CARCINOGENESIS: Carcin/o means cancer and -genesis means formation that is the conversion of a normal cell to a cancerous ell is called carcinogenesis. We can understand the process of malignant conversion of a cell on the basis of genetic material called DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid of the cell. Filaments of DNA in the cell nucleus form chromosomes, which are simply seen from time to time during the development series of the cell.
DNA has the power of not only in the production of new cells, but also the cell's capacity to breed. DNA is full of codes or programs called genes that guide the construction of new proteins called protein synthesis. When a cell splits, the DNA substance duplicates itself so that the identical DNA is passed to two new cells that are formed. This process is called mitosis or self-replication. Among cycles of replication, DNA doles out as the workstation program that guides the cell's vital functions.
DNA drives a molecular note to the cytoplasm of the cell so that proteins for example hormones and enzymes are able to be made for cellular growth. This program is sent out in the following line of attack. In the nucleus, a coded message is copied from DNA against one more molecule called RNA or ribonucleic acid. RNA passes through as of nucleus to cytoplasm hauling the message that guides the configuration of definite proteins in the cell.
When a cell develops into malignant, on the other hand, the method of mitosis concerned that the cancer cells duplicate almost constantly. Cancerous cells as well grow to be anaplastic that is their DNA stops producing the codes that let cells to carry on normal function as a substitute makes new signals that lead to movement of cells, invasion of nearby tissue, and metastasis.
Every one of these changes are characteristic of malignant cells and take place as the consequence of changes in DNA. The changes in DNA that result in malignancy occur as the result of environmental factors such as toxic chemicals, sunlight, a host of other sources of injury, and rarely, by certain viral and chemical infections. Once these changes are established in a cell they are passed on to its offspring cells. Such a take over of change in a cell is called a mutation. Cellular mutations consequently go in front to malignant development.
Even though nearly all DNA changes or mutations show the way to higher than normal rates of development. Some mutations found in cancer cells put a stop to the cells from dying. In modern years, scientists have recognized that some types of cancers have lost the normal outline that express aging or damaged cells to die. Normal cells undergo impulsive breakdown by a process known as apoptosis or programmed cell death. Cancer cells have lost this program and thus can live without end.
In the next lesson we will see about environmental agents of cancer production. Okay.
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