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Sunday, August 30, 2009

Cancer Formation




CARCINOGENESIS:  Carcin/o means cancer and -genesis means formation that is the conversion of a normal cell to a cancerous ell is called carcinogenesis.  We can understand the process of malignant conversion of a cell on the basis of genetic material called DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid of the cell. Filaments of DNA in the cell nucleus form chromosomes, which are simply seen from time to time during the development series of the cell.

DNA has the power of not only in the production of new cells, but also the cell's capacity to breed. DNA is full of codes or programs called genes that guide the construction of new proteins called protein synthesis. When a cell splits, the DNA substance duplicates itself so that the identical DNA is passed to two new cells that are formed. This process is called mitosis or self-replication. Among cycles of replication, DNA doles out as the workstation program that guides the cell's vital functions.

DNA drives a molecular note to the cytoplasm of the cell so that proteins for example hormones and enzymes are able to be made for cellular growth. This program is sent out in the following line of attack. In the nucleus, a coded message is copied from DNA against one more molecule called RNA or ribonucleic acid. RNA passes through as of nucleus to cytoplasm hauling the message that guides the configuration of definite proteins in the cell.

When a cell develops into malignant, on the other hand, the method of mitosis concerned that the cancer cells duplicate almost constantly. Cancerous cells as well grow to be anaplastic that is their DNA stops producing the codes that let cells to carry on normal function as a substitute makes new signals that lead to movement of cells, invasion of nearby tissue, and metastasis.

Every one of these changes are characteristic of malignant cells and take place as the consequence of changes in DNA. The changes in DNA that result in malignancy occur as the result of environmental factors such as toxic chemicals, sunlight, a host of other sources of injury, and rarely, by certain viral and chemical infections. Once these changes are established in a cell they are passed on to its offspring cells. Such a take over of change in a cell is called a mutation. Cellular mutations consequently go in front to malignant development.

Even though nearly all DNA changes or mutations show the way to higher than normal rates of development. Some mutations found in cancer cells put a stop to the cells from dying. In modern years, scientists have recognized that some types of cancers have lost the normal outline that express aging or damaged cells to die. Normal cells undergo impulsive breakdown by a process known as apoptosis or programmed cell death. Cancer cells have lost this program and thus can live without end.

In the next lesson we will see about environmental agents of cancer production. Okay.

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MESOTHELIOMA LUNG CANCER- DIAGNOSIS USING MANY TECHNIQUES-4-LESSON 99



This is the continuation of the lesson mesothelioma diagnosis using many techniques. MEDIASTINOSCOPY TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:  Mediastinoscopy is now and then used to give support to in staging to know the extent of mesothelioma cancer. The distended inflamed nodes appear while by means of imaging techniques.

LAPAROSCOPY TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:  Laparoscopy technique is used in patients with mesothelioma on the circumstances where imaging techniques put forward potential invasion of the tumor through the diaphragm. This in sequence know how to be imperative in assessing a patient for budding pleurectomy or extrapleural pneumonectomy.

MESOMARK BLOOD TEST TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:  SMRP is extended as Soluble Mesothelin-Related Peptide is a protein or a biomarker is released into the blood of a patient with mesothelioma by the cancer cells. The amount of SMRP in a blood sample is measured. This is an better option to monitor mesothelioma in a patient and to keep an eye on the advancement of a patient by the doctor. The effectiveness of this test is not so high. This is proved by the statistics available yet. This test is not permitted for the early diagnosis of mesothelioma cancer. HUD or Humanitarian Use Device permitted this test to diagnose mesothelioma to be diagnosed earlier with certain conditions.

This test is used to lend a hand to keep an eye on response to treatment for the patients with biphasic malignant and epithelial mesothelioma. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in January 2007 permitted the MESOMARK assay test. In the MESOMARK testing the patient will be taken one or more blood specimens and send it to a national reference laboratory for analysis and decisions concerning the treatment will be after the other clinical and laboratory data obtained.

Coverage of the cost of MESOMARK blood test is not done by insurance. So the patient must pay all the cost. It is better for a patient to check the availability of coverage for MESOMARK with insurance prior to do this test.

In the next lesson we will see about the CARCINOGENESIS. Okay.

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MESOTHELIOMA LUNG CANCER- DIAGNOSIS USING MANY TECHNIQUES-3-LESSON 98


This is the continuation of the lesson mesothelioma diagnosis using many techniques. 
VIDEO-ASSISTED THORACOSCOPIC SURGERY (VATS) TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:  Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is used in the recent years is one of the good number far and wide used paraphernalia in the assessment of mesothelioma cancer. The biopsy samples of the nodules, pleural lining, masses, and pleural fluid can at present without difficulty be there gotten hold of using VATS, a simple invasive procedure.

At the same time as, the supplementary therapies for example pleurodesis (talc) for pleural effusions consider to be done. At the same time as under general anesthesia of the patient a quite a lot of small incisions called ports are created through the chest wall.

In this procedure the surgeon then inserts a small camera, via a scope, into one incision, and other surgical instruments used to retrieve tissue samples into the other incisions. By looking at a video screen showing the camera images, the surgeon is able to complete whatever procedures are necessary. In many cases, this video-assisted technique is having the capability to put back thoracotomy, which requires a much bigger opening to put on admittance to the chest cavity.

This procedure is a simply invasive one. The patient the largest part time and again has less pain after the surgery and possibly a smaller upturn period.

THORACOSCOPY TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:  When a patient with pleural mesothelioma the physician possibly seem to be inside the chest opening with a thoracoscope, which is an tube like instrument. The thoracoscope will then be inserted through the chest wall into the chest between two ribs. The patient will be administered a local anesthesia for painkilling purposes.

Thoracentesis or thoracocentesis:

It is a procedure done to remove the fluid collected in the chest by the doctor and drains the fluid out by putting a needle into the chest. The doctor uses a gentle suction to remove the fluid. The patient's discomfort due to the collection of fluid is controlled.

PERITONEOSCOPY TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:
Paracentesis: When a patient is affected with peritoneal mesothelioma the physician possibly will look within the abdomen with a unique apparatus known as a peritoneoscope. The peritoneoscope is put into an notch created by the doctor in the abdomen. This analysis is by and large done in the hospital after administering a local anesthesia to the patient. If fluid has collected in the abdomen of the patient, the physician possibly will drain the fluid out of the body by inserting a needle into the abdomen using a moderate suction and remove the fluid.

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Mesothelioma Lung Cancer Diagnosis Techniques - 2 - Lesson 97


This is the continuation of the lesson mesothelioma diagnosis using many techniques.
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA: MRI scans are in the largest part over and over again used to establish the degree of growth of cancer earlier than any aggressive handling of the cancer. For the reason that MRI scans make available images in numerous planes. MRI scans are better have the ability to make out tumors as contrasting to normal structures. MRI scan technique is useful in analyzing a candidate whether he needs a surgery or not. MRI scans are more precise than CT scans in reviewing growth of the lymph nodes in the mediastinum those are between the two lungs. MRI scans give an obvious diaphragmatic surface.

POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY (PET) SCAN TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:  Nowadays PET scan imaging is appropriate for the diagnosis and assessment of mesothelioma. At the same time as PET scans are high-priced than others and are not always covered under insurance, they are at this time well thought-out to be a good number diagnostic of tumor sites. PET scan imaging is the nearly all greater in assessing mesothelioma staging.

CT/PET TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:  CT/PET is an imaging technique useful for patients who possibly be candidates for hard-hitting aggressive multimodality treatment that includes surgery, chemotherapy with radiation. CT/PET is mostly useful in precise clinical staging of mesothelioma. Incorporated imaging of CT/PET gives a moderately original contrivance.

CT/PET scan imaging technique has developed into an imaging technique of preference to be decisive for surgical eligibility. By merging together the benefits of a CT and PET (anatomic and metabolic information) into a single scan, this know-how is precise to determine the stage of mesothelioma cancer. CT/PET imaging technique is also helpful in making out the most excellent treatment preference.

NEEDLE BIOPSY TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:  This is a technique is used to biopsy of a lung mass. This method is also useful in the removal and examination of the fluid adjoining the lungs. This is used for the diagnosis of mesothelioma because the biopsy trials are occasionally not enough as far as decisive of cell type such as epithelial, sarcomatous, or mixed. For the reason that of the changeableness of fluid assessment an open pleural biopsy may be suggested.

When doing a pleural biopsy procedure a small notch or opening through the chest wall is made by the surgeon and he inserts a slender tube called a thoracoscope into the chest between two ribs. The surgeon will afterward get rid of a sample of a tissue to appraise under a microscope. This microscopic assessment is done by a pathologist. When doing a peritoneal biopsy a small incision in the abdomen is made by the doctor and he inserts a tube called peritoneoscope into the abdominal cavity.

The doubt of mesothelioma created by the imaging tests is confirmed by the pathological examination. The tissue removed is set under the microscope and a pathologist formulates a state-of-the-art diagnosis. The pathologist's pathology report is the end of a process and send that report to the surgeon.

The symptoms will prove the diagnosis by the symptoms like the fluid upsurge in the pleura, shortness of breath, chest pain or pain or swelling in the abdomen. The physician will then possibly order an x-ray or a CT scan of the chest or abdomen. If additional examination is necessary, the following tests will be done after that.

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MESOTHELIOMA LUNG CANCER- DIAGNOSIS USING MANY TECHNIQUES-1-LESSON 96

The analysis for mesothelioma is commonly attained with cautious evaluation of findings of both clinical and radiological results as well as to an authenticated biopsy of tissue affected. An evaluation of medical history of the patient such as the past asbestos exposure if any is considered followed by a thorough physical examination of the patient. X-rays of the chest and abdomen is also done. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are also taken with a CT scan or MRI imaging studies with it. These procedures and tests may confirm the presence of mesothelioma factors in the body. A tissue biopsy will probably confirm mesothelioma. Imaging Techniques to diagnose Mesothelioma:There are more than a few imaging methods possibly will be helpful in the cases of presence of pleural effusion in cases who has the asbestos exposure occupationally or any other secondary exposures.At the same time as these imaging methods can be costly in reviewing the likelihood of mesothelioma, a state-of-the-art analysis of diagnosis is still the large part time and again created via fluid diagnosis or tissue biopsy.

X-RAY TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:  A chest x-ray is able to make known a fluid upsurge called pleural effusion, which is limited to whichever the right lung of 60% or of the left lung of 40% or possibly a mass possibly present too. The signs of aforementioned benign asbestos disease, for example pleural plaques or pleural calcification, or scarring by reason of asbestosis possibly will also be distinguished by x-ray films.

COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) SCAN TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:
Pleural effusion is also characterized using CT scans. This method also defines pleural calcification, pleural thickening, thickening of interlobular fissures of the lung, or potential invasion of mesothelioma to the chest wall. On the other hand a CT scan is not useful in making a distinction amid and changes connected with benign asbestos disease (pleural disease) or to make a distinction between adenocarcinoma of the lung metastasized to the pleura in opposition to mesothelioma.

This CT scan procedure is very useful in leading in the direction of a fine needle aspiration of any pleural masses for tissue biopsy.

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