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Friday, January 30, 2009

Medical Transcription Exercises - Module-I-Part-1


1. The foundation of a word is known as the ____________________.
2. Word endings are called ____________________.
3. Word beginning are called ____________________.
4. A letter linking a suffix and a root, or linking two roots, in a term is called the ____________________.


1. cardi/o ____________________.
2. ade/o ____________________.
3. bi/o ____________________.
4. cerebr/o ____________________.
5. cephal/o ____________________.
6. arthr/o ____________________.
7. carcin/o ____________________.
8. cyst/o ____________________.
9. dermat/o ____________________.
10. derm/o ____________________.
11. encephal/o ____________________.
12. electr/o ____________________.


1. -oma ____________________.
2. -al ____________________.
3. –itis ____________________.
4. –logy ____________________.
5. –scopy ____________________.
6. –ic ____________________.
7. –gram ____________________.
8. –opsy ____________________.


1. cerebral ____________________.
2. biopsy ____________________.
3. adenitis ____________________.
4. cephalic ____________________.
5. carcinoma ____________________.
6. cystoscopy ____________________.
7. electrocardiogram ____________________.
8. cardiology ____________________.
9. electroencephalogram ____________________.
10. dermatitis ____________________.
11. arthroscropy ____________________.
12. cytology ____________________.


1. erythro/o ____________________.
2. enter/o ____________________.
3. gastr/o ____________________.
4. gnos/o ____________________.
5. hemat/o ____________________.
6. cis/o ____________________.
7. nephr/o ____________________.
8. leuk/o ____________________.
9. iatr/o ____________________.
10. hepat/o ____________________.
11. neur/o ____________________.
12. gynec/o ____________________.
If you have any queries, please write your queries to to get email posting will continue this test paper...
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Antigens and Antibodies - Lesson 48

An antigen is a substance, usually foreign to the body (such as a poison, virus, or bacterium), that stimulates the production of antibodies. Antibodies are protein substances made by white blood cells in response to the presence of foreign antigens. For example, the flu virus (antigen) enters the body, causing the production of antibodies in the bloodstream. These antibodies will then attach to and destroy the antigens (viruses) that produced them. The reaction between an antigen and an antibody is called an immune reaction (immune/o means protection).

Another example of an antigen-antibody in the Rh condition. A person who is Rh+ has a protein coating (antigen) on his or her red blood cells (RBCs). This antigen factor is something that the person is born with and is normal for him or her. A person who is Rh- has normal RBCs as well, but they do not carry the Rh factor antigen.

If an Rh- woman and Rh+ man conceive an embryo, the embryo may be Rh- or Rh+. A dangerous condition arises only when the embryo is Rh+, during delivery of the first Rh+ baby, some of the baby’s blood cells containing antigens may escape into the mother’s bloodstream. This sensitizes the mother so that she produces a low level of antibodies to the Rh+ antigen. Because this occurs at delivery, the first baby is generally not affected and is normal at birth. Sensitization can also occur after a miscarriage or an abortion.

Difficulties arise with the second Rh+ pregnancy. If the embryo is Rh+ again, during pregnancy the mother’s acquired antibodies will enter the infant’s bloodstream and attack the infant’s RBCs (Rh+). The infant’s RBCs are destroyed, and the infant attempts to compensate for this loss of cells by making new immature RBCs (erythroblasts). The infant is born with a condition known as erythroblastosis fetalis or hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). One of the clinical symptoms of erythroblastosis fetalis is jaundice, or yellow skin pigmentation. The jaundice results from the excessive destruction of RBCs, which causes a substance called bilirubin (chemical pigment produced when hemoglobin from the RBCs is broken down) to accumulate in the blood.

To prevent HDN: Rh immunoglobulin is given to the mother at 28 weeks of pregnancy and within 72 hours after each Rh delivery or after every abortion and miscarriage if the father is Rh+. The globulin binds to Rh cells that have escaped into the mother’s circulation, and thus prevents the mother from making Rh+ antibodies. This ensures that future babies will not develop HDN.

Acromegaly - Lesson 47

As an medical transcription learner, you must know about more disease conditions and its causes, so I am trying to give you appendices of terms to improve your knowledge. In this lesson, we will learn what is acromegaly...ok

Acromegaly is an example of an endocrine disorder. The pituitary gland attached to the base of the brain produces an excessive amount of growth hormone after the completion of puberty. So, a person with Acromegaly is of abnormal height. Because the long bones have stopped growth after puberty, but has an abnormally large growth of bones and tissue in the hands, feet, and face. High levels of growth hormone before completion of puberty produce excessive growth of long bones (gigantism) as well as Acromegaly.

Acromegaly (from Greek akros "extreme" or "extremities" and megalos "large" - extremities enlargement) is a syndrome that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone (hGH) after epiphyseal plate closure. A number of disorders may affect the pituitary to create this circumstance, although most commonly it involves a GH producing tumor derived from a distinct type of cells (somatotrophs) and called pituitary adenoma.

Acromegaly most commonly affects adults in middle age, and can result in severe disfigurement, serious complicating conditions, and premature death if unchecked. Because of its insidious pathogenesis and slow progression, the disease is hard to diagnose in the early stages and is frequently missed for many years, when changes in external features, especially of the face, become noticeable.


Facial aspect of a patient with acromegaly. The nose is widened and thickened, the cheekbones are obvious, the forehead bulges, the lips are thick and the facial lines are marked. The forehead and overlying skin is thickened, sometimes leading to frontal bossing.

As compared with the hand of a normal person (left), the hand of a patient with acromegaly (right) is enlarged, the fingers are widened, thickened and stubby, and the soft tissue is thickened.

Mandibular overgrowth leads to prognathism, maxillary widening, teeth separation and jaw malocclusion.
Features that result from high level of hGH or expanding tumor include:
Soft tissue swelling visibly resulting in enlargement of the hands, feet, nose, lips and ears, and a general thickening of the skin
Soft tissue swelling of internal organs, notably the heart with attendant weakening of its muscularity, and the kidneys, also the vocal cords resulting in a characteristic thick, deep voice and slowing of speech
Generalized expansion of the skull at the fontanelle
Pronounced brow protrusion, often with ocular distension
Pronounced lower jaw protrusion with attendant macroglossia (enlargement of the tongue) and teeth gapping.


In over 90 percent of acromegaly patients, the overproduction of growth hormones is caused by a benign tumor of the pituitary gland, called an adenoma. These tumors produce excess growth hormones and, as they expand, compress surrounding brain tissues, such as the optic nerves. This expansion causes the headaches and visual disturbances that often accompany acromegaly. In addition, compression of the surrounding normal pituitary tissue can alter production of other hormones, leading to changes in menstruation and breast discharge in women and impotence in men because of reduced testosterone production.


The goals of treatment are to reduce GH production to normal levels, to relieve the pressure that the growing pituitary tumor exerts on the surrounding brain areas, to preserve normal pituitary function, and to reverse or ameliorate the symptoms of acromegaly. Currently, treatment options include surgical removal of the tumor, drug therapy, and radiation therapy of the pituitary.

Understand..we will now move to the next lesson of appendices about SPLENOMEGALY..ok

C0me 0n...

To go to the next lesson please click the link below:

Sunday, January 25, 2009

Important Prefixes - Lesson 46


1. a-, an- means no, not, without
apnea-no breathing
anoxia-without oxygen

2. ab- means away from
abnormal-away from normal

3. ad- means toward
adduction-a muscle draws the body towards the median plane

4. ana- means up, apart
anabolism-process of burning energy up

5. ante-before, forward
antecebum-before meals
anteflexion-bending forward
antepartum-before delivery

6. anti- means against
antisepsis- against infection

7. auto- means self, own
autoimmune-immune protection
8. bi- means two
bifurcation-dividing into two
bilateral-two sides

9. brady- means slow
bradycardia-slow heart beat

10. cata- means down
catabolism- process of burning energy down

11. con- means with, together
congenital anomaly-abnormal condition of childs
connective-to connect

12. contra- means against, opposite
contraindication-against indication
contralateral-opposite sides

13. de- means down, lack of
dehydration-lack of water in the body

14. dia- means through, complete
diameter-complete measurement

15. dys- means bad, painful, difficult, abnormal
dyspnea-difficult breathing

16. ec-, ecto- means out, outside
ectopic pregnancy-outside the uterus

17. en-, endo- means in, within
endotracheal-within the trachea
endocardium-within the heart

18. epi- means upon, on, above
epithelium-above the skin

19. eu- means good, normal
euthyoid-normal thyroid

20. ex- means out, away from
exophthalmia-bulging eyes

21. hemi- means half
hemiglossectomy-removal of half of the tongue

22. hyper- means excessive, above
hyperplasia-excessive development of cell numbers
hypertrophy-increase in the size of the cells
hyperglycemia-excessive sugar

23. hypo- means deficient, under
hypodermic-below the skin
hypoglycemia-less sugar

24. in- means not
insomnia-inability to sleeping

25. in- means into
incision-cut into

26. infra- means beneath
infracostal-sub costal or beneath the ribs

27. inter- means between
intercostal-in between the ribs

28. intra- means into, within
intravenous-into the vein

29. macro- means large
macrocephalic-pertaining to large head

30. mal- means bad
malnutrition-bad nutrition
malignant-tumor that spreads
malaise-vague sick feeling

31. meta- means change, beyond
metamorphosis-change in the form and functions

32. micro- means small
microscope-instrument to view small

33. neo- means new
neoplasm-new growth
neonatal-new born

34. pan- means all
pancytopenia-deficiency of all cells

35. para- means near, beside, abnormal
parathyroid glands-near thyroid glands

36. per- means through
percutaneous-through the skin

37. peri- means surrounding
pericardium-outer layer of the heart

38. poly- means many, much
polymorphonuclear-cell having many nuclei of many forms and structures

39. post- means after, behind
postmortem-viewing of a dead tissue
postnatal-before birth

40. pre- means before, in front of
precancerous-before cancer

41. pro- means before, forward
prodrome-early symptoms of a disease
prolapse-drooping or coming out

42. pseudo- means false
pseudocyesis-false pregnancy

43. re- means back, again
relapse-return of the disease
remission-symptoms lessen
recombinant DNA-one that inherits one gene

44. retro- means behind, backward
retroperitoneal-pertaining to backside of the pericardium
retroflexion-bending back

45. sub- means under
subcutaneous-under the skin

46. syn-, sym- means together, with
syndactyly-fingers and toes club together
synthesis-building up or putting together
syndrome-group of symptoms
symbiosis-association of two or more species for mutual benefit
symphysis-meeting point or union point

47. tachy- means fast
tachypnea-fast breathing

48. trans- means across, through
transfusion-transfer of one to another
transurethral-across the urethra

49. ultra- means beyond, excess
ultrasonography-measurement of deep structures using sound waves

50. uni- means one

To go to the next lesson please click the link below

Important Combining Forms and Suffixes Lesson 45


1. carp/o means wrist bones.

2. cib/o means meals

3. cis/o means to cut

4. cost/o means rib

5. cutane/o means skin

6. dactyl/o means fingers, toes

7. duct/o means to lead, carry

8. flex/o means to bend

9. furc/o means forking, branching

10. glosso/o means tongue

11. glyco/o means sugar

12. immun/o means protection

13. morph/o means shape, form

14. mort/o means death

15. nat/i means birth

16. nect/o means to bind, tie, connect

17. norm/o means rule, order

18. ox/o means oxygen

19. seps/o means infection

20. somn/o means sleep

21. son/o means sound
22. the/o means to put, place

23. thyr/o means shield

24. top/o means place, position, location

25. tox/o means poison

26. trache/o means windpipe, trachea

27. urethr/o means urethra


1. –blast means embryonic, immature cells

2. –cyesis means pregnancy

3. –drome means to run

4. –fusion means to pour

5. –gen means producing

6. –lapse means to slide, tall, sag

7. –lysis means breakdown, separation, loosening

8. –meter means to measure

9. –mission means to send

10. –or means one who

11. –partum means birth, labor

12. –phoria means to bear, carry, feeling (mental state)

13. –physis means to grow

14. –plasia means development, formation

15. –plasm means development, formation

16. –pnea means breathing

17. –ptosis means droop, sag, prolapse

18. –rrhea means flow, discharge

19. –stasis means to stop, control

20. –trophy means nourishment, development

In the next lesson we will see more about more new important prefixes..ok

Come on...

To go to the next lesson please click the link below

Tonsillits - Lesson 45

Tonsils are lymphatic tissue in the throat. They contain white blood cells (lymphocytes) and function to filter and fight bacteria, but they can also become infected and inflamed. Streptococcal infection of the throat can cause tonsillitis, which leads to the procedure of tonsillectomy.

Tonsillitis is an infection of the tonsils and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever.

There are 3 main types of tonsillitis: acute, subacute and chronic. Acute tonsillitis can either be bacterial or viral in origin. Subacute tonsillitis is caused by the bacterium Actinomyces. Chronic tonsillitis, which can last for long periods if not treated, is almost always bacterial.

Symptoms of tonsillitis include a severe sore throat (which may be experienced as referred pain to the ears), painful/difficult swallowing, crouch coughing, headache, fever and chills. Tonsillitis is characterized by signs of red, swollen tonsils which may have a purulent exudativ coating of white patches (i.e. pus). There may be enlarged and tender neck cervical lymph nodes.

Tonsillitis may be caused by Group A streptococcal bacteria, resulting in strep throat. Viral tonsillitis may be caused by numerous viruses such as the Epstein-Barr virus (the cause of infectious mononucleosis) or the Adenovirus.

Sometimes, tonsillitis is caused by a superinfection of spirochaeta and treponema, in this case called Vincent's angina or Plaut-Vincent angina.

Although tonsillitis is associated with infection, it is currently unknown whether the swelling and other symptoms are caused by the infectious agents themselves, or by the host immune response to these agents. Tonsillitis may be a result of aberrant immune responses to the normal bacterial flora of the nasopharynx.

Treatments of tonsillitis consist of pain management medications and lozenges. If the tonsillitis is caused by bacteria, then antibiotics are prescribed, with penicillin being most commonly used. Erythromycin is used for patients allergic to penicillin.

In many cases of tonsillitis, the pain caused by the inflamed tonsils warrants the prescription of topical anesthetics for temporary relief. Viscous lidocaine solutions are often prescribed for this purpose. Ibuprofen or other analgesics can help to decrease the edema and inflammation, which will ease the pain and allow the patient to swallow liquids sooner.

When tonsillitis is caused by a virus, the length of illness depends on which virus is involved. Usually, a complete recovery is made within one week; however, some rare infections may last for up to two weeks. Chronic cases may indicate tonsillectomy (surgical removal of tonsils) as a choice for treatment. Additionally, gargling with a solution of warm water and salt may reduce pain and swelling.

In the next lesson we will see more important combining forms and suffixes..ok

Come on...

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.

Ischemia - Lesson 43

In medicine, ischemia is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. It may also be spelled ischaemia or ischæmia.

Ischemia- Isch/o means hold back, -emia means blood from a part of the body. A tissue that becomes ischemic loses its normal flow of blood and becomes deprived of oxygen. The ischemia can be caused by mechanical injury to a blood vessel, by blood clots lodging in a vessel, or by the gradual closing off (occlusion) of a vessel owing to of fatty material.

Rather than in hypoxia (less oxygen), a more general term denoting a shortage of oxygen (usually a result of lack of oxygen in the air being breathed), ischemia is an absolute or relative shortage of the blood supply to an organ. Relative shortage means the mismatch of blood supply (oxygen delivery) and blood request for adequate oxygenation of tissue. Ischemia results in tissue damage because of a lack of oxygen and nutrients. Ultimately, this causes great damage because of a buildup of metabolic wastes.

Ischemia can also be described as an inadequate flow of blood to a part of the body, caused by constriction or blockage of the blood vessels supplying it. Ischemia of heart muscle produces angina pectoris.

This can be due to
1. Tachycardia (abnormally rapid beating of the heart)
2. Atherosclerosis (lipid-laden plaques obstructing the lumen of arteries)
3. Hypotension (low blood pressure, e.g. in septic shock, heart failure)
4. Thromboembolism (blood clots)
5. Outside compression of a blood vessel, e.g. by a tumor
6. Embolism (foreign bodies in the circulation, e.g. amniotic fluid embolism)
7. Sickle cell disease (abnormally shaped hemoglobin)

Since oxygen is mainly bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells, insufficient blood supply causes tissue to become hypoxic, or, if no oxygen is supplied at all, anoxic. This can cause necrosis (i.e. cell death). In very aerobic tissues such as heart and brain, at body temperature necrosis due to ischemia usually takes about 3-4 hours before becoming irreversible. This and typically some collateral circulation to the ischemic area accounts for the efficacy of "clot-buster" drugs such as Alteplase, given for stroke and heart attack within this time period. However, complete cessation of oxygenation of such organs for more than 20 minutes typically results in irreversible damage.
Ischemia is a feature of heart diseases, transient ischemic attacks, cerebrovascular accidents, ruptured arteriovenous malformations, and peripheral artery occlusive disease. The heart, the kidneys, and the brain are among the organs that are the most sensitive to inadequate blood supply. Ischemia in brain tissue, for example due to stroke or head injury, causes a process called the ischemic cascade to be unleashed, in which proteolytic enzymes, reactive oxygen species, and other harmful chemicals damage and may ultimately kill brain tissue.
Restoration of blood flow after a period of ischemia can actually be more damaging than the ischemia. Reintroduction of oxygen causes a greater production of damaging free radicals, resulting in reperfusion injury. With reperfusion injury, necrosis can be greatly accelerated.

In the next lesson we will learn something about tonsillitis..ok

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Monday, January 19, 2009

Anemia - Lesson 42

Anemia means less number of erythrocytes or red blood cells in blood. qualitative or quantitative deficiency of hemoglobin, a molecule found inside red blood cells (RBCs). Since hemoglobin normally carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, anemia leads to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in organs. Since all human cells depend on oxygen for survival, varying degrees of anemia can have a wide range of clinical consequences. Anemia is also caused by a lack of iron in the body.

The three main classes of anemia include excessive blood loss (acutely such as a hemorrhage or chronically through low-volume loss), excessive blood cell destruction (hemolysis) or deficient red blood cell production (ineffective hematopoiesis).

Anemia is the most common disorder of the blood. There are several kinds of anemia, produced by a variety of underlying causes. Anemia can be classified in a variety of ways, based on the morphology of RBCs, underlying etiologic mechanisms, and discernible clinical spectra, to mention a few.

Anemia goes undetected in many people, and symptoms can be small and vague. Most commonly, people with anemia report a feeling of weakness or fatigue in general or during exercise, general malaise and sometimes poor concentration. People with more severe anemia often report dyspnea (shortness of breath) on exertion. Very severe anemia prompts the body to compensate by increasing cardiac output, leading to palpitations and sweatiness, and to heart failure.

Pallor (pale skin, mucosal linings and nail beds) is often a useful diagnostic sign in moderate or severe anemia, but it is not always apparent. Other useful signs are cheilosis and koilonychia.
Pica, the consumption of non-food based items such as dirt, paper, wax, grass, ice, and hair, may be a symptom of iron deficiency, although it occurs often in those who have normal levels of hemoglobin.Chronic anemia may result in behavioral disturbances in children as a direct result of impaired neurological development in infants, and reduced scholastic performance in children of school age.

1. Microcytic anemia-Microcytic anemia is primarily a result of hemoglobin synthesis failure/insufficiency. The kinds of this type of anemia are:

a. iron deficiency anemia.
b. sideroblastic anemia
c. thalassemia.

2. Macrocytic anemia or Megaloblastic anemia- the most common cause of macrocytic anemia, is due to a deficiency of either vitamin B12, folic acid or both. The kinds of this type of anemia are:
a. Pernicious anemia.

3. Normocytic anemia-Normocytic anaemia occurs when the overall hemoglobin levels are always decreased, but the red blood cell size (Mean corpuscular volume-MCV) remains normal.
The kinds of this type of anemia are:
a. aplastic anemia.
b. hemolytic anemia.
4. Dimorphic anemia-When two causes of anemia act simultaneously, e.g., macrocytic hypochromic, due to hookworm infestation leading to deficiency of both iron and vitamin B12 or folic acid or following a blood transfusion more than one abnormality of red cell indices may be seen. Evidence for multiple causes appears with an elevated RBC distribution width (RDW), which suggests a wider-than-normal range of red cell sizes
5. Heinz body anemia-Heinz bodies form in the cytoplasm of RBCs and appear like small dark dots under the microscope. There are many causes of Heinz body anaemia, and some forms can be drug induced. It is triggered in cats by eating onions or acetaminophen (Tylenol). It can be triggered in dogs by ingesting onions or zinc, and in horses by ingesting dry red maple leaves

Generally oral supplement and blood transfusions are the treatment for anemia.
Now we have seen briefly about anemia. As a medical transcription learner one should know about this compulsorily.

In the next lesson we will see about ischemia..ok

Come on...

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.

Blood Cells Lesson 41

Our bright red blood contains seven types of cells, such as:

I. Red blood cells.

II. White blood cells or leukocytes.

III. Thrombocytes or platelets (clotting cells).

We will see importance of each type of cell one by one now.

I. Red blood cells or Erythrocytes: These cells are made in the bone marrow (soft tissue in the center of certain bones) and are necessary to carry oxygen from the lungs through the blood to all body cells. The oxygen is then used up by body cells in the process of converting food to energy (catabolism). Hemoglobin (globin is a protein) is an important protein in erythrocytes that carries the oxygen through the bloodstream.

II. White Blood Cells or Leukocytes: Leukocytes are of two types.

a). Granulocytes

b). Agranulocytes

Granulocyes- Granulocytes-these cells containing dark-staining granules in their cytoplasm, and these cells are formed in bone marrow. They are further divided into three types of cells such as

A). Eosinophils-these cells granules of stain red (eosin/o means rosy) with acid stain) are thought to be active and elevated in allergic conditions such as asthma. About 3% of leukocytes are Eosinophils.

B). Basophils-these cells containing granules staining blue with basic (bas/o means basic) stain). The function of basophils is not clear, but they play a role in inflammation. Less than 1% of leukocytes are basophils.

C). Neutrophils-these cells containing granules staining blue and red (purple) with neutral stain) are important disease-fighting cells. They are called phagocytes (phag/o means eating or swallowing) because they engulf and digest bacteria like tiny Pac men. They are most numerous disease-fighting soldiers, and are also called as polymorphonuclear leukocytes because of their nucleus, which is multilobed (poly means many, moroph/o means shape). Almost 60% of leukocytes are neutrophils.

Agranulocytes are cells without dark-staining granules in cytoplasm) and are produced by lymph nodes and spleen. They divided into two types of cells such as:

A). Lymphocytes-these cells (lymph cells) fight disease by producing antibodies and thus destroying foreign cells. They may also attach directly to foreign cells and destroy them. Two types of lymphocytes are T cells and B cells. About 32% of leukocytes are lymphocytes.

B). Monocytes-these cells with one (mono means one) very large nucleus) engulf and destroy cellular debris after neutrophils have attacked foreign cells. Monocytes leave the bloodstream and enter tissues (such as lung and liver) to become macrophages, which are large phagocytes. Monocytes make up about 4% of all leukocytes.

III. Thrombocytes or Platelets-These cells are tiny fragments of blood cells are formed in bone marrow and are necessary for blood clotting.

We have seen something about blood cells now. In the next lesson we will see about anemia, ok

Come on…

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Saturday, January 17, 2009


We start this lesson with a tip, i.e. words ending in -us commonly form their plural by dropping the -us and adding -i. Thus, nucleus becomes nuclei and coccus becomes cocci (KOK-si).

A Streptococcus is a beery-shaped bacterium that grows in twisted chains. One group of streptococci are responsible for such conditions as "strep" throat, tonsilitis, rheumatic fever, and certain kidney ailments, whereas another group cause infections in teeth, in the sinuses (cavities) of nose and face, and sometimes in the valves of the heart.

The genus streptococcus is comprised of gram-positive, microaerophilic cocci (round), which are not motile and occur in chains or pairs. The genus is defined by a combination of antigenic, hemolytic, and physiological characteristics into groups a, b, c, d, f, and g. groups a and d can be transmitted to humans via food.

A Staphylococcus is a bacterium that grows in small clusters, like grapes. Staphylococcal lesions may be external (skin abscesss, boils, and styes) or internal (abscesses in bone and kidney). (An abscess is a collection of pus, white cells, and protein that is present at the site of infection).

The Staphylococcus is a genus of spherical bacteria of the family micrococcaceae, the best known species of which are universally present in great numbers on the mucous membranes and skin of humans and other warm-blooded animals. The term staphylococcus, generally used for all the species, refers to the cells' habit of aggregating in grapelike clusters.

In the next lesson, we will learn about BLOOD CELLS..ok

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To go to the next lesson please click the link below.

Friday, January 16, 2009


What is amniocentesis and what is amniotic fluid?
The amnion is the sac (membrane) which surrounds the embryo (an embryo is the fetus of 8th
week age) in the uterus. A fluid accumulates within this sac, which is called amniotic
fluid and can be withdrawn through a process called amniocentesis. This can be done after
the fetus growth at the stage of 13th week to analyze the fetus condition. In this process,
after the fluid withdrawal, the fluid will be cultured, and the cells of the fetus in the
fluid are grown, and then analyzed by microscopic process.

What is the importance of amniocentesis in child birth?
Using this method a karyotype or classification of chromosomes are done to analyze the
chromosomes in those cells. The presence of high levels of certain chemicals may indicate
defects if any in the developing spinal cord and spinal column of the fetus.

How is amniocentesis is performed?
Amniocentesis (also referred to as amniotic fluid test or AFT), is a medical procedure used
in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections [1], in which a
small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is extracted from the amnion
or amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus, and the fetal DNA is examined for genetic

Before the actual procedure, a local anesthetic is sometimes given to relieve the pain when
inserting the needle used to withdraw the fluid. A needle is usually inserted through the
mother's abdominal wall or at the end of the vagina, and through the wall of the uterus into
the amniotic sac. With assistance from ultrasound, a physician aims towards an area of the
sac that is away from the fetus and extracts a small amount of amniotic fluid for
testing.The puncture heals, and the amniotic sac replenishes the liquid over a day or so.
After the amniotic fluid is extracted, the fetal cells are separated from it using a
centrifuge, and the fetal chromosomes are examined for abnormalities. Various genetic
testing may be performed, but the three most common abnormalities tested for are Down
syndrome, Trisomy 18 and spina bifida. Amniocentesis can be performed as soon as sufficient
amniotic fluid surrounds the fetus to allow a sample to be recovered relatively safely,
usually no earlier than the 14th or 15th week of pregnancy. Often, genetic counseling is
offered in conjunction with amniocentesis.

What is the risk of this procedure?

The amniotic sac may get infected while using the needle to withdraw fluid from it, and if
the puncture made by the needle failed, this also can cause infection or leakage of amniotic
fluid, and may lead to miscarriage in serious conditions. The other possible complications
are preterm labor and delivery, respiratory distress, postural deformities, fetal trauma and
alloimmunisation (rhesus disease).

In the series of learning some important terms under the heading appendices, we will learn
next about streptococcus and staphylococcus..ok

Come on...

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.

Thursday, January 15, 2009


TYPES OF HERNIAS:  INGUINAL HERNIA: This type of hernia occurs in the groin (the area between the abdomen and thigh). It is called inguinal

because the intestines push through a weak spot in the inguinal canal, which is a triangle-shaped opening between layers of abdominal muscle near the groin. Obesity, pregnancy, heavy lifting, and straining to pass stool can cause the intestine to push against the inguinal canal.

Symptoms of inguinal hernia: These may include a lump in the groin near the thigh, pain in the groin, and in severe cases, partial or complete blockage of the intestine. The doctor diagnoses hernia by doing a physical exam and by taking X-rays and blood tests to check for blockage in the intestine.

Treatment: Repair of inguinal hernias done by using laparoscopic techniques.

HIATAL HERNIA (HIATUS HERNIA): A hiatal hernia develops in a small opening in the diaphragm that allows the upper part of the stomach to move up into the chest. It causes heartburn from the stomach acid that flows back up through the opening.

EPIGASTRIC HERNIA: This type of hernia occurs as a result of a weakness in the muscles of the upper-middle abdomen, above the navel. Men are about three times more likely to have an epigastric hernia than women, and the majority occur in people between 20 and 50 years of age.

UMBILICAL HERNIA: Another natural area of weakness in the abdomen is the navel, which is made up of tissue that is thinner than that in the rest of the abdomen. These hernias can occur in babies, children and adults.

FEMORAL HERNIA: A femoral hernia occurs in the area between the abdomen and the thigh, and appears as a bulge on the upper thigh. This type of hernia is more common in women than men.

INCISIONAL HERNIA: A type of hernia called incisional can occur at the site of an incision from a previous surgery. The fat or tissue pushes through a weakness created by the surgical scar. An incisional hernia can occur months or years after the initial surgery.

TREATMENT FOR HERNIA: For small, non-strangulated and non-incarcerated hernias, various supports and trusses may offer temporary, symptomatic relief. However, the best treatment is herniorrhaphy (surgical closure or repair of the muscle wall through which the hernia protrudes).

When the weakened area is very large, some strong synthetic material may be sewn over the defect to reinforce the weak area. Postoperative care involves protecting the patient from respiratory infections that might cause coughing or sneezing, which would strain the suture line. Recovery is usually quick and complete.

In the next lesson we will see about amniocentesis..ok

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In this lesson we will study about hernia in detail. This term is used often in medical transcription while doing files. 
HERNIA:  Hernia is a protrusion or bulging forth, of an organ or the muscular wall of an organ through the cavity that normally contains it. The hernia has three parts: the orifice through which it herniates, the hernial sac, and its contents.

1. Congenital or acquired: congenital hernias occur prenatally or in the first year(s) of life, and are caused by a congenital defect, whereas acquired hernias develop later on in life. However, this may be on the basis of a locus minoris resistentiae (Lat. place of least resistance) that is congenital, but only becomes symptomatic later in life, when degeneration and increased stress (for example, increased abdominal pressure from coughing in COPD) provoke the hernia.

2. Complete or incomplete: for example, the stomach may partially herniate into the chest, or completely.
3. Internal or external: external ones herniate to the outside world, whereas internal hernias protrude from their normal compartment to another (for example, mesenteric hernias).
4. Intraparietal hernia: hernia that does not reach all the way to the subcutis, but only to the musculoaponeurotic layer. An example is a Spigelian hernia. Intraparietal hernias may produce less obvious bulging, and may be less easily detected on clinical examination.

5. Bilateral: in this case, simultaneous repair may be considered, sometimes even with a giant prosthetic reinforcement.

6. Irreducible (also known as incarcerated): the hernial contents cannot be returned to their normal site with simple manipulation. If irreducible, hernias can develop several complications (hence, they can be complicated or uncomplicated):

7. Strangulation: pressure on the hernial contents may compromise blood supply (especially veins, with their low pressure, are sensitive, and venous congestion often results) and cause ischemia, and later necrosis and gangrene, which may become fatal.

8. Obstruction: for example, when a part of the bowel herniates, bowel contents can no longer pass the obstruction. This results in cramps, and later on vomiting, ileus, absence of flatus and absence of defecation. These signs mandate urgent surgery.

9. Dysfunction: another complication arises when the herniated organ itself, or surrounding organs start dysfunctioning (for example, sliding hernia of the stomach causing heartburn, lumbar disc hernia causing sciatic nerve pain, etc.).

This lesson continues in the next lesson..ok

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We now see some shorter suffixes used in medical language, which will be useful in medical transcription.

1. -er means one who-
radiographer-person who record x-rays

2. -ia means condition
leukemia-condition of increased WBC of cancerous nature
pneumonia-disease condition of lungs

3. -ist means one who specializes in
cardiologist-one who specializes in heart diseases
neurologist-one who specializes in nerve diseases

4. -ole means little, small
arteriole-small or little arteries

5. -ule means little, small
venule-small or little vein

6. -um, -ium means structure, tissue, thing
pericardium-strucutre surrounding the heart

7. -y means condition or process
cardiomyopathy-disease condition of heart

Now we see some adjective suffixes used in medical language useful for medical transcription.

1. -ac, -iac means pertaining to
cardiac-pertaining to heart

2. -al means pertaining to
peritoneal-pertaining to pericardium
pleural-pertaining to pleura

3. -ar means pertaining to
tonsillar-pertaining to tonsills

4. -ary means pertaining to
pulmonary-pertaining to lungs
axillary-pertaining to armpits

5. -eal means pertaining to
laryngeal-pertaining to larynx

6. -ic, -ical means pertaining to
cardiac-pertaining to heart
chronic-pertaining to time

7. -oid means resembling
adenoids-resembling the glands
epidermoid-resembling epidermis

8. -ose means pertaining to, full of
adipose-pertaining to full of fat

9. -ous means pertaining to
mucous-pertaining to mucus in the sticky condition

10. -tic means pertaining to
necrotic-pertaining to death of a cell or tissue

In the next lesson, we will study more important terms and disease conditions useful in medical transcription..ok

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Wednesday, January 14, 2009


1. –pathy means disease condition-
cardiomyopathy-disease condition of the heart muscles

2. –penia means deficiency
erythropenia-deficiency or RBC

3. –phobia means fear
acrophobia-fear of heights
agoraphobia- fear of crowds and market place

4. –plasia means development, formation, growth
achondroplasia-malformation of cartilage of bones

5. –plasty means surgical repair
angioplasty-surgical repair in the blood vessels

6. –ptosis means drooping, sagging
blepharoptosis-sagging or falling of the eyelids

7. scleosis means hardening
arteriosclerosis-hardening of blood vessels or arteries

8. –scope means instrument for visual examination
laparascope-instrument for viewing abdomen

9. –scopy means process of visual examination
laparoscrope-process of visual examination of the abdomen

10. –stasis means stopping, controlling
metastasis-spreading beyond control

11. –stomy means opening to form a mouth
tracheostomy-forming an opening in the windpipe

12. –therapy means treatment
hydrotherapy-treatment with water
chemotherapy-treatment with drugs
radiotherapy-treatment with x-rays

13. –tomy means incision, to cut into
laparotomy-incision into the abdomen

14. –trophy means nourishment, development
hypertrophy-excessive development
atrophy-no development
In the next lesson we will see about shorter suffixes and adjective suffixes..ok

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Tuesday, January 13, 2009


Suffix or word ending is of two types i.e. NOUN SUFFIXES and ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES. Now we will the list of each one by one. These suffixes are used most common in medical transcription.

Now we will see NOUN SUFFIXES.

1. -algia means pain- arthralgia-pain in the joints
neuralgia-pain the nerves
otalgia-pain in the ear
myalgia-pain in the muscle

2. -cele means hernia
rectocele-hernia in the rectum (for female)
cystocele-hernia in the bladder

3. -centesis means surgical puncture to remove fluid
thoracocentesis-puncture the chest to remove fluid
amniocentesis-puncture of the abdomen (also known as paracentesis)

4. -coccus means berry-shaped
streptococcus-a bacteria looked like twisted chain
staphylococci-cluster shaped bacteria

5. -dynia means pain
pleurodynia-pain of chest

6. -ectomy means excision, removal, resection
laryngectomy-removal of voice box
mastectomy-removal of breast

7. -emia means blood condition
anemia-condition of the RBC in blood
ischemia-obstruction of blood flow due to the removing of blood vessels

8. -genesis means condition of producing, forming
carcinogenesis-producing cancer
angiogenesis-development of new blood vessels

9. -genic means pertaining to, producing
carcinogenic-pertaining to producing cancer

10. -gram means record
electroencephalogram-record of brain waves

11. -graph means instrument for recording

12. -graphy means process of recording

13. -itis means inflammation
bronchitis-inflammation of bronchial tubes
tonsilitis-inflammation of tonsils
blepharitis-inflammation of eyelids

14. -logy means study of
psychology-study of mind
ophthalmology-study of eyes

15. -lysis means breakdown, destruction, separation
hemolysis-breakdown of blood cells

16. -malacia means softening
osteomalacia-softening of bones
chondromalacia-softening of cartilage

17. -megaly means enlargement
acromegaly-enlargement of abnormal growth of extremities
splenomegaly-enlargement of spleen

18. -oma means tumor, mass, collection of fluid
myoma-tumor of muscles
myeloma-tumor of bone marrow
hematoma-mass of blood in a cavity

19. -opsy means to view
biopsy-to view live cells
autopsy-to view dead cells

20. -osis means condition, usually abnormal
necrosis-condition of dead tissue
hydronephrosis-abnormal condition of kidney
lymphocytosis-abnormal increase in the lymph cells

Next lesson is the continuation of this lesson...ok.

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Monday, January 12, 2009


In this lesson we will just go through the most commonly using combining form in medical transcription while doing live files

1. abdomin/o means adbomen

2. acr/o - extremities, top, extreme point

3. acu/o - sharp, severe, sudden

4. aden/o - gland

5. agor/o - market place

6. amni/o - amnion (a sac surrounding the embryo in the uterus)

7. angi/o - vessel

8. arteri/o - artery

9. arthr/o - joint

10. axill/o - armpit

11. blephar/o - eyelid

12. bronch/o - bronchial tubes (two tubes one on the right and one on the left that branch from the trachea to enter into lungs)

13. carcin/o - cancer

14. chem/o - drug, chemical

15. chondr/o - cartilage

16. chron/o - time

17. col/o - colon (large intestine)

18. cyst/o - urinary bladder

19. encephal/o - brain

20. hydr/o - water, fluid

21. inguin/o - groin

22. isch/o - to hold back

23. lapar/o - abdomen, abdominal wall

24. laryng/o - larynx (voice box)

25. lymph/o - lymph (a clear fluid that bathes tissue spaces and is contained in special lymph vessels and nodes throughout the body)

26. mamm/o - breast

27. mast/o - breast

28. morph/o - shape, form

29. myel/o - spinal cord, bone marrow (we should understand the context while we use this)

30. my/o - muscle

31. necr/o - death (of cells or whole body)

32. nephr/o - kidney

33. neur/o - nerve

34. ophthalm/o - eye

35. oste/o - bone

36. ot/o - ear

37. path/o - disease

38. peritone/o - peritoneum

39. phag/o - to eat, swallow

40. plas/o - formation, development

41. pleur/o - pleura (membranes surrounding lungs and adjacent to chest wall muscles)

42. pneum/o - lungs

43. pulmon/o - lungs

44. rect/o - rectum

45. ren/o - kidney

46. sarc/o - flesh

47. splen/o - spleen

48. staphyl/o - clusters

49. strept/o - twisted chains

50. thorac/o - chest

51. thromb/o - clot

52. tonsill/o - tonsils

53. trache/o - trachea (windpipe)

54. ven/o - vein

In the next lesson we will go through the most common prefixes and suffixes using in medical transcription...ok

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Saturday, January 10, 2009


No --- Combining form---Meaning--- Medical term---Meaning

1. abdomin/o means abdomen-abdominal-pertaining to the abdomen

2. adip/o means fat-adipose- full of fat

3. anter/o means front-anterior-pertaining to front

4. bol/o means to cast-anabolism-to cast a process up

5. cervic/o means neck-cervical- body neck, or neck of the uterus

6. chondr/o means cartilage-chondroma-tumor of cartilage

7. chrom/o means color-chromosomes-bodies absorbing color in the body

8. coccyg/o means coccyx coccygeal petaining to tail bone

9. crani/o means skull-craniotomy-process of cutting the skull

10. cyt/o means cell-cytoplasm-formation of a cell

11. dist/o means far, distant-distal-pertaining to so far

12. dors/o means back of body- dorsal- pertaining to backside of the body

13. hist/o means tissue- histology- study of tissues

14. ili/o means ilium- iliac- pertaining to hip bone

15. inguin/o means groin- inguinal- pertaining to groin

16. kary/o means nucleus- karyotype- classification of nucleus

17. later/o means side- lateral- pertaining to side

18. lumb/o means lower- back- lumbosacral- pertaining to lower body

19. medi/o means middle- media-middle

20. nucle/o means nucleus- nucleic- pertaining to nucleus

21. pelv/o means hip, pelvic- pelvic- pertaining to hip (pelvis)

22. poster/o means back, behind- posterior- pertaining to back

23. proxim/o means near- proximal- pertaining to near

24. sacr/o means sacrum- sacral- pertaining to sacrum

25. sarc/o means flesh- sarcoma- tumor of flesh

26. spin/o means spinal- spinal- pertaining to backbone

27. thel/o means nipple- epithelial- cell outer lining

28. thorac/o means chest- thoracic- pertaining to chest

29. trache/o means trachea- tracheal- pertaining to windpipe

30. umbilic/o means umbilicus- umbilical- pertaining to navel

31. ventr/o means belly side- ventral- pertaining to belly side of the body

32. vertebr/o means vertebrae- vertebral- pertaining to back bones

33. viscer/o means internal organ- visceral- pertaining to internal organs


No-- Prefix-- Meaning-- Medical term-- Meaning

1. ana- means up- anabolism- process of casting up

2. cata- means down- catabolism- process of casting down

3. epi- means above- epigastric- pertaining of above the stomach

4. hypo- means below- hypochondriac- pertaining to below the diaphragm

5. inter- means between- intervertebral- pertaining to between the vertebrae

6. meta- means change- metabolism- total chemical process in a cell


No--Prefix-- Meaning
1. -eal means pertaining to
2. -ior means pertaining to
3. -ose means pertaining to
4. -plasm means formation
5. -iac means pertaining to
6. -ism means process
7. -somes means bodies
8. -type means picture or classification

Ok the next lesson we will learn more COMBINING FORMS, SUFFIXES, and PREFIXES.


To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.

Tuesday, January 6, 2009


The HISORY AND PHYSICAL (H&P) is generated shortly before or after a patient is admitted to the hospital. This report usually contains:

1. Chief complaint or presenting problem

2. History of present illness which are the events leading to the patient’s hospitalization

3. Past medical history which is medical and surgical problems from childhood to the present, medications, and allergies

4. Family History which is the medical condition of parents and other family members• Social history which is the patient’s occupation, lifestyle, and habits

5. Review of systems which is the medical condition of the patient’s major organs• Physical examination

EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT REPORTS are much like the initial office evaluation with the exception of the patient is seen and treated in an emergency department of a hospital or acute care clinic. Usually dictated are:

1. Presenting complaint

2. Present illness

3. Physical examination

4. Course of treatment

CONSULTATION REPORTS result when one physician requests the services of another, usually a specialist, in the care and treatment of a patient. The consultation report usually contains the sub headings of:

1. Brief history of the present illness

2. Findings

3. Pertinent laboratory work

4. Working diagnosis or impression

5. Recommended course of treatment

A consultation report may be dictated in letter format and transcribed on physician office stationery or the medical facility or on preprinted consultation forms.

OPERATIVE REPORT is generated after a surgical procedure is performed. It is a detailed description of the operation. Surgical procedures occur in:

1. Hospitals

2. Outpatient surgery centers

3. Occasionally in physician’s office

The operative report usually begins with information obtained from:

a) Written records

b) Includes date of operation

c) Includes duration of anesthesia and operation times

d) Names of the operating surgeon and assistants

The actual dictation includes:
1. Preoperative diagnosis

2. Postoperative diagnosis

3. Title of operation

4. Findings

5. Procedure

Dictation of the PROCEDURE NOTE includes:

1. Detailed description of the operation itself

2. Anatomic landmarks

3. Surgical instruments used

4. Suture materials used to close the incision

5. Estimated blood loss

6. Complications

7. Condition of patient at end of procedure

8. Sponge and needle count at end of procedure

9. Tourniquet time if applicable

10. Blood and fluids administered

11. Drains placed

12. Medications given

13. Some surgeons will also dictate a postoperative plan

The discharge summary is generated when the patient is ready for discharge from the hospital. It is the medical report that summarizes the patient’s course in the hospital. Length of this medical report depends upon how long the patient remained in the hospital. Most discharge summaries include:

1. A summary of the admission and discharge diagnoses

2. Procedures or operations performed if any

3. Brief review of the patient’s history

4. Physician’s findings on physical examination

5. A report of laboratory work performed and pertinent findings

6. The patient’s hospital course

7. Discharge medications

8. Discharge plan or disposition

We now have seen in detail about the details of types of medical transcription reports in common. In the next lesson, we will see more COMBINING FORMS..OK

The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...