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Wednesday, November 24, 2010


In this post we will learn some more pathological conditions in the Musculoskeletal system. Rheumatoid arthritis:-  This is a chronic disease in which joints become painful and inflamed. It is believed to be caused by an immune reaction and this reaction is against joint tissues and in which the small joints of the hands and feet are affected first and the larger joints later. Women are generally affected than men. Damaging the articular cartilage and stopping easy movements happen in synovial membranes which become thickened and inflamed. In some of the cases this fibrous forms of tissues calcify creating a bony ankylosis, which is the union or combination at the joint and stopping any movement at all. Swollen and painful joints associations with fever are the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Blood test when taken will show the presence of rheumatoid factor of an antibody and x-rays will show persisting changes around the joints which are affected by the disease. The treatment also consists of heat applications and the drugs such as aspirin, cold compounds, and corticosteroids and these drugs are used to reduce and lower both the inflammation and pain.

Bunion:  The sudden swelling or abnormal swelling of the joint between the big toe and the first metatarsal bone.  Over the disease area of the foot, a bursa develops often and chronic irritation from ill-shaped shoes that can cause a buildup of soft tissue and the underlying bone.  If the treatment measures like changing the shoes and the intake of anti-inflammatory could not help, then it will lead to bunionectomy.

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS):  In this abnormal condition, the nerve it passes between the ligaments, bones, and tendons of the wrist carpal tunnel is affected by the continuous compression on it habitually. The persons are affected by the carpal tunnel syndrome are generally middle-aged women and men.  The symptoms of CTS are pain and burning sensations occur in the fingers and hand. The symptoms in some conditions may occur up to the level of elbow too.  Excessive movement of the wrists, arthritis, hypertrophy, and the swelling of the wrists are the reasons for the development of carpal tunnel syndrome.

Dislocation:  The displacement of replacement of a bone from its joint is called dislocation.  The displaced bones are normally restored to its proper position and immobilizing the joint for healing of the torn ligaments and tendons.  Subluxation is an abnormal condition, in which the bone is partially displaced.

Ganglion:  The development of a cystic mass from a tendon to the wrist is called a ganglion.

In the next post, we will learn about the remaining pathological conditions related to musculoskeletal system. OK.

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Tuesday, November 16, 2010

Muscular Skeletal joints - Pathological conditions - Lesson 226

In this post we will learn some suffixes and their meanings and some Pathological Conditions.    –desis means to bind or to tie together and its terminology is arthrodesis means bones are fixed across the joint space by surgery which is also called artificial ankylosis. This type of operation is conducted when a joint is very painful, chronically infected, or unstable.    –stenosis narrowing means spinal stenosis in which narrowing of the neural canal or nerve root canals in the lumbar spine. Symptoms like pain, paresthesias, urinary retention, or incontinence come from compression of the cauda equina which means nerves that spread out from the lower end of the spinal cord like a horse’s tail.

Some of the Pathological conditions are:-

1. For Arthritis inflammation of joints in which some of the common forms are:

a. Ankylosing spondylitis:- Chronic, progressive arthritis with stiffening of joints, primarily of the spine. Bilateral sclerosis which means hardening of the sacroiliac joints is a diagnostic feature. Changes in joints are same to those seen in rheumatoid arthritis, and the condition responds to corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory drugs.

b. Gouty arthritis:- Inflammation of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the body.
A defect in metabolism of uric acid causes too much of it to accumulate in blood called
Hyperuricemia, joints and soft tissues near joints. The uric acid crystals known as salts destroy the articular cartilage and damage the synovial membrane. A joint mainly affected is the big toe; hence, the condition is often called podagra in which pod/o means foot, -agra means excessive pain. Treatment consists of drugs to lower uric acid production called allopurinol and to prevent inflammation called colchicines and a special diet that avoids foods that are rich in uric acid, such as red meats.

c. Osteoarthritis:- Progressive, degenerative joint disease characterized by loss of articular cartilage and hypertrophy of bone at articular surfaces. This condition also known as degenerative joint disease, occurs mainly in the hips and knees of individuals who are older in age and is marked by a narrowing of the joint space due to loss of cartilage. Treatment consists of aspirin and other analgesics to reduce inflammation and pain and physical therapy to loosen impaired joints.

Why does the faith provision the advisory contempt?

In the next post we would learn some more pathological conditions.

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Thursday, November 11, 2010

Muscular Skeletal joints - Vocabulary terms - Lesson 225

     1.      Articulation means joint. 2.  Bursa means sac of fluid at a joint. 3. Ligament means the connective tissue which binds bones to other bones; or supports and strengthens the joint. 4. Suture joint is a type of joint in which opposed surfaces are closely united. 5. Synovial cavity is the space between bones at a synovial joint. 6. Synovial fluid is the viscous fluid within the synovial cavity. Synovial fluid is as same as the viscosity in egg white; or this results for the origin of the term(syn- means like, ov/o means egg).
     7. Synovial joint is a freely movable joint. 8. Synovial membrane is the membrane lining the synovial cavity. 9. Tendon is the connective tissue which binds muscles to bones.

The Combining Forms with their meanings are listed below.
1. ankyl/o means crooked, bent stiff and its terminology is ankylosis which means a fusion of the bones across a joint space by either bony tissue (bony ankylosis) or growth of fibrous tissue(fibrous ankylosis). This immobility and stiffening of the joint most often occurs in rheumatoid arthritis.

2. arthr/o means joint and its terminology is arthroplasty which is the replacement arthroplasty is the replacement of one or both bone by a prosthesis(artificial part) of metal or plastic.
a. arthrotomy means cutting into a joint.
c. Hydrarthrosis means a swelling in the joint commonly in the knee.
d. Periarthritis means inflammation around the shoulder.
e. Hemarthrosis means bleeding into joint spaces.

3. articul/o means joint and its terminology is articular cartilage.

4. burs/o means bursa and its terminology is bursitis in which Ecology may be related the patient stress placed on the bursa or diseases such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis. Involvement becomes limited and painful. Intrabursal injection of corticosteroids as well as rest and splinting of the limb is helpful in treatment.

5. chondr/o means cartilage and its terminology is achondroplasia which is an inherited condition and the bones of the arms and legs fail to grow into normal size owing to a defect in cartilage and bone formation. Dwarfism occurs, with short limbs and a normal sized head and body.

a.       Chondromalacia patellae is a roughening of the inner surface of the kneecap, resulting in pain, a grating sensation, and instability of movement.
6. ligament/o means ligament and its terminology is ligamentous.

7. rheumat/o means watery flow and its terminology is rheumatologist in which various forms of arthritis are marked by collection of fluid in joint spaces.

8. synov/o means synovial membrane and its terminology is synovitis.

9. ten/o means tendon and its terminology is tenorrhaphy and tenosynovitis.

10. tendin/o means tendon and its terminology means tendinitis.

In the next post we would learn some suffixes and their meanings.

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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...