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Saturday, December 27, 2008

Spinal Column and its Divisions


According to the regions of the Spinal column, we can separate into divisions. Spinal columns comprised of bones in series extending from the neck towards the tail bone. Each bone in this series is called in singular vertebra and vertebrae in plural.

Totally this series of bones numbered is thirty and we can divide this thirty bones into five divisions such as:

(1) Cervical (C)

(2) Thoracic (T or D( dorsal))

(3) Lumbar (L)

(4) Sacral (S)

(5) Coccygeal

Now we can see each division in detail:

(1) Cervical (C):- This division of the backbones are in the neck region. These are seven in numbers (C1 - C7). These bones are called cervical vertebrae.

(2) Thoracic (T or D( dorsal)):- This division of the backbones are in the chest region of our body. These twelve bones are joined to the rib bones. These bones are twelve in number (T1 - T12). These bones are called Thoracic vertebrae.

(3) Lumbar (L):- These bones are in the flank region. Thatis between the ribs and hip bone. These are five in number. These bones are called Lumbar vertebrae.

(4) Sacral (S):- These bones are five in number. These five bones are fused together to form one bone called sacrum.

(5) Coccygeal:- This is a small bone composed of fused pieces. The another name for Coccyx is tail bone.

What is the difference between spinal column and spinal cord?

Now we should understand one important difference between What is Spinal Cord and what is Spinal Column. As we now studied above spinal column are vertebrae whereas Spinal cord is nerves surrounded by the spinal column. Spinal column is comprised of bone tissue whereas spinal cord is comprised of nerve tissue.

Intervertebral Spaces:
These are the spaces between the two vertebrae or two vertebral bones. Between each intervertebral space a cartilageous pad is present which is called disk or disc. This structure is the shock absorbing structure of the back. Sometimes this disc may move out of this space and this condition is called slipped disk.

In the next lesson we will study about POSITIONAL AND DIRECTIONAL PLANES OF THE BODY...COME ON.

Next Lesson 14

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Abdominal Quadrants - Part 2



We can divide Abdominopelvic regions into four quadrants by making two imaginary lines (vertically and horizontally intersecting each other) on the abdomen through the body.

By this way we will get four abdominal quadrants such as:

(1) Right upper quadrant (RUQ)

(2) Left upper quadrant (LUQ)

(3) Right lower quadrant (RLQ)

(4) Left lower quadrant (LLQ)

Now we can see each quadrant and its organ one by one:

(1) Right upper quadrant (RUQ):- This quadrant contains right lobe of the liver, gallbladder, part of the pancreas, part of the small and large intestines.

(2) Left upper quadrant (LUQ):- This quadrant contains left lobe of the liver, Stomach, spleen, part of the pancreas, and parts of the small and large intestines.

(3) Right lower quadrant (RLQ):- This quadrant contains part of the small and large intestines, right ovary, the right uterine or fallopian tube, appendix, and right ureter.

(4) Left lower quadrant (LLQ):- This quadrant contains part of the small and large intestines, left ovary, the left uterine or fallopian tube, and left ureter.

Now in the next lesson we will study about the BACK OR THE SPINAL COLUMN

ABDOMINAL QUADRANTS

Abdominopelvic Regions - Part 1


We can divide Abdominopelvic cavities into nine regions.

(1) Hypochondriac regions (left and right) - 2

(2) Epigastric region - 1

(3) Lumbar regions - 2


(4) Umbilical region - 1

(5) Inguinal regions - 2

(6) Hypogastric regions - 2

Now we can see each region and the organs containing in each region:

(1) Hypochondriac regions (left and right):- These regions are two in number and they are in the upper right and left regions below the rib cartilages that extend over the abdomen. (chondr/o means cartilage).

(2) Epigastric region:- This is the region which is above the stomach.

(3) Lumbar regions:- These regions are near the waist in the left and right side.

(4) Umbilical region:- This is the region also called Umbilicus region which is in the naval portion of the body.

(5) Inguinal regions:-These are regions in the lower part of the abdomen in the right and left sides near the groin where the two legs join to the trunk of the body. (Inguin/o mean groin).Iliac is the another name for this regions as the ilium (a bone which is present in the upper portion of the hip on each of the body) is near to this region.

(6) Hypogastric region:- This region is in the lower middle portion below the Umbilical region.

In the next lesson we will see about ABDOMINAL QUADRANTS...COME ON...