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Tuesday, January 31, 2012

Endocrine Tissue - Lesson 298

In human body, endocrine tissue like structures function as endocrine glands, but they are not true endocrine glands. In this post, we will learn about these endocrine tissues work like endocrine glands. First, our body cells secrete prostaglandins. This secretions helps to contract uterus. Prostaglandis also helps to lower blood pressure and to clump blood platelets. This also helps to lessen acid secretion in stomach. There are three secretions are from gastrointestinal tract or GI tract or in the alimentary canal. These three secretions are named as cholecystokinin, gastrin, and secretin. Cholecystokinin helps to contract gallbladder. Gastrin helps to stimulate gastric secretion. Secretin helps to stimulate pancreatic enzymes. Kidney secretes a secretion that is called as erythropoietin. This stimulates the production of erythrocytes or red blood cells or RBCs. 

Other than endocrine tissue, we will now learn about true endocrine glands. Pineal gland secretes a material named as melatonin. Melatonin affects brain and forms a hormone named as gonadotropins. Human skin secretes vitamin D, which helps to absorb calcium. Thymus gland secretes thymosi, which helps to get immune response. The pineal and thymus glands can also be added to the endocrine glands. The true endocrine glands are pituitary gland in the brain, pineal gland in the brain, thyroid gland in the neck, parathyroid glands in the neck, thymus gland in the sternal area, adrenal gland above each kidney, ovaries in female reproductive system, and testes in male reproductive system. We may add pancreas in the liver too as a true endocrine gland. We can call the above-said glands as endocrine glands because they have no ducts to carry blood. These glands secrete some hormones directly into the blood to maintain all the main functions of the body. Each of the endocrine secretes its own hormones and these hormones directly enter into blood.

In the next post, we will learn about endocrine glands and their hormones and their functions. Okay. Come on.

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Saturday, January 28, 2012

Why did you choose Medical Transcription as a career?

I had been dreaming for a good job all days along my teenage and had not been satisfied with anything that I had selected at that time.  I did choose MT as a career one good day after seeing an advertisement 10 years back in an English daily and the eligibility condition to that job matches to my educational background at that time (I was discontinued my B.Sc. Zoology at that time and so I had some reliability to choose MT as a career).  I could see the advertisement that it also provides a lucrative income to people with good typing skills and listening skills with a good medical terminological knowledge too. So I had a preference to join as a medical transcriptionist.

Medical transcription nowadays is playing an important role in insurance field to claim our medical claims from the government, especially in the United States. So physicians must dictate every patient's report in a dictaphone to record it, and then an MT will type it in a computer to convert that voice dictation into a word document. So there are plenty of job opportunities in this field all over the world both for office jobs and also for home medical transcription jobs.  Basic English knowledge with grammar and good typing skills are essential to learn this course.  Medical terminology and anatomy and physiology basics and American Association of Medical Transcription (AAMT) rules and regulations and American English basics are the foundational knowledge for medical transcriptionist.  After a four-month crash course and six months of great training from a reputed company, I’ve got all these skills and with five more years of live-file experience from there, I can perform well as a transcriber nowadays.

Soon after joining a fast course in MT in an institute in our area that I was in a condition to improve my typewriting skills. I could perform well in the theory tests in medical terminology course. I could become a good typist with a speed of more than 45 words per minute once I joined as a trainee in MT in a big company in my area after a few years of my crash course. I passed their hard test in English and listening skill test and signed as a trainee with an agreement of bond for another 900 days. After one more year service there, I planned to quit the company to upgrade my career prospective and relieved from there in 2011 February and doing some home transcription jobs from home itself. Joining a big company has been my ultimate dream for all these training and MT life, and so I preferred to join Focus MT after some of my colleagues’ advice.

Nowadays for my day to day life, I am earning some income from Google for their advertisements in my website with a healthcare content and also a home-based medical transcriptionist for my friend on an offline basis. But, I would like to work for a big company as a full-time worker.

Thursday, January 26, 2012

Hormones and Their Functions - Lesson 297

Endocrine glands are ductless glands. We will now see hormones and their functions. Exocrine glands have ducts to secrete their secretions inside the bloodstream, such as sweat glands. Exocrine gland functions are different from endocrine glands. They secrete chemical compounds named as hormones into the bloodstream to maintain some important functions of the body. Human brain has two important endocrine glands, such as pituitary and pineal gland in the center portion of the brain. Thyroid and parathyroid glands are present in the neck portion. Thymus gland is present behind the sternum in the mediastinum. Pancreas is an endocrine gland that is present in the liver. Adrenal glands are present above each kidney. Ovaries are present in the female reproductive system and testes are the endocrine glands that are present in the male reproductive system. Now we will see what are the hormones they secrete to maintain important functions of the human body. In fact, the functions of two endocrine glands, such as pineal gland in the center portion of the brain and thymus gland in the back of the sternum are unknown. But these two glands have no ducts and so are added in the endocrine glands group.

Animal Hormones and Their Functions

Now we will see some organs work as endocrine glands and secrete hormones and their functions. The pineal gland secretes a hormone named as melatonin. Melatonin involves in the process of skin pigmentation in the lower animals, for example frogs and fishes. In mammals, melatonin affects the brain and so influence the rate of gonad maturation. Sex glands like ovaries and testes in combination are termed as gonads. Thymus gland secretes a hormone named as thymosis, which helps in the development of immune response in children.  Thymus gland shrinks in size as the child grows.  Some organs like kidney secretes a hormone named as erythropoietin. Erythropoietin involves in the process of development of RBCs or red blood cells by bone tissues or bone marrow. The other three hormones named as cholecystokinin, gastrin, and secretin are secreted by intestines that is alimentary canal. Skin also acts as an endocrine gland, as it secretes vitamin D, which is also considered as a hormone. Calcium functions as a hormone to help absorb calcium from the GI tract.

In the next lesson, we will see about other glands and hormones and their functions. Okay. Come on.

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Monday, January 23, 2012

Human Endocrine System - Lesson 296



From this lesson, we are going to start Human Endocrine System. We are going to cover what is endocrine system, what are the glands that has, medical terms related to endocrine system, endocrine disease conditions, lab tests related to it, clinical procedures related to it, and endocrine system abbreviations. You should know that endocrine system can be identified with its glands and the hormones they secrete to maintain important body functions. The functions of endocrine system and its hormones in our body are very important. Endocrine hormone deficiency or excessive secretion may lead to many abnormal disease conditions in our body. There are many lab tests and clinical procedures to maintain hormone balance in our body.

Human Endocrine System - An introduction

It consists of glands. These glands secrete different types of hormones that are important to our body functions. These hormone-secreting glands are situated in different parts of our body from head to hip. Hormones are chemical compounds that are secreted by the endocrine glands mix with blood.  We will see what are the glands now. Any organ that secretes any type of hormone that are useful to our body is a gland. In that context, we will see what are the organs in our body that work as glands now. Hypothalamus is a gland that is situated in the brain, pineal body or epiphysis in the brain, pituitary gland (hypophysis) in the brain, thyroid glands in the neck, stomach system glandular functions, duodenal glandular functions, liver, pancreas, kidney, adrenal glands, reproductive glands, such as testes, ovaries, placental functions while pregnancy, and uterus functions while pregnancy. Simply, brain has 3 endocrine glands, such as hypothalamus, pituitary, and pineal, neck has thyroid and parathyroid glands, kidney has adrenal glands, pancreas in the liver, ovaries, and testicles are the endocrine glands that secrete important hormones.

In the next post, we will see about each of these human endocrine system and their important hormones one by one. Okay. Come on. 

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Friday, January 20, 2012

Tuning Fork Hearing Tests - Lesson 295

Tuning fork hearing tests are useful in evaluating a person's hearing ability. This test will be performed by a specialist who examines a patient is called as an audiologist. Every time an audiologist uses an instrument to perform this evaluation that is known as an audiometer. Different frequencies of sound waves are used to evaluate a person's hearing sensitivity by the audiologist. You might also hear about other hearing ability tests, such as Rinne test and Weber test. In this evaluation, a tuning fork is used as a source of vibration to test the patient. A tuning fork instrument is kept on the mastoid process of the patient. It is also kept in the external auditory meatus. The main aim of keeping the tuning fork in the above-said areas is to test the bone in these areas and also to test the air movement. This type of test is called as Weber test. To perform Weber or Rinne test, the person should be sit in a room with sound proof with a headset. The headphone will be connected to an audiometer. The main objective of Weber test is to evaluate bone conduction in the both ears. To perform this test, a tuning fork will be kept on the forehead of the patient.

The both tuning fork hearing tests, such as Weber and Rinne tests are useful in evaluating what kind of hearing loss is occured in the patient. Even if the patient cannot feel sound sensation while performing tuning fork tests, then it is considered to be conductive hearing loss. The sound sensation may be higher in the affected ear when the tuning fork is kept on the forehead of the patient. Actually the patients with sensorineural hearing loss will get only less sound sensation in the ear with less hearing. If the hearing loss is conductive type, then the patient the problem in the outer ear or in the middle ear. If the patient's hearing loss is sensorineural type, then the problem in the cochlea.

Tags: tuning fork hearing test, tuning fork test for fracture, hearing test tuning fork, tuning fork test hearing, tuning fork for hearing test

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Tuesday, January 10, 2012

Pneumatic Otoscopy - Lesson 294


Otoscopy procedure is a kind of visual examination to examine the ears. To perform this visual exam, a device is used named as otoscope. These otoscopes are used even in normal body check-ups to find out any diseases in the ears. Using otoscope device, the physician can test both the outer ear and the middle ear areas. It consists of a hand grip and a head portion to insert into the ears. A lens is attached to the head portion to magnify the ear portions during the visual examination. Earwax or cerumen is also removed using this called ear cleaning. There are two types of otoscope instruments. They are portable kind and other is mounted on walls of the clinic. This instrument is useful in finding out diseases like otitis media and otitis externa, and/or any other germ infections by bacteria in the external ear or in the middle ear. Otoscopy procedure is also used sometimes to check the nose and/or throat too with ears.

Pneumatic otoscopy is a procedure useful in evaluating the mobility of tympanic membranes in the ears. Tympanic membrane is termed in short as TM. Mobility in tympanic membranes may happen due to the pressure changes inside the ears. Pneumatic otoscopy can be done using an instrument called pneumatic otoscope. This instrument also consists of a lens in the head portion with a light attached with a rubber bulb attachment. Sometimes due to the accumulation of water-like material inside the ears, the mobility of the tympanic membrane is affected. This can be visualized easily using pneumatic otoscopy instrument.

Video Otoscopy: In video otoscopy procedure, a video monitor is attached to the otoscope instrument and the images of the ear is visually monitored at the same time while testing the ears. Video otoscopy is termed in short as VO. External and middle ears and tympanic membranes can be examined in the computer monitor.

In the next lesson, we will learn about Tuning Fork Tests. Okay. Come on.

Tags: otoscopy video, video otoscopy, pneumatic otoscopy, otoscopy pictures, otoscopy procedure

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Thursday, January 5, 2012

Cochlear Hearing Implants - Lesson 293


In this blog post, we are going to learn about cochlear hearing implants and their usage in persons with hearing difficulty.  Cochlear hearing implant is a machine that permits a person with hearing deficiency to hear the words of others who speak to him or her. Now, we will see the structure of the device. Cochlear hearing is made up of with a microphone, speech processor, sound transmitter, and a sound receiver. This useful device can be set near the mastoid process behind the ears. How does this work? This device transmits electrical indications to electrodes that are implanted inside the cochlear hearing implant that is held within the cochlea and those electrical indications or signals excite the hearing nerves that are attached to the brain. Microphone picks up the sound from the surroundings. Voice processor alters the sounds by selection from the microphone. Sound transmitter changes the sound waves into electrical signals. The receiver collects the electrical signals and send them to the auditory nerve and nerves pass the sounds to the brain to understand.

Cochlear Implant Surgery:  We will now see more about cochlear hearing implants.  To get the help of cochlear help, one should get trained by therapy. This device is useful for person with hearing difficulty from the medium level to high level. Even children are set with these implants. If the hearing deficit is due to the sensory nerve malfunction in the cochlea, the hearing ability can be restored by setting the implant device. The hearing ability is not clear as natural voice, but somewhat helpful with medium quality sound. Cochlear implant can be set by a surgical process.

Cost of Cochlear Implant:  Normally the cost of cochlear implant surgery consists of pre-surgical assessment charges, the cost of the device, surgical equipment setting fees, and post-surgical rehabilitation charges. It may cost up to 39000 US dollars. In short, cochlear hearing implants are an essential equipment for persons with hearing ability even if it costs somewhat costly.

In the next post, we will learn about Otoscopy procedure. Okay. Come on.

Tags: cochlear implants children, cochlear hearing implants, cost of cochlear implants, cochlear implants cost, hearing aids cochlear implants, hearing aids and cochlear implants, how cochlear implants work

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Tuesday, January 3, 2012

Audiometry Tests for Hearing Loss - Lesson 292


Audiometry tests are assessment processeses done to assess the hearing ability at different frequency level tolerance. These tests are useful in estimating hearing ability in patients with hearing difficulties. This procedure is also useful in diagnosing any diseases in the ear canal too. Sound threshold levels are calculated at different frequencies. The measurement unit of sound waves is decibels and it is termed in short as dB. Before undergoing an audiometry test, the patient will be asked about his past medical history and these queries will be helpful in detecting any sound exposures that lead the patient to get hearing difficulty. In some cases, the patient's eardrum may be affected and so the passage of sound waves to cochlea may be affected and so hearing loss might have occurred.

Hearing Loss Audiogram:  A special instrument is used to diagnose the hearing ability and the instrument used to do this assessment is called as audiogram. The sound frequency threshold tests are charted on a graph paper using audiogram equipment. The frequency level is calcuated in Hertz and in short, it is termed as Hz. Audiometry is a behavioral hearing test type. Different sounds in different pitches and in different frequencies are used in audiometry tests.

Calibration Audiometer:  For audiometry tests, a calibrated headphone is used. The curves in the graph resemble the state of hearing of the patient. The minimal hearing curve levels in the curves reveal that the patient has good hearing ability. A patient with good hearing level may show sometimes small variations in the graph and that is normal, but big variations in the levels of the graph confirms the hearing ability in the patient's ears. For example, a patient with Meniere's disease may show a large loss in sound frequencies in the graph. Sound-induced hearing loss that is termed medically as sensorineural hearing loss may reveal high frequency loss in the graph.

In the next post, we will learn about Cochlear Implants. Okay.

Tags: audiometry tests, audiometry screening, screening audiometry, speech audiometry, audiometry procedure, audiogram testing, hearing loss audiogram, audiogram test, audiometer software, calibration audiometer

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