiation therapy of the pituitary.

Understand..we will now move to the next lesson of appendices about SPLENOMEGALY..ok

C0me 0n...

To go to the next lesson please click the link below: