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Monday, July 4, 2011

Cutaneous Lesions -- Lesson 251

In this post we are going to learn about cutaneous lesions.
Then what is cutaneous lesions?
The damaged tissue area caused by disease or trauma is called a lesion. The terms 1. Cyst, 2. Fissure, 3. Macule, 4. Papule, 5. Polyp, 6. Pustule,
7. Ulcer, 8. Vesicle, 9. Wheal are the terms to describe common skin lesions. Let us learn about them briefly.

1. Cyst: - A Cyst is defined as a thick-walled, closed sac or pouch containing fluid or semisolid material.
Examples of Cysts are 1. Pilonidal cyst, which is found over the sacral area of the back in the midline and contains hairs (in which pil/o means hair, nid/o means nest); and sebaceous cyst, which is a collection of yellowish, cheesy sebum commonly found on the scalp, vulva, and scrotum.

2. Fissure: - A fissure is a groove or crack-like sore. An anal fissure is abreak in the skin lining and anal canal.

3. Macule: - A macule is a discolored falt lesion or often reddened. The examples of this macule are freckles, tattoo marks and flat moles.

4. Papule: - It has small, solid elevation of the skin less than 1cm in diameter. Pimples are examples of papules. A larger, solid elevation is called a nodule.

5. Polyp: - A mushroom-like growth extending on a stalk from the surface of mucuous membrane.

6. Pustule: - A small elevation of the skin containing pus. A pustule is a small abcess on the skin.

7. Ulcer: - An erosion of the skin or mucous membrane. Decubitus ulcera (bedsores) are due to pressure from lying in one position (decubitus means lying down). Ulcers usually involve loss of tissue substance and pus formation.

8. Vesicle: - A small collection of clear fluid (serum); blister. Vesicles are found in burns, allergies, and dermatitis. Bullae are large vesicles or blisters.

9. Wheal: - A slightly elevatd, smooth, edematous or swollen are that is redder or paler than the surrounding skin; hives. Wheals may be circumscribed as in a mosquito bite, or involve a wide area, as in allergic reactions. Wheals (hives) are often accompanied by itching symptoms.

10. Alopecia: - Absence of hair from areas where it normally grows. Alopecia or baldness may be hereditary (usual progressive loss of scalp hair in men); or it may be due to disease, injury, or treatment (chemotherapy) or occur in old age. Alopecia areata is an idiopathic condition in which hair falls out in patches.  

In the next post we will learn some more lesions.

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