We will study bout important endocrine terms now. We will deal with a list of words that are related to endocrine system. Small definitions of each term should be understood well by medical transcription course learners. You will hear these words often while you do tests and do online files of medical transcription. Today we will see words about endocrine system in alphabetical order. Today we are going to see about adrenal medulla, adrenal cortex, ovaries, testes, pancreas, parathyroid glands, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland.
Adrenal Medulla: This is a part of one of adrenal gland. It is situated at the middle of the adrenal gland. Adrenal gland is covered by adrenal cortex. The innermost covering of the adrenal gland is adrenal medulla. Important hormones that are secreted by adrenal medulla are adrenaline or epinephrine, noradrenaline or norepinephrine, and dopamine.
Adrenal Cortex: This is the outermost layer of adrenal gland. It covers the outer area of adrenal gland. This outer covering secretes important hormones like mineralaocorticoids, glucocorticoids, cortisol, and aldosterone. The male hormone named androgen is synthsized in this layer.
Ovaries: It is the sexual gland, which produces egg. Ovary is found in pairs in female reproductive system. It is situated in the side wall of the pelvis in the ovarian fossa. The hormones secreted by ovaries are estrogen and progesterone. These hormones decide the secondary sexual characteristic features in women.
Testes: These are the male sexual gland that are homologous to the ovaries. Sperm is produced by testes by a process called spermatogenesis. The hormones secreted by testes are androgen and testosterone. These hormones decide the secondary sexual characteristic features in men.
Pancreas: Pancreas is one of the gland in the human body. This is situated in the digestive system in human. Pancreas is not only function as a digestive organ, but also an endocrine gland. Pancreas secretes pancreatic juice. Pancreas is present behind the stomach. Islets of Langerhans produce hormones from the pancreas.
Parathyroid Glands: These are two small-sized endocrine glands that are present on both sides of thyroid glands in the neck area. Parathyroid hormones produce parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid glands are four in number. The level of calcium in the blood and bones are controlled by these glands.
Pituitary Gland: The other name of pituitary gland is hypophysis. This gland is in the size of a pea. Pituitary gland is present beneath the hypothalamus. It is present at the base of the brain. Anterior pituitary is called adenohypophysis and posterior pituitary is known as neurohypophysis.
In the next lesson, we will see about thyroid gland, adrenaline hormone, androgen, aldosterone, and calcitonin. Okay. Come on.