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Wednesday, December 23, 2009

NUCLEAR MEDICINE-IN VITRO, IN VIVO TESTS-LESSON 141



NUCLEAR MEDICINE TESTS:
Procedures: Nuclear medicine physicians use two types of tests in the diagnosis of disease. In vitro (in the test tube) procedures and in vivo (in the body) procedures. In vitro procedures involve analysis of blood and urine specimens using radioactive chemicals. For example, a radioimmunoassay (RIA) is an in vitro procedure that combines the use of radioactive chemicals and antibodies to detect hormones and drugs in a patient's blood. The test allows the detection of minute amounts of drug. RIA is used to monitor the amount of digitalis, a drug used to treat heart disease in a patient's bloodstream and can detect hypothyroidism in newborn infants.
In vivo tests trace the amounts of radioactive substances within the body. They are given directly to a patient to evaluate the function of an organ or to image it. For example, in tracer studies a specific radionuclide is incorporated into a chemical substance and administered to a patient. The combination of the radionuclide and a drug or chemical is called a radiopharmaceutical or labeled compound. Each radiopharmaceutical is designed to concentrate in a certain organ. The organ can then be imaged with the radiation given off by the radionuclide.
A sensitive external detection instrument called scintillation scanner is used to determine the distribution and localization of the radiopharmaceutical in various organs, tissues, and fluids. The amount of radiopharmaceutical at a given location is proportional to the rate at which the gamma rays are emitted. Nuclear medicine studies depict the physiological behavior (how the organ works) rather than the specific anatomy of an organ.
The procedure of making an image to follow the distribution of radioactive substance in the body is called scanning. The image produced is called scan. Uptake refers to the rate of absorption of the radiopharmaceutical into an organ or tissue.
Radiopharmaceuticals may be administered by many different routes to obtain a scan of a specific organ in the body. For example, in the case of a lung scan, the radiopharmaceutical can be given intravenously (perfusion studies, which rely on passage of the radioactive compound through the capillaries of the lungs) or by inhalation of xenon-133 gas (ventilation studies), which fills the air sacs (alveoli). The combination of these tests permits sensitive and specific diagnosis of clots in the lung (pulmonary emboli).
In the next lesson we will learn about diagnostic procedures that utilize radionuclides. Okay.

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Tuesday, December 22, 2009

CARDIAC-LAB CHEMISTRY-LESSON 140


Cardiac
Creatine phosphokinase (CK) - Levels rise 4 to 8 hours after an acute MI, peaking at 16 to 30 hours and returning to baseline within 4 days
25-200 U/L
32-150 U/L

CK-MB CK isoenzyme - It begins to increase 6 to 10 hours after an acute MI, peaks in 24 hours, and remains elevated for up to 72 hours.
<>400 IU/L

(LDH) Lactate dehydrogenase - Total LDH will begin to rise 2 to 5 days after an MI; the elevation can last 10 days.
140-280 U/L

LDH-1 and LDH-2 LDH isoenzymes - Compare LDH 1 and LDH 2 levels. Normally, the LDH-1 value will be less than the LDH-2. In the acute MI, however, the LDH 2 remains constant, while LDH 1 rises. When the LDH 1 is higher than LDH 2, the LDH is said to be flipped, which is highly suggestive of an MI. A flipped pattern appears 12-24 hours post MI and persists for 48 hours.
LDH-1 18%-33%
LDH-2 28%-40%


SGOT - will begin to rise in 8-12 hours and peak in 18-30 hours
10-42 U/L


Myoglobin - early and sensitive diagnosis of myocardial infarction in the emergency department This small heme protein becomes abnormal within 1 to 2 hours of necrosis, peaks in 4-8 hours, and drops to normal in about 12 hours.
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In the next lesson we will learn about nuclear medicine. Okay.

Monday, December 21, 2009

THYROID LAB CHEMISTRY-LESSON 139


Thyroid Chemistry:  THYROXINE (T4) - Increased levels are found in hyperthyroidism, acute thyroiditis, and hepatitis. Low levels can be found in Cretinism, hypothyroidism, cirrhosis, malnutrition, and chronic thyroiditis.
Normal Adult Range: 4 - 12 ug/dl
Optimal Adult Reading: 8 ug/dl

T3-UPTAKE - Increased levels are found in hyperthyroidism, severe liver disease, metastatic malignancy, and pulmonary insufficiency. Decreased levels are found in hypothyroidism, normal pregnancy, and hyperestrogenis status.
Normal Adult Range: 27 - 47%
Optimal Adult Reading: 37 %

FREE T4 INDEX (T7)
Normal Adult Range: 4 - 12
Optimal Adult Reading: 8

THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH) - produced by the anterior pituitary gland, causes the release and distribution of stored thyroid hormones. When T4 and T3 are too high, TSH secretion decreases, when T4 and T3 are low, TSH secretion increases.
Normal Adult Range: .5 - 6 miliIU/L.

In the next post we will learn about Cardiac Lab Chemistry. Okay.

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Sunday, December 20, 2009

GENERAL LAB VALUES-ELECTROLYTES IN HUMAN BODY-LESSON 138


Electrolyte Values: SODIUM - Sodium is the most abundant cation in the blood and its chief base. It functions in the body to maintain osmotic pressure, acid-base balance and to transmit nerve impulses. Very Low value: seizure and Neurologic Sx.
Normal Adult Range: 135-146 mEq/L
Optimal Adult Reading: 140.5

POTASSIUM - Potassium is the major intracellular cation. Very low value: Cardiac arythemia.
Normal Range: 3.5 - 5.5 mEq/L
Optimal Adult Reading: 4.5

CHLORIDE - Elevated levels are related to acidosis as well as too much water crossing the cell membrane. Decreased levels with decreased serum albumin may indicate water deficiency crossing the cell membrane (edema).
Normal Adult Range: 95-112 mEq/L
Optimal Adult Reading: 103

CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) - The CO2 level is related to the respiratory exchange of carbon dioxide in the lungs and is part of the bodies buffering system. Generally when used with the other electrolytes, it is a good indicator of acidosis and alkalinity.
Normal Adult Range: 22-32 mEq/L
Optimal Adult Reading: 27
Normal Childrens Range - 20 - 28 mEq/L
Optimal Childrens Reading: 24

CALCIUM - involved in bone metabolism, protein absorption, fat transfer muscular contraction, transmission of nerve impulses, blood clotting and cardiac function. Regulated by parathyroid.
Normal Adult Range: 8.5-10.3 mEq/dl
Optimal Adult Reading: 9.4

PHOSPHORUS - Generally inverse with Calcium.
Normal Adult Range: 2.5 - 4.5 mEq/dl
Optimal Adult Reading: 3.5
Normal Childrens Range: 3 - 6 mEq/dl
Optimal Childrens Range: 4.5

ANION GAP (Sodium + Potassium - CO2 + Chloride) - An increased measurement is associated with metabolic acidosis due to the overproduction of acids (a state of alkalinity is in effect). Decreased levels may indicate metabolic alkalosis due to the overproduction of alkaloids (a state of acidosis is in effect).
Normal Adult Range: 4 - 14 (calculated)
Optimal Adult Reading: 9

CALCIUM/PHOSPHORUS Ratio
Normal Adult Range: 2.3 - 3.3 (calculated)
Optimal Adult Reading: 2.8
Normal Children’s range: 1.3 - 3.3 (calculated)
Optimal Children’s Reading: 2.3

SODIUM/POTASSIUM
Normal Adult Range: 26 - 38 (calculated)
Optimal Adult Reading: 32

In the next post we will see about the Common lab values of liver enzymes. Okay.

Saturday, December 19, 2009

COMMON LAB VALUES-BLOOD-LESSON 137


Hematology Values
HEMATOCRIT (HCT)
Normal Adult Female Range: 37 - 47%
Optimal Adult Female Reading: 42%
Normal Adult Male Range 40 - 54%
Optimal Adult Male Reading: 47
Normal Newborn Range: 50 - 62%
Optimal Newborn Reading: 56

HEMOGLOBIN (HGB)
Normal Adult Female Range: 12 - 16 g/dl
Optimal Adult Female Reading: 14 g/dl
Normal Adult Male Range: 14 - 18 g/dl
Optimal Adult Male Reading: 16 g/dl
Normal Newborn Range: 14 - 20 g/dl
Optimal Newborn Reading: 17 g/dl

MCH (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin)
Normal Adult Range: 27 - 33 pg
Optimal Adult Reading: 30

MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume)
Normal Adult Range: 80 - 100 fl
Optimal Adult Reading: 90
Higher ranges are found in newborns and infants

MCHC (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration)
Normal Adult Range: 32 - 36 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 34
Higher ranges are found in newborns and infants

R.B.C. (Red Blood Cell Count)
Normal Adult Female Range: 3.9 - 5.2 mill/mcl
Optimal Adult Female Reading: 4.55
Normal Adult Male Range: 4.2 - 5.6 mill/mcl
Optimal Adult Male Reading: 4.9
Lower ranges are found in Children, newborns and infants

W.B.C. (White Blood Cell Count)
Normal Adult Range: 3.8 - 10.8 thous/mcl
Optimal Adult Reading: 7.3
Higher ranges are found in children, newborns and infants.

PLATELET COUNT
Normal Adult Range: 130 - 400 thous/mcl
Optimal Adult Reading: 265
Higher ranges are found in children, newborns and infants

NEUTROPHILS and NEUTROPHIL COUNT - this is the main defender of the body against infection and antigens. High levels may indicate an active infection.
Normal Adult Range: 48 - 73 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 60.5
Normal Children’s Range: 30 - 60 %
Optimal Children’s Reading: 45

LYMPHOCYTES and LYMPHOCYTE COUNT - Elevated levels may indicate an active viral infections such as measles, rubella, chickenpox, or infectious mononucleosis.
Normal Adult Range: 18 - 48 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 33
Normal Children’s Range: 25 - 50 %
Optimal Children’s Reading: 37.5

MONOCYTES and MONOCYTE COUNT - Elevated levels are seen in tissue breakdown or chronic infections, carcinomas, leukemia (monocytic) or lymphomas.
Normal Adult Range: 0 - 9 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 4.5

EOSINOPHILS and EOSINOPHIL COUNT - Elevated levels may indicate an allergic reactions or parasites.
Normal Adult Range: 0 - 5 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 2.5

BASOPHILS and BASOPHIL COUNT - Basophilic activity is not fully understood but it is known to carry histamine, heparin and serotonin. High levels are found in allergic reactions.
Normal Adult Range: 0 - 2 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 1

In the next post we will see about normal electrolyte values. Okay.

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NUCLEAR MEDICINE-RADIOACTIVITY-LESSON 136


Radioactivity:
The giving out of power or energy in the outward appearance of elements or beams originating from the center of a matter is called radioactivity.
Radionuclides:
A radionuclide is a material that imparts elevated power particles or beams seeing that it falls to pieces. Radionuclides are created in what's more a nuclear reactor or an electrically exciting substance to gather speed. Not later than glow with established particles bring about commotion and wavering.
Half-life period:
Half-life is the point in time or occasion necessary intended for electrically excited substances that are radionuclides to go down partial that is half of its radioactivity by breakdown.
Why Radionuclides are Important in Medicine Field?
1. The information of the half-life of a radionuclide is of great consequence to be decisive how far the radioactive material will send out radioactive material will give off radioactivity in a patient's body.
2. The half-life is obliged to designate extensive adequate amount to make available for an investigative illustrations at the same time to curtail patient contact to radiation of the patient. For instance the half-life period of technetium 99 m (99m Tc) is about six hours is a perfect radionuclide used in investigative illustrations through imaging technique in medicine.
3. Radionuclides give out three kinds of radioactive particles such as alpha, beta particles, and gamma. In all the three gamma rays have the greatest break through power comparing with alpha rays and beta rays. Gamma rays are further having ionizing power and convenient to physicians together in the diagnosis and the management a disease.
The next lesson will describe about nuclear medicine tests. Okay.
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Friday, December 18, 2009

VISUAL EXAMINATIONS USED IN RADIOLOGY-LESSON 135




VISUAL EXAMINATIONS USED IN RADIOLOGY:  The radiopaque studies may create some side effects in some patients as the radiopaque substance contains iodine contrast materials. The side effects may be of some bland reactions for instance redness of the skin, queasiness, warmth or itchiness sensations, and sometimes may be serious reactions like spasm in the airway, hives, swelling of the larynx, vasodilation, and rapid heart rate etc., Management of this situation is immediate fixing of ventilation followed by injections of adrenaline and corticosteroids or any antihistamine injection.
When the patient is prone to allergic reactions some other studies like fluoroscopy, tomography, and MRI or magnetic resonance imaging are used. We will see about these procedures one by one.
Fluoroscopy: X-rays are taken using a fluorescent screen by passing the equipment through the patient. The method of functioning of fluoroscopy is that when the rays of light energy the fluorescent plate absorbs it glows as a result of it. In this way images of the body tissues are taken. The scans of the mobile body organs like heart, intestinal systems are taken using fluoroscopic technique. These films when taken from different position changing at the same time give a good diagnostic idea to the physician about the disease process. While doing this procedure a radiologist can at the same time perform radiologic interventions like any abscess drainage, bleeding occlusion in any vessels, placement of catheters for drainage etc.,
Tomography: X-ray films are taken in series of any layer of body selectively. Numerous picture of the same area from front and behind are taken. These films are called tomograms. The films are taken as slices. Any firm lesions or any calcification missed from other x-ray types can be found by these sliced films.
Using this visual exam method three views such as sagittal or anteroposterior; coronal or frontal, and axial or cross-sectional images can be taken. No radioactive material is used as a medium in this study. The science of MRI scanning is the magnetic field of the nuclei of atoms like hydrogen in the water is used to create a magnetic field inside the body organs naturally by applying a large magnetic field from externally.
MRI is very useful in identifying tumors in the brain, spinal cord images, tumors in the chest and abdomen, and also in the visual examination of the heart and its valves.
In the next post we will study about ultrasound and MRI scans. Okay.
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Wednesday, December 16, 2009

USE OF ULTRASOUND AND MRI TECHNIQUES-LESSON 134


Ultrasound: High-frequency impossible to hear muffled sound waves are sent and these waves are bounced off by body tissues. The movement of sound waves are recorded to give the information about the structure of the inside organs. The good transmission of waves is ensured by placing an instrument near the skin and by smother the skin surface by an oily substance. Oil substance probably a mineral oil is put for the diffusion of sound waves properly.
The ultrasound instrument produces dumpy sound waves in cyclic beats. Each wave is in different speed of motion and invades through the tissues inside the body and becomes aware of boundaries amid tissues of diverse compactness. These waves are passed back to the ultrasound monitor and recorded. This record is called echogram or sonogram.
This instrument is used not only by radiologists, but also by ophthalmologists to detect intracranial and ophthalmic lesions. Cardiologists also use this instrument to identify blood valve and heart valve ailments. This is called echocardiogram.
Gastroenterologists use this equipment to track down of any abdominal masses in the GI tract.
Gynecologists and obstetricians use this equipment to make a distinction between whether there is a single child or more than one in the uterus.
Obstetricians perform amniocentesis to track down tumors or cysts if any in the uterus. Measurement of fetal size and age of the fetus can also be calculated using ultrasound wave technique.
ADVANTEAGES OF THE ULTRASOUND:
Comparing iodine contrast study and other studies ultrasound is very safe and has side effects as the sound waves used in this method are nonionizing. Passing these waves inside the body will not damage the internal organs or any tissues.
In the next post we will study about Different views of x-ray positions. Okay.
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DIFFERENT VIEWS OF X-RAY FILMS-LESSON 133









In order to take the best possible view of the part of the body being radiographed, the patient, film, and x-ray tube must be positioned in the most favorable alignment possible. There are special terms used by radiologists to designate the position for direction of the x-ray beam, the patient's position, and the motion and position of the part of the body to be examined. Some of the important x-rays terms are as follows:
AP view or anteroposterior view: In this view the patient is usually supine i.e. lying on the back and the x-ray tube is aimed from above at the frontal side of the body and the beam is passed from the anterior to posterior. The film lies underneath the patient. The AP view may also be taken with the patient in the upright position.

PA view or posteroanterior view: In this view, the patient is upright with back to the x-ray machine and the film to the chest. The x-ray machine is aimed horizontally at a distance of about 6-feet from the film.
Lateral view: In this view, the x-ray beam passes from one side of the body toward the opposite side. In taking a right lateral view, the right side of the body is held closely against the x-ray film and the x-ray beam passes from the left to the right through the body.
Oblique view: In this view, the x-ray tube is positioned at an angle from the perpendicular plane. Oblique views are used to show regions that would be hidden and superimposed in routine AP and PA views.

BODY POSITION RELATED TERMS USED IN THE X-RAY EXAMINATION:
1. Abduction: Moving the part of the body away from the midline of the body or away from the body.
2. Adduction: Moving the part of the body toward the midline of the body or toward the body.
3. Eversion: Turning outward.
4. Extension: Lengthening or straightening a flexed limb.
5. Flexion: Bending a part of the body.
6. Inversion: Turning inward
7. Lateral decubitus: Lying down on the side with x-ray beam horizontally positioned. Another term for this is cross-table lateral.
8. Prone: Lying on the belly i.e. face down.
9. Recumbent: Lying down i.e. prone or supine.
10. Supine: Lying on the back i.e. face up.
In the next lesson we will study about Nuclear Medicine. Okay.
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IMPORTANT CANCER TERMS AND ITS MEANINGS-LESSON 132


1. Adjuvant therapy: Assisting primary treatment. Drugs are given early in the course of treatment along with surgery or radiation to attack cancer cells that may be too small to be detected by diagnostic techniques.
2. Alkylating agents: Synthetic chemicals containing alkyl groups that interfere with DNA synthesis.
3. Anaplasia: Loss of differentiation of cells. Reversion to a more primitive cell type.
4. Antibiotics: Chemical substances produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of cells used in cancer chemotherapy.
5. Antimetabolites: Chemicals that prevent cell division by inhibiting the formation of substances necessary to make DNA and used in cancer chemotherapy.
6. Apoptesis: Programmed cell death. Apo- means off, away, and -ptosis means to fall. Normal cells undergo apoptesis when they are damaged or aging. Some cancer cells have lost the ability to undergo apoptesis and live forever.
7. Benign: Noncancerous.
6. Biological response modifiers: Substances produced by normal cells that either directly block tumor growth or stimulate the immune system.
7. Biological therapy: Use of the body's own defense mechanism to fight tumor cells.
8. Carcinogens: Agents that cause cancer. Chemicals and drugs, radiation, and viruses.
9. Cellular oncogens: Pieces or DNA hat when broken or dislocated can cause a normal cell to become malignant.
10. Chemotherapy: Treatment with drugs
11. Combination chemotherapy: Use of several therapeutic agents together in the treatment of tumors.
12. Dedifferentiation: Loss of differentiation of cells. Reversion to a more primitive, embryonic cell type anaplasia.
13. DNA or deoxyribinucleic acid: Genetic material within the nucleus of a cell that controls cell division and protein synthesis.
14. Differentiation: Specialization of cells.
In the next post we will see the continuation of this post. Okay.
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BIOLOGICAL CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS-1-LESSON 131


BIOLOGICAL THERAPY TO CURE CANCER:  An additional fresh line of attack to cancer management is the employment of the body's individual resistance systems to scrap tumor cells. Researchers see the sights how the ingredients of the immune system can be brought back, developed, imitated, and influenced to annihilate cancer cells within the body. Chemical materials brought into being by standard cells that moreover in a straight line wedge tumor development before kindle the immune system and additional body barricades are called genetic reaction modifiers. The instances of these materials are interferon prepared by lymphocytes, monoclonal antibodies created by mouse cells, and proficiency of strapping to human tumors, colony-stimulating factors or CSFs so as to accelerate blood-forming cells and turn around the upshots of chemotherapy, and interleukins with the intentions of stimulating the immune system to annihilate tumors.
Now we will sort out chemotherapeutic and biological events one by one.

CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS:
ALKYLATING CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS:
1. BCNU or carmustine
2. Cisplatin and carboplatin
3. Cyclophosphamide or Cytoxan
4. Melphalan or Alkeran
5. Nitrogen mustard
6. Chlorambucil
ANTIBIOTIC CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS:
1. Actinomycin D
2. Bleomycin sulfate
3. Daunorubicin hydrochloride
4. Doxorubicin hydrochloride or Adriamycin
5. Idarubicin
6. Mitomycin C
ANTIMETABOLITE CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS:
1. Cystosine arabinoside or ara-C
2. 5-fluorouracil or 5-FU
3. Methotrexate or MTX
4. 6-thioguanine or 6-TG
5. Fludarabine
6. Pentostatin
The next post describes the continuation of BIOLOGICAL CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS. Okay.
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CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS-LESSON 130


CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS:  The subsequent list categorizes all cancer chemotherapeutic agents:
1. Plant byproducts: These chemical substances are drawn from plants. These chemical materials are used recurrently in mixture as a supplement to other chemotherapeutic agents. The offshoot effects take account of myelosuppression, alopecia, and smash up of nerves.

2. Antimetabolites: These drugs slow down the amalgamation of drugs so as to the essential part of DNA or possibly will unswervingly hunk the copying DNA. The offshoot consequences of antimetabolites are myelosuppression with leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and bleeding. The other side effects are toxicity to the oral and digestive tract, as well as stomatitis called sore mouth, nausea, and vomiting.

3. Alkylating agents: These are artificial amalgams be full of two or more element groups names alkyl groups. The chemical substances get in the way by means of the development of DNA fusion next to putting together to DNA molecules. Venomous side effects take account of nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, bone marrow depression or myelosuppression, and alopecia or hair loss. These are widespread impacts for the reason that the cells in the gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow and scalp are hurriedly dividing cell, which is having for the above ground growth division that by the side of tumor cells are predisposed to the toxic consequences of chemotherapeutic drugs. The side effects fade away subsequent to treatment is on the edge.

4. Steroids: These are a course group of substances prepared in the body, and these chemical substances contain imperative consequences on duplication of sex cells during reproduction process, energy manufacture, and aging process, the instances for these kind are estrogens and androgen. These hormones bring bear to their encounter by means of putting together to receptor proteins in objective tissues. The development of a number of tumors for example breast and prostate is over and over again reliant lying on steroid hormones. A number of breast cancers encompass estrogen receptors or ER and will act in response on the way to the elimination of estrogen through oophorectomy otherwise the utilization of antiestrogen drugs such as tamoxifen. Those drugs break apart estrogenic end products. Fluid withholding, masculinization or feminization, nausea, and vomiting are selected feasible impacts of different steroids.

5. Antibiotics: These drugs are fashioned by bacteria or fungi. A lot of these chemical substances medication their duty by strapping to DNA and RNA inside the cell as a result nip in the budding of standard reproduction of cells. Poisonous upshots on or after their application take account of alopecia or hair loss, stomatitis, myelosuppression, and gastrointestinal turmoils.

In the next lesson we will see about Biological Therapy to cure cancer. Okay.
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Sunday, November 29, 2009

IMPORTANT CANCER TERMS-3-LESSON 129


This is the continuation of LESSON 128.
29. Morbidity: The condition of being diseased.
30. Mucinous: The cancer cells containing mucus.
31. Mutation: Change in the genetic material that is DNA of a cell may be caused by chemicals, radiation or viruses or may occur spontaneously.
32. Neoplasm: New growth that may be either benign or malignant tumor.
33. Oncogene: A region of genetic material in a cell that is DNA found in tumor cell (cellular oncogene) on in viruses that cause cancer called viral oncogene. Oncogenes are designated by a three-letter word, such as abl, erb, jun, myc, ras, and src.
34. Pedunculated: Possessing a stem or stalk (peduncle) characteristic of some polypoid tumors.

35. Pharmacokinetics: Study of the distribution and removal of drugs in the body over a period of time.

36. Protocol: An explicit, detailed plan for treatment.

37. Radiation: Energy carried by a stream of particles. Various forms of radiation can cause cancer.

38. Radiocurable tumor: Cells that are eradicated by radiation therapy.

39. Radioresistant tumor: Cells that require large doses of radiation to be destroyed.

40. Radiosensitive tumor: A tumor in which radiation can cause death of cells.

41. Radiosensitizers: Drugs that increase the sensitivity of tumors to x-rays.

42. Radiotherapy: Treatment using radiation.

43. Relapse: Return of symptoms of disease.

44. Ribonucleic acid or RNA: Cellular substance located within and outside the nucleus hat along with DNA, plays an important role in the synthesis of proteins in a cell.

45. Sarcoma: Cancerous tumor derived from connective tissue.

46. Serous: Pertaining to thin, watery fluid called serum.

47. Sessile: Having no stem characteristic of some polypoid tumors.

48. Solid tumor: Tumor composed of mass of cells.

49. Staging of tumors: System of evaluating the extent of spread of tumor. For instance is the TNM system i.e. tumor, nodes, and metastasis.

50. Steroids: Complex naturally occurring chemicals for example hormones that are used as chemotherapeutic agents.

51. Surgical procedures to treat cancer: Cryosurgery, en bloc resection, excisional biopsy, exenteration, fulguration, and incisional biopsy.

52. Ultraviolet radiation: Rays given off by the son.

53. Viral oncogenes: Pieces of DNA from viruses that infect a normal cell and cause it to become malignant.

54. Virus: An infectious agent that reproduces by entering a host cell and using the host's genetic material to make copies of itself.

In the next lesson we will learn about Cancer Combining Forms. Okay.

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IMPORTANT CANCER TERMS-2-LESSON 128


This lesson is the continuation of the LESSON 127.
15. Electron beams: Low-energy beams of radiation for treatment of skin or surface tumors.
16. Encapsulated: Surrounded by a capsule. Benign tumors are generally encapsulated.
17. Fractionation: Giving radiation in small, repeated doses.
18. Grading of tumors: Evaluating the degree of maturity of tumor cells.
19. Gross description of tumor: Visual appearance of tumors, cystic, fungating, inflammatory, medullary, necrotic, polypoid, ulcerating, and verrucous.
20. Infiltrative: Extending beyond normal tissue boundaries.
21. Invasive: Having the ability to enter and destroy surrounding tissue.

22. Linear accelerator: Device that produces high-energy x-ray beams for treatment of deep-seated tumors.

23. Malignant: Tending to become worse and result in death. Tumors having the characteristics of invasiveness, anaplasia, and metastasis.

24. Metastasis: Spread of a malignant tumor to a secondary site. Literally beyond control (meta means beyond and stasis means control).

25. Microscopic description: The appearance of tumors as seen under the microscope. Those are alveolar, carcinoma in situ, diffuse, dysplastic, epidermoid, follicular, nodular, papillary, pleomorphic, scirrhous, and undifferentiated types of cancer are microscopic.

26. Mitosis: Replication of cells. This is a stage in the cell life cycle involving the production of two identical cells from a parent cell.

27. Mixed-tissue tumors: Tumors composed of different types of tissue such as epithelial as well as connective tissue.

28. Modality: Method of treatment, such as surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation.

In the next post we will see the continuation of this post. Okay.

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To go to the next lesson please click the link below15. Electron beams: Low-energy beams of radiation for treatment of skin or surface tumors.

16. Encapsulated: Surrounded by a capsule. Benign tumors are generally encapsulated.

17. Fractionation: Giving radiation in small, repeated doses.

18. Grading of tumors: Evaluating the degree of maturity of tumor cells.

19. Gross description of tumor: Visual appearance of tumors, cystic, fungating, inflammatory, medullary, necrotic, polypoid, ulcerating, and verrucous.

20. Infiltrative: Extending beyond normal tissue boundaries.

21. Invasive: Having the ability to enter and destroy surrounding tissue.

22. Linear accelerator: Device that produces high-energy x-ray beams for treatment of deep-seated tumors.

23. Malignant: Tending to become worse and result in death. Tumors having the characteristics of invasiveness, anaplasia, and metastasis.

24. Metastasis: Spread of a malignant tumor to a secondary site. Literally beyond control (meta means beyond and stasis means control).

25. Microscopic description: The appearance of tumors as seen under the microscope. Those are alveolar, carcinoma in situ, diffuse, dysplastic, epidermoid, follicular, nodular, papillary, pleomorphic, scirrhous, and undifferentiated types of cancer are microscopic.

26. Mitosis: Replication of cells. This is a stage in the cell life cycle involving the production of two identical cells from a parent cell.

27. Mixed-tissue tumors: Tumors composed of different types of tissue such as epithelial as well as connective tissue.

28. Modality: Method of treatment, such as surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation.

In the next post we will see the continuation of this post. Okay.

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IMPORTANT CANCER TERMS AND ITS MEANINGS-LESSON 127


1. Adjuvant therapy: Assisting primary treatment. Drugs are given early in the course of treatment along with surgery or radiation to attack cancer cells that may be too small to be detected by diagnostic techniques.

2. Alkylating agents: Synthetic chemicals containing alkyl groups that interfere with DNA synthesis.

3. Anaplasia: Loss of differentiation of cells. Reversion to a more primitive cell type.

4. Antibiotics: Chemical substances produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of cells used in cancer chemotherapy.

5. Antimetabolites: Chemicals that prevent cell division by inhibiting the formation of substances necessary to make DNA and used in cancer chemotherapy.

6. Apoptesis: Programmed cell death. Apo- means off, away, and -ptosis means to fall. Normal cells undergo apoptesis when they are damaged or aging. Some cancer cells have lost the ability to undergo apoptesis and live forever.

7. Benign: Noncancerous.

6. Biological response modifiers: Substances produced by normal cells that either directly block tumor growth or stimulate the immune system.

7. Biological therapy: Use of the body's own defense mechanism to fight tumor cells.

8. Carcinogens: Agents that cause cancer. Chemicals and drugs, radiation, and viruses.

9. Cellular oncogens: Pieces or DNA hat when broken or dislocated can cause a normal cell to become malignant.

10. Chemotherapy: Treatment with drugs

11. Combination chemotherapy: Use of several therapeutic agents together in the treatment of tumors.

12. Dedifferentiation: Loss of differentiation of cells. Reversion to a more primitive, embryonic cell type anaplasia.

13. DNA or deoxyribinucleic acid: Genetic material within the nucleus of a cell that controls cell division and protein synthesis.

14. Differentiation: Specialization of cells.

In the next post we will see the continuation of this post. Okay.

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Saturday, November 28, 2009

IMPORTANT COMBINING FORMS-CANCER-LESSON 126


1. Aleveol/o- means a small bag or a sac
Alveolar means pertaining to a small bag.

2. Cac/o- means dreadful or bad
Cachexia means ill health and underfeeding. This may happen after a chronic disease.
-hexia means habit.

3. Carcin/o- means cancer or cancerous.
Carcinoma in situ means a cancer confined to a small area.

4. Cauter/o- means burn or heat.
Electrocauterization is a process of burning with electricity.

5. Chem/o- means chemical substance or a drug.
Chemotherapy is a treatment method of cancer using chemical substances i.e. drugs.

6. Cry/o- means cold or ice.
Cryotherapy is a treatment method of cancer using cold or ice in a fluid bag.

7. Fibr/o- means fibers.
Fibrosarcoma is a type of cancer of fibers and flesh portion of the body.

8. Follicul/o- means tiny glandular bags or sacs.
Follicular is pertaining to small glandular sacs or pouches or bags.

9. Fung/o- means fungus or yeast or toadstool or mushroom.
Fungating tumor is a tumor that appears like a toadstool or mushroom.

10. Medull/o- means spongy or malleable part.
Medullar tumor appears spongy inner portion of the body.

11. Mut/a- means a change by genetic.
Mutation is a process of heritable change.

12. Mutagen/o- means producing a genetic or inheritable change.
Mutagenic is pertaining to the production of change by genetic in a cell.

13. Onc/o- means cancerous growth.
Oncology is the study of cancer.

14. Papill/o- means nipple-like.
Papillary is pertaining to nipple like expansion.

15. Pharmac/o- means chemical or drug.
Pharmacology is the study of drugs.

16. Plas/o- means configuration of arrangement
Dysplastic is abnormal configuration or arrangement of formation.

17. Ple/o- means additional or extra or many.
Pleomorphic is pertaining to many varieties of cells i.e. the cancer is configured by a multiplicity of cells.

18. Polyp/o- means cyst or tumor or nodule.
Polypoid tumor is a cystic tumor.

19. -oid means resembling. Ex. Polypoid.

20. Radi/o- means beams or x-rays.
Radiotherapy is therapy of treating cancer using x-ray beams.

21. Sarc/o- means soft tissue, connective tissue.
Osteosarcoma is the tumor of fleshy tissue and bones.

22. Scrirrh/o- means tough or stiff.
Scirrhous is pertaining to toughness.

In the next lesson we will learn about important cancer Suffixes and Prefixes. Okay.

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IMPORTANCE MEDICAL TERMINOLOGIES OF CANCER-LESSON 125


1. -blast means undeveloped or not fully formed.
Osteoblast is the undeveloped bone cells.

2. -oma means tumor or bunch.
Neuroma is the tumor of the nerve cells.

3. -plasia means creation or development.
Hyperplasia is disproportionate or extreme development of a cell.

4. -plasm means development or growth.
Neoplasm is new growth or development of a cell.

5. -therapy means management.
Radiotherapy is the management of cancer using beams of x-rays.

CANCER MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY-IMPORTANT PREFIXES

1. ana- means toward the back or rearward.
Anaplasia means backward growth of a cell.

2. apo- means off or not there.
Apoptosis is the peter out or fade out.

3. epi- means upon or ahead.
Epidermoid means the cells resembling epidermal tissue.

4. Meta- means away from or outside.
Metastasis means spread away of a growth of a cell outside the limit.

In the next post we will learn about Important Cancer Lab Tests. Okay.

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CANCER LABORATORY TESTS-LESSON 124

In this post we will study about different laboratory tests done to diagnose cancer one by one. Okay.
1. Acid phosphatase-This is an enzyme brings into being in lofty intensity in the blood of patients who has prostate cancer.
2. Alpha-fetoprotein test- This test is useful in find out the occurrence of alpha-fetoprotein in the serum of the patient who has testicular or liver cancer.
3. beta-HCG test- This test is useful in finding out the occurrence of HCG or human chorionic gonadotrophin in the serum of the blood of the patients who has cancer in their testicles.
4. CA-125- The patients who has cancer in ovaries i.e. ovarian cancer has a protein material that is from the cell exterior portion. This is produced by the cancer cells that produce cancer in the ovaries.
5. CEA test- This test is useful in discovering CEA or carcinoembryonic antigen in the blood of the patients who have cancer in their gastrointestinal tract or GI tract.
6. Estrogen receptor or Estradiol receptor Assay- This test is useful in determining the intensity of estrogen receptor sites in tumor cells of breast cancer patients. If a tumor is found to be estrogen receptor positive a patient will likely respond to antiestrogen hormone therapy.
7. PSA or prostate specific antigen- A protein produced by prostate cancer cells found in the blood of the patients.

In the next post we will learn about Important Cancer Lab Tests. Okay.

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PROSTATE CANCER-STAGING-LESSON 123



PROSTATE CANCER STAGING: What is staging? Prostate cancer assessment is vital in finding out the stage of it. By this examination the depth of spread of cancer is found out. This is called cancer staging. Awareness of the stage would be of greatly helpful in classify the prospects and also advantageous at what time decide on using chemotherapies or radiation therapies or surgery.

TNM staging system:  Most commonly a staging system is used nowadays called four-stage TNM system (T means tumor, N means nodes, and M means metastases). The elements of this staging system comprise of the dimension or extent of the tumor, the number of concerned lymph nodes, and the occurrence of metastases of any.

Aim of Staging Method:  The ultimate aim of any staging is to confirm whether or not the cancer is still limited to the prostate. Up to T1 and T2 levels of prostate cancers the spread of cancer found merely in the prostate, but in the T3 and T4 level of cancers the spread is away from the prostate.

Assessment of Staging and its importance:  The spread of the cancer is possibly evidenced by many tests. These comprise of a CT scan or computed tomography. CT scan is used to evaluate spread if any inside the pelvis. Bone scans are used to try to find the cancer spread to the bones. Endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging or MRI scan is used to meticulously assess the seminal vesicles and the prostatic capsule. Bone scans are supposed to make known of osteoblastic manifestation due to greater than before bone density in the areas of bone metastasis.

Fatal Characteristic Features of Prostate Cancer Cells:  Prostate cancer comes about at what time prostate gland cells grow nonstop and develop small tumors. The adaptation of prostate cell development is upset consequently breed wildly. Contrasting from normal cells, prostate cancer cells will not split, grownup, and vanishing in a firmly forbidden course for the reason that the cells are no longer well regulated. As opposed to dying as ordinary cells are supposed to, prostate cancer cells live longer than normal cells. They continue to form new and abnormal cells, which bring about tumors.

Prostate cancer characteristically is fabricated of many small tumors surrounded by the prostate gland. There are more chances of curing caner for about 90% if detected in this stage using surgical procedure called prostatectomy. Radiation also can be used at this stage if detected to eliminate cancer cells in the prostate gland.

Fatality of Prostate Cancer Cells:  Regrettably for the most part prostate cancer cases go overlooked at this stage because of not having symptoms and it is also difficult to identify the disease overtly in this early stage. Due to the nontreatment of cancer in this early stage unnoticed the cancer cells carry on to develop over and over again and spread accordingly. For the durations of this period cancer cells of the prostate developed are carried through the lymphatic system and the circulatory system, and also other parts of the body and they go on to breed tumors and spreads to the nearest regions and the chances of curing at this stage is very low.

The majority of the prostate cancer cases are sluggishly budding. They may take a few years too to be converted into large as much as necessary to be detected. In some cases it may take yet longer to proliferate further than the prostate gland. Some type of prostate cancers are of swift growing, as well as more destructive.

Treatment decisions to manage prostate cancer is taken depending on the type of whether it is speed growing one or a slow growing one. Presence of prostate cancer type cells in the seminal vesicle, rectum, bone, and lymph nodes in the groin area is the indications of proof.

In the next lesson we will learn about LABORATORY TESTS OF CANCER MEDICINE. Okay.

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PROSTATE CANCER-LESSON 122

What prostate?  Prostate is a gland of chestnut in shape, which surrounds the foundation of the urethra (a canal which shows the say on or after the bladder that releases the urine outwardly and ejaculates semen during sex) in the male. The prostate gland is a component of the male reproductive organ that lends a hand to creat and stock up seminal fluid.

For the reason that of its location, prostate often gets infection or any other illnesses and over and over again and which have an effect on urination, ejaculation, and on the odd occasion defecation. The prostate is full of many small glands and which put together approximately 20% of the fluid adding up to semen. When this gland takes part in cancer, the cells of these glands transmute and hooked on into cancer cells.

The prostate glands need of androgen (common phrase for an hormone agent which excites activity of the accessory male sex organs and promotes growth of male sex uniqueness and this is a by-product of androstane), male hormones to their job accurately.

Androgens consist of testosterone (created in maximum amount by the interstitial cells of the testes and also perhaps produced by the ovary and adrenal cortex; possibly created in nonglandular tissues from androstenedione; which is brings into play in the management of hypogonadism, cryptorchism, menorrhagia etc.,), which is made in the testes; dehydroepiandrosterone secreted by the adrenal glands; and dihydrotestosterone, which is transferred from testosterone within the prostate itself. These androgens are also accountable for derivative sex attributes for example hair in the face and bulk muscles etc.

Anatomy of the prostate:  In fully developed adult men usually the prostate is roughly 3 centimeters of length. Prostate gland weighs about 20 grams. The location of this is in the pelvis (a big bone of cup-shaped at the inferior end of the stem of the body formed the hip bone i.e. the pubic bone, ilium, and ischium on each side of the body in front), which is situated below the urinary bladder facing the rectum. The prostate enfolds a fraction of the urethra.

Prostate Cancer:  This cancer commonly comes about in men who are more than 50 years of age. Watchful rectal checkup by a doctor with digital palpation is an useful method for recognition o near the beginning prostatic carcinoma. Lymphangiography and CT scans are able to identify lymph node metastases of prostate cancer.

Identification of Prostate Cancer:  When one person affected by prostate cancer his level of an enzyme called acid phosphatase is generally released into the blood in small quantities by the prostate normally. If the person has metastatic prostate cancer his level of acid phosphatase will increase in high levels when do the blood test.

Treatment for Prostate Cancer:  Treatment for this cancer commonly be surgical that is removal of the prostate gland called prostatectomy. The other nonsurgical methods include radiotherapy and hormonal chemotherapy. As the prostatic cancer cells need androgens for the development of cancer, antiandrogen hormones will also be helpful, as well as estrogens to slow down development of cancer cells.

In the next lesson we will learn about Prostate Cancer Staging. Okay.

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Monday, November 16, 2009

Cancer-Clinical Procedures - Lesson 121

1. Lymphangiography: Contrast (distinct-colored) dye is infused into the lymphatic vessels of the feet, as well as x-rays are taken of the lymphatic system to find out distended lymph nodes, obstruction in the lymphatic system, and the occurrence of tumors if any. 2. Bone marrow biopsy: A minute quantity of bone marrow tissue is aspirated and scrutinized beneath the microscope intended for proof of cancerous cells. 3. Needle Biopsy: A pointer needle is put in into the tissue in problem, and a central part of that tissue is detached. Aspiration of a tissues or suction of a tissue possibly used to remove free cells as of a fluid-filled cavity. This biopsy is taken from the cystic areas of the breast or from a solid lump of tumor.

4. Peritoneoscopy: This modus operandi as well called laparoscopy. This method is used to examine the abdominal or peritoneal cavity for any tumors. A laparoscope or peritoneoscope is inserted into the peritoneal cavity from side to side a small cut in the abdominal wall.

5. Radionuclide scans: radionuclides are radioactive materials and they are infused through a syringe intravenously and images taken using a scan machine. Uneven distribution of radioactivity or absence of radioactivity indicates possible disease condition. This method is mainly used in liver and spleen scans. On bone scans, irregular regions of absorption or radioactivity possibly will point out bone devastation and metastasis process accompanying it. Irregularities in brain scans come into sight as increased gathering of radioactivity as the normal brain tissue usually does engage in radioactivity for the reason that it has the blood-brain barrier.

6. Exfoliative cytology: Cells are rubbed from the area of alleged ailment. These cells are looked at beneath the microscope. The best example of exfoliative cytology is the the Pap smear to ascertain carcinoma of the cervix or vagina.

7. Laparotomy: This is an extensive surgical opening of the abdomen that permits to discover the degree of malignant disease.

Some of the radioactive materials used in getting hold of scans are:
1. Gallium-67 or 67 Ga. This material is used in entire body scans to find out Hodgkin's disease, lymphomas, head and neck cancers, bone tumors, lung tumors.
2. Technetium-99 or 99'Tc-used in liver and spleen scans.
3. 99m polyphosphate used in bone scans.

In the next post we will learn about important lab tests to diagnose cancer. Okay.

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Cancer-Important Abbreviations-Lesson 120



In this post, we are going to learn about important cancer abbreviations. These abbreviations are dictated often by physicians while we do online live medical transcription work in companies. So as a medical transcription learner, you all should be very much familiar with these medical terminologies.

1. bx means biopsy

2. ca means cancer

3. CEA means carcinoembryonic antigen

4. CMF means Cytoxan and methotrexate

5. 5-Fu means 5-fluorouracil

6. prot means protocol

7. CR means complete response

8. PSA means prostate specific antigen

9. DES means diethylstilbestrol

10. RNA means ribonucleic acid

11. DNA means deoxyribonucleic acid

12. TNM means tumor, nodes, and metastases

13. ER means estrogen receptor

14. XRT means radiation therapy

15. Ga means Gallium

16. mets means metastases

17. NED means no evidence of disease

18. NHL means non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

19. Pap smear means Papanicolaou's smear

20. PR means partial response

In the next post we will learn about Clinical procedures used to diagnose cancer. Okay.

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Medical Radiation Technologists - Lesson 119



This is the treatment of ailment by means of also an external source of high-energy beams like photons, protons, and gamma rays. They are on the inside embedded radioactive substances. These radioactive waves and particles are helpful in destructing the cancer cells in the body especially the DNA of those cells and stopping the progress of their development. There are variable human resource people concerned in this medical field. A doctor who specializes in diagnostic radiology is called radiologist. A doctor who dedicates himself in the practice of management of investigative nuclear medicine course of action is called nuclear physician. A physician who is specialized in practice of radiotherapy is called radiation oncologist or radiotherapist.

Allied health care professionals who work with physicians in the fields of radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiotherapy are called radiologic technologists. Radiologic technologists can be divided into three categories such as:

1. Radiographers.
2. Nuclear medicine technologist.
3. Radiation therapy technologist.

Now we will see one by one.

Radiographer is an aide to physicians who manages investigative course of action.
Nuclear medicine technologist is a person who focusses on patients who goes through nuclear medicine methods and control devices under the direction of a nuclear physician. Radiation therapy technologist is a person who delivers course of radiation therapy prescribed by a radiotherapist.

In the next post we will important cancer abbreviations. Okay.

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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...