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Wednesday, March 25, 2009


In this lesson we are going to learn about what are important test related to gastrointestinal system. About these tests, as a medical transcription learner one must know. These lesson consists of STOOL ANALYSES TESTS and LIVER FUNCTION TESTS. We will see about one by one in detail now.

STOOL ANALYSES:  Whenever one gets infected to a disease in the gastrointestinal tract, stool or feces culture is essential to analyze the stool to know about the disease condition. There are two tests are commonly used to analyze stool. They are

1. Hemoccult test or stool guaiac test.
2. Culture of the stool.

1. Hemoccult or stool guaiac test: This test is used to find out the hidden blood cells especially hemoglobin in the stool and its peroxidase action on the stool. This test is an important show test to find out cancer in the colon. For this test guaiac is a chemical essence or resin extracted from trees is supplemented with the stool. Guaiac reacts with the hidden red blood cells in the blood.

2. Stool Culture: This is a transmission process of microorganisms of the feces using a medium. This test shows the unusual or malformed odd microorganisms present in the stool and becomes the cause of the abnormal disease condition.


Liver is the largest gland in the human body, which is present in the right hypochondric area. Liver is under the diaphragm, a muscular membrane divides the thoracic and abdominal cavities. Liver secretes a juice of solution called bile. This liquid is essential for gastric functions such as storeroom for starch created from food and also for protein metabolism. So as an important organ in the gastrointestinal tract, the study of the liver occupation will be of more helpful to monitor the diseases.

The liver function tests consist of
1. Serum bilirubin test.
2. Alkaline phosphatase.
3. SGPT or serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase or ALT (alanine transaminase) or PT (prothrombin time or pro time).
4. SGOT serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase or AST (aspartic acid transaminase) or OT.

We will see about each of the test one by one.

1. Serum bilirubin test: Whenever the bilirubin, a yellowish gastric juice produced by the liver raises, which creates jaundice. When a patient jaundiced his skin, eyes, and other tissues, stools are become yellowish in color. This is called icterus state.

2. Alkaline phosphatase: This is an enzyme test. This is called alk phos. Alkaline phosphatase is found in abnormal levels in the blood serum whenever cancer cells found in the human body or the liver gets diseased, and also in some abnormal liver conditions.

3. SGPT or ALT or PT: Abnormal condition of high level of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase. This is an indication of liver disease.

4. SGOT or AST or OT: Abnormal condition of high level of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase. This is an indication of liver disease.

Note: Serum is a transparent dilute clear liquid found after blood is thickened. Simply the blood gets a fluid form only this is present with blood cells.

This lesson concludes lab test of GI tract. In the next lesson we will learn about GI system lab procedures. Okay.
From the next lesson we will start URINARY SYSTEM..Ok

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To go to the next lesson from here, please click the link below

Sunday, March 15, 2009


1. Bucc/o means cheek or gena. Buccal is pertaining to cheek.
2. Cec/o means cecum or the first part of the large intestine. Cecal hernia is the hernia of the cecum.
3. Celi/o means abdomen. Celiac artery is the artery in the abdomen.
4. Chol/e means bile. Cholecyst is the another name for gallbladder.
5. Cheil/o means lip. Cheilophagia is the abnormal condition of biting of the lips.
6. Cholangi/o means bile duct. Cholangiography is the radiographic examination of the bile ducts.
7. Choledoch/o means common bile duct. Choledochojejunostomy is the creation of a direct communication between the common bile duct and the jejunum by a surgical procedure.

8. Col/o means colon or large intestine. Colocentesis is the surgical puncture of the colon to relieve distention.

9. Colon/o means colon. Colonogram is the visual examination of the colon.

10. Duoden/o means duodenum or the first part of the small intestine. Duodenocholangitis is the inflammation of the duodenum and common bile duct.

11. Dent/i means teeth. Dentia is the process of teeth growth or breakdown. Dentiform means tooth-shaped.

12. Esophag/o means esophagus. Esophagocele is the hernia of the mucous membrane of the esophagus into a tear in the muscular coat.

13. Glyc/o means glucose or sugar. Glycogenesis is the formation of glucose from D-glucose.

14. Gloss/o means language or tongue. Glossocele is the hernia or protrusion of the tongue from the mouth.

15. Gingiv/o means gums. Gingivoplasty is the surgical procedure of reshaping the gum tissues.

16. Gastr/o means stomach or abdomen. Gastrocele is the hernia or protrusion of a portion of the stomach.

17. Herni/o means hernia or rupture. Herniography is the visual examination of a hernia using contrast medium via an injection.

18. Hepat/o means liver. Hepatomegaly is the enlargement of the liver.

19. Jejun/o means jejunum or the middle portion of the intestine. Jejunocolostomy is the surgical procedure of creating communication between the jejunum and the colon.

20. Ile/o means ileum i.e. third longest portion of the small intestine. Ileocecostomy is the surgical procedure called anastomosis to create communication or link.

21. Labi/o means lips. Labiodental is the word relating both lips and teeth.

22. Lingu/o means tongue. Linguoclusion is the dislocation of a tooth.

23. Lip/o means fat or lipid. Liposuction is the method of removing surplus fat using suction tubes percutaneously.

24. Lith/o means stone or calculus or calcification. Lithogenesis is the formation of stone in the body.

25. Odont/o means teeth or teeth. Odontalgia is the pain in the teeth i.e. tootheache.

26. Or/o means mouth. Oropharyngeal is the word relating mouth and the pharynx.

27. Pylor/o means pylorus. Pyloroplasty is the surgical procedure to widen the pyloric canal by an incision.

28. Proct/o means anus or rectum. Proctolysis is the continuous and slow dispensation of saline solution into the anus and sigmoid colon.

29. Pancreat/o means pancreas. Pancreatolith is the stone in the pancreas.

30. Palat/o means palate. Palatoglossal is the word pertaining to both palate and tongue.

31. Rect/o means rectum. Rectoperineal is pertaining to both rectum and perineum.

32. Stomat/o means mouth. Stomatodynia is the pain in the mouth.

33. Steat/o means fat. Steatorrhea is the excessive excretion of fat in feces.

34. Splen/o means spleen. Splenodynia is the pain in the spleen.

35. Sialaden/o means salivary gland. Sialadenitis is the inflammation of the salivary gland.

In the next lesson we will study about Laboratory tests related to digestive system okay..

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To go to the next lesson from here, please click the link below


1. –emesis means vomiting in the combining form used as suffix. Hematemesis means vomiting of blood.

2. –ectasis, -ectasia both mean dilation that is stretching of a blood vessel. Bronchiectasis means dilation of blood tubes. Keratoectasia means bulging forward of the cornea.

3. –lysis means breakdown or destruction. Hemolysis is the destruction or breakdown of blood cells.

4. –phagia means eating or swallowing. Dysphagia is difficulty swallowing. Polyphagia is excessive eating.

4. –pepsia means digestion. Dyspepsia means gastric indigestion that is difficulty in digestion.

5. –plasty means molding that is a surgical procedure. Gastroplasty is the surgical repair of the stomach. Rhinoplasty is the surgical repair of the nose.

6. –ptosis means sinking down or prolapse or sagging of an organ. Blepharoptosis is the sagging of the upper eyelid.

7. –ptysis means expectoration or spitting. Hemoptysis is the spitting of the blood from the lungs.

8. –rrhea means flowing or flux or discharge. Menorrhea is the flow of menses.

9. –rrhaphy means suturing surgically. Herniorrhaphy is the surgically suturing a hernia.

10. –rrhagia or –rrhage means excessive or unusual flow of a liquid. Menorrhagia means flow of excessive blood during menses.

11. –stasis means stopping or stagnation. Hemostasis means stagnation of blood. Venostasis means controlling of flow of blood in the veins.

12. –spasm means involuntary sudden contraction of any muscle. Cardiospasm is the sudden involuntary contraction of the heart muscles.

13. –stenosis means stricture or narrowing of any orifice or tube or canal. Aortic stenosis is the narrowing of an aorta (large blood vessel).

14. –tresia means clausura or opening. Atresia means no opening. Absence of anal opening, this is a congenital defect in some infants. Biliary atresia is the absence of opening in the biliary tract.

In the above list of suffixes, some can be used unaccompanied as unconnected term. They as a single word give a separate meaning. They are as follows:

1. Stenosis means stricture. Bronchial stenosis is the stricture or narrowing of bronchus.

2. Stasis means stagnation. Palpillary stasis is the edema of the optic disk due to increased intracranial pressure.

3. Spasm means sudden involuntary tightening of any muscle. Bell spasm is the sudden involuntary jerking or twitching of the facial muscles. The other word for this term is facial spasm or facial tic.

4. Lysis means destruction or breakdown. Bystander lysis is the complement-mediated lysis of nearby cells in the neighborhood of accompaniment activation site.

5. Emesis means vomiting. Antiemetic or emesis is a kind of drug used to stop vomiting.

6. Ptosis means drooping. Aponeurogenic ptosis is the sinking of the eyelid due to dehiscence of the tendon of the levator muscle.

7. Ectasia means dilation. Mammary duct ectasia is the dilation of mammary ducts.

In the next lesson we will see gastrointestinal combining forms.

To go to the next lesson from here please click the below link below

Wednesday, March 11, 2009


1. Cirrhosis- This is an end-stage liver disease described by diffuse damage to hepatic parenchymal cells. This makes nodular regeneration, fibrosis, and disturbance of normal architecture. Cirrhosis is associated with failure in the function of hepatic cells and interference with blood flow in the liver, and often resulting in jaundice, portal hypertension, ascites, and ultimately biochemical and functional signs of hepatic failure.

2. Gallstones (biliary calculus or cholelith)- A collection of bile in the gallbladder or a bile duct and becomes hard to create gallstones. A gallstone is composed mainly of a mixture of cholesterol, calcium bilirubinate, and calcium carbonate, sometimes as an unmixed stone composed of just one of these substances.

3. Pancreatitis- Inflammation of the pancreas. The etiology of this disease is unknown. Alcoholism or gallstones or trauma in the abdomen or drugs may develop inflammation in the pancreas. Gastric juices too attack tissues of the pancreas and damage the gland.

4. Viral hepatitis- Seven immunologically unrelated viruses such as hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, hepatitis E virus, hepatitis F virus, hepatitis G virus develop inflammation in the liver. Hepatitis may be caused sometimes also through viral infection, such as by Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus.

In the next lesson we will study more medical terminologies related to digestive system. Okay.

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below


1. Achalasia- Malfunction of lower esophageal sphincter muscles fail to relax referring especially to visceral openings such as the pylorus, cardia, or any other sphincter muscles. Due to this condition peristaltic function of the esophagus fails and food cannot pass through the esophagus. A plain diet, which is low in bulk and the expansion of the lower esophageal sphincter or ELS are the curative measures of this symptom.

2. Anal fistula- This is an abnormal tube-like duct near the anus connects with the rectum. An anal fissure is a narrow cut in the anal wall.

3. Colonic polyposis- Occurrence of numerous polyps i.e. small growths from the mucous membrane of the colon.

4. Colorectal cancer- Carcinoma of the colon and rectum or of both. This disease condition may happen due to the beef diet, which is not cooked well, and the entry of the bacteria from that diet in the colon that increases the level of fatty acids and bile in the blood. These are the factors or carcinogens of this cancer. The treatment for this cancer is chemotherapy and radiation depends on the extent of spread of disease.

5. Crohn’s disease (regional enteritis)- chronic inflammation of the intestines of unknown cause including the terminal ileum and less frequently other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. This is described by patchy deep ulcers that may cause fistulas, and narrowing and thickening of the bowel by fibrosis and lymphocytic infiltration, with noncaseating tuberculoid granulomas, and these also may be found in regional lymph nodes. The symptoms of Crohn’s disease include fever, diarrhea, cramping abdominal pain, and weight loss.

6. Diverticula- The pouches or sacs opening from a tubular or saccular organ, such as the gut or bladder in the intestinal wall.

7. Dysentery- Inflamed instestines with severe pain. The bacteria named salmonellae or shigellae, or amebae from the ingested food or water are the causes of this disease condition. Due to the any of the above factors generally colon gets inflamed, and so colitis, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps happen.

8. Esophageal varices- Swollen and twisted longitudinal venous varices at the distal end of the esophagus as a result of portal hypertension. They are superficial and accountable to ulceration and massive bleeding.

9. Hemorrhoids (piles)- Varices that is swollen and twisted varicose condition of the external hemorrhoidal veins causing sore swellings at the rectal area.

10. Hernia (rupture)- Overhanging of a part or structure through the muscle tissues generally containing it. A hiatal hernia is a hernia in which the upper portion of the abdomen through the esophageal notch of the diaphragm. An inguinal hernia happens when a small sphere of the bowel projects through a tired place in the lower abdominal muscle wall that is groin.

11. Ileus- Involuntary, vibrant, or inactive obstruction of the bowel; may be accompanies by severe colicky pain, abdominal distention, vomiting, absence of passage of stool, and often fever and dehydration. The cause of this condition probably be a tumor, absence of peristalsis, heavy lifting or coughing.

12. Intussusception- telescoping of the intestines. This state of intestines happens in general in children in common in ileocecal region. Anastomosis is the procedure done to cure this condition.

13. Irritable bowel syndrome- This abnormality is a combination of a group of symptoms such as diarrhea and constipation, lower abdominal pain with bloating accompanied with stress and tension. This condition is also called spastic colon. Treatment for this condition is probably psychotherapy by which the stress is managed with medications such as bulk-forming laxatives and antidiarrheals to relieve the symptoms. A high fiber and bran would make the stools soft and regular bowel movements get established.

14. Ulcer or erosion (ulcus)- A cut through the skin or a mucous membrane resulting from damage of tissue, usually with swelling and redness. Gastric or duodenal ulcers are examples. The combination of bacteria, more hydrochloric acid, and pepsin, a gastric juice damage the epithelial lines of intestines and form lesions called peptic ulcers. The source of the duodenal ulcer is believed to be by the bacteria called Helicobacter pylori or in short H. pylori.

15. Ulcerative colitis- This is chronic disease in nature. The cause is unknown. This gives ulceration both colon and rectum resulting in rectal bleeding, mucosal crypt abscesses, inflammatory pseudopolyps, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Often anemia, hypoproteinemia, and electrolyte imbalance will be the signs, and is less frequently complicated by peritonitis, toxic megacolon, or carcinoma of the colon.

16. Volvulus- Twisting of the intestine making barriers. If not treated in time may effect in vascular compromise of the involved intestine.

Next post is the continuation of this that is disease conditions of liver, gallbladder, and pancreas..ok
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To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below


1. Aphthous stomatitis (aphtha)- Idiopathic or cause unknown oral ulcers of small in size due to inflammation with formation of a gray exudate. This condition is also called canker sores. Aphth/o means ulcer.

2. Dental caries- Tooth decomposition or tooth decay. a localized, increasingly damaging disease of the teeth which starts at the external surface (usually the enamel) with the obvious termination of the inorganic components by organic acids that are produced in immediate nearness to the tooth by the enzymatic action of masses of microorganisms (in the bacterial plaque) on carbohydrates.

3. Herpetic stomatitis- Inflammation of the gums, lips, palate, and tongue i.e. whole mouth by the herpesvirus.
4. Oral leukoplakia (smoker’s patches)- A white patch of oral or female genital mucous membrane that cannot be cleaned off and cannot be diagnosed clinically as any particular disease. This is a precancerous state. The etiological factors are chronic alcohol and tobacco use.

5. Periodontal disease- Disease due to the inflammation of the gums, teeth, and surround tissues called pyorrhea (py/o means pus).
In the next lesson we will learn more about disease conditions of gastrointestinal tract..ok
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To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below


NOTE:  1. Etiology means the cause of the disease and the treatment for that disease. Eti/o means cause.
2. Idiopathic means the cause of the disease is not known or not be understood. Idi/o means not known.


1. Ascites- Collection of watery serous fluids abnormally in the stomach. May be due to this sometimes the accumulated fluid leaks out of the bloodstream and gathers in the peritoneal cavity. This can be the symptoms of inflammatory disorder or neoplasm of the abdomen, venous hypertension caused by cirrhosis, and heart failure.

2. Anorexia- Lessened need to eat i.e. less appetite (-orexia means appetite). This is may be the sign of liver disease or growth of abnormal cells called malignancy. Anorexia nervosa is the disease condition in which less appetite is caused due to emotional difficulties such as worries, nervousness, and anger.

3. Achlorhydria- Abnormal condition of lack of gastric juice or hydrochloric acid in the abdomen.

4. Constipation- Intermittent or irregular of incomplete bowel movements. The bowel movement is difficult and delayed excretion of undigested food from the anus. A laxative is a medicine useful to cure this condition. A cathartic is an laxative agent. In constipation the stools are very solid and waterless.

5. Colic- A sudden and involuntary pain in the abdomen. This pain is acute in nature. This is caused by spasms of the intestinal muscles. Colic includes cramps and contractures may happen during infancy especially first three months of an infant due to the swallowing of air called aerophagia, overfeeding in a rapid manner, and milk allergy.

6. Dysphagia- Troubled swallowing or difficulty in swallowing, which may be even painful. This problem happens due to the spontaneous movements of the esophagus. The food passageway may be blocked by a cancer or swelling.

7. Diarrhea- Frequent release or discharge of semisolid or watery fecal matter or stools. These symptoms may happen due to an infection or toxin in the gastric tract and probably happen after the meal. These stools may be watery or bloody.

8. Flatus- The gas or air drives out from the anus.

9. Gastroesophageal reflux- The contents of the food go over into the esophagus possibly may be also into the pharynx, and aspiration may also happen if the food aspirated between the vocal cords and down into the trachea. Aspiration is a pulmonary complication. The symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux are heartburn and acid taste in the mouth called acidity. This may also happen due to an abnormal condition called hiatal hernia, in which the swelling of the abdominal wall upwards toward the esophagus.

10. Hematochezia- Excretion of bright red blood from the rectum. This may happen in association with colonic tumors, hemorrhoids, and ulcerative colitis.

11. Jaundice- bile pigments excreted and a yellowish tinting of the sclerae, deeper tissues, and the skin. This gives yellowish-orange coloration to the skin and other tissues due to high bilirubin in the blood. Jaundice is also called icterus. This may happen due to malfunction of the hepatocytes or liver cells called hepatopathy, which stops the mixture of bilirubin with bile. Choledocholithiasis is a condition of presence of stones in the common bile duct, which stops bilirubin and bile being excreted into the intestines. The another reason for jaundice is undue breakdown of red blood cells in hemolysis makes surplus bilirubin in the blood.

12. Melena- Excretion of tarry, black, dark brown color stool due to the presence of blood in the feces due to the alteration by the intestinal juices. This may be a sign of bleeding above the duodenum with bleeding ulcers.

13. Nausea- A tendency to vomit, which gives an unlikable sensation from the abdomen. Seasickness is the old name for this condition. Irritation of nerve endings in the stomach or any other part of the body is also a cause for this condition. Obstruction of the bile duct, stomach, or intestine, a puncture in any of the abdominal organ, or any poison materials in the gastrointestinal tract may create this condition.

14. Steatorrhea- Excretion of excessive fat from the feces. The malabsorption of fat would gather more fat remain in the abdomen. The cause of this abnormality is due to pancreatitis or enteritis.
Next post is the continuation of this post, in the next post we will study about important oral cavity and teeth disease conditions..ok

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To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below

Sunday, March 8, 2009


1. Amyl/o means starch-amylase is the enzyme digests starch.
2. Bil/i means bile or gall-bilary is pertaining to bile. Biliary tract consists of liver and gallbladder and the hepatic duct, cystic duct, and the common bile duct that secrete and empty the bile into the duodenum.
3. Bilirubin/o means bilirubin or bile pigment-hyperbilirubinemia is the excessive secretion of bilirubin in the blood.
4. Chol/e means gall or bile-cholelithiasis is the abnormal condition of stone in the bile.
5. Gluc/o means sugar or glucose-glucolysis the process of converting the stored glucose into energy.
6. Glycogen/o means glycogen or animal-glycogenolysis is the breaking down of glycogen.

7. Lith/o means stone-cholecystolithiasis is the abnormal condition of stone in the gallbladder.

8. Lip/o means fat-lipoma is the benign neoplasm of fat tissue consists of mature fat cells.

9. Sial/o means saliva or salivary-sialolith is the stone in the salivary glands.

10. Steat/o means fat-steatocystoma is the abnormal condition of cyst in the sebaceous gland cell walls.


1. –ase means enzyme-lipase is an enzyme digesting fat.

2. –chezia means excretion or defecation of undigested wastes-hematochezia is the excretion of blood in the feces.

3. –iasis means unhealthy or abnormal state. Trichiniasis is an abnormal condition due to ingestion of inadequately cooked pork.

4. –osis means unhealthy or abnormal state. Trichinosis is an abnormal condition due to ingestion of inadequately cooked pork.

5. –prandial means meal. Postprandial is pertaining to after meals.

In the next lesson we will learn about gastrointestinal disease conditions..ok
Come on..

To go to the next lesson from here click the link below


1. Append/o means appendix-appendectomy is the surgical removal of the appendix.

2. An/o means anus-the opening between buttock cheeks by which the feces are excreted. Perianal means around the anus.

3. Bucc/o means cheek-the lateral of the mouth forms the side of the face. Buccal mucosa is the mucous area in the cheek.

4. Celi/o means abdomen or belly-celiac means concerning to abdomen.

5. Cheil/o means lips-cheilosis is the abnormal condition of lips.
6. Choledoch/o means common bile duct-choledochotomy is the incision of common bile duct.

7. Cholecyst/o means common gallbladder-cholecystectomy is surgical removal of gallbladder.

8. Col/o means large intestine or colon-colostomy is the opening in the colon.

9. Colon/o means colon-colonic means concerning to colon. Colonoscopy is the viewing process of the colon.

10. Dent/i means tooth dentibuccal means concerning to the teeth and cheek.

11. Duoden/o means duodenum. Duodenal is concerning to duodenum.

12. Esophag/o means esophagus-esophageal is concerning to esophagus.

13. Enter/o means intestines particularly small intestines enterocentesis is the surgical puncture of the intestine to remove the substances using a needle. Enterocholecystostomy is the surgically creating an opening between the intestine and the gallbladder.

14. Faci/o means face-facial is concerning to face.

15. Gloss/o means tongue-glossocele is the protrusion and swelling of the tongue, also called macroglossia.

16. Gingiv/o means gums of the teeth-gingivitis is the inflammation of the gums.

17. Gastr/o means stomach or abdomen-gastrocele is the hernia of a part of the stomach. Gastrochronorrhea is the nonstop undue secretion from the stomach.

18. Hepat/o means liver-hepatocarcinoma or hepatoma is the malignant tumor of the liver cells. Hepatomegaly is the enlargement of the liver.

19. Ile/o means ileum or the longest third portion of the small intestine-ileostomy is the surgical opening of the ileum. Ileitis if the inflammation of the ileum. Ileocecal sphincter is the valve at the opening of the cecum.

20. Jejun/o means jejunum or the portion of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum. Gastrojejunostomy is the opening between the stomach and jejunum.

21. Labi/o means lip-labial is concerning to lip.

22. Lapar/o means abdomen-laparoscopy is the process of viewing abdomen through an instrument.

23. Lingu/o means tongue-sublingual is concerning to below the tongue.

24. Mandibul/o means mandible or lower jaw-submandibular is concerning to below the lower jaw.

25. Or/o means mouth-oral is concerning to mouth.

26. Odont/o means tooth-orthodontist is a dentist who straighten the teeth. Periodontist is a dentist treating all the abnormal conditions of teeth.

27. Proct/o means anus and rectum-a proctologist is a specialist who treats anus and rectum.

28. Peritone/o means peritoneum or a thin layer covering the lines of the abdominal cavity and the most of the viscera in the abdomen. Peritonitis is the inflammation of the peritoneum.

29. Pharyng/o means pharynx or throat-pharyngeal is concerning to pharynx.

30. Pancreat/o means pancreas-pancreatitis is the inflammation of the pancreas.

31. Palat/o means palate, which is dividing the nasal and oral cavities. Palatoplasty is a surgical repair of the palate.

32. Pylor/o means pyloric sphincter-pyloroplasty is the surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter.

33. Rect/o means rectum-rectolysis is the paralysis in the rectum makes feces incontinence.

34. Stomat/o means mouth-stomatitis is the inflammation of the mouth with ulcers.

35. Sigmoid/o means sigmoid colon-sigmoidoscopy is the visual examination of the sigmoid colon.

36. Sialaden/o means salivary gland-sialadenitis is the inflammation of the salivary gland.

In the next lesson we will learn more about gastrointestinal terms..ok

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Thursday, March 5, 2009


1. Palate- The roof between the nasal and oral cavities in the mouth, those are of muscular (soft palate) and bony (hard palate) in structure.

2. Pancreas-this organ situated beneath the stomach, which produces insulin to convey of glucose into cells and the enzymes essential for the digestion This gland is of both exocrine and endocrine in nature. The exocrine division produces pancreatic juice, and the endocrine division produces insulin and glucagon.

3. Papillae- small nipple-like processes on top of the tongue. The small risings from the tongue.

4. Peristalsis- The alternate wave-like movement of the intestines making contractions and relaxations so that the contents of food are forced forward

5. Pharynx- Long drawn out portion of the digestive tube amid the esophagus under the mouth and nasal cavities called throat. This is the common tube for food from the mouth and air from the nose.

6. Pulp- Soft, soggy, sound solid tissue within a teeth, which contains blood vessels and nerves.

7. Pyloric sphincter- The circular layer of the gastric musculature, which is a ring like structure surrounding the gastroduodenal intersection at the distal area of the stomach.

8. Rugae- It literally means wrinkle, ridge, or a fold, which are on the hard palate and the walls of the stomach.

9. Saliva- A tasteless, odorless, some acidic digestive juice secreted inside the mouth produced by the salivary glands.

10. Salivary glands- These are three in number, they are parotid, sublingual, and submandibular. These are exocrine glands in nature as they have no ducts found in the oral cavity.

11. Sphincter- Muscle ring found and surrounds a tube (especially in the intestinal tube).

12. Sigmoid colon- An S-shaped curve amid the pelvic edge and third sacral part continuous with the rectum. This is the lower portion of the colon.

13. Stomach- This is amid the esophagus and the intestines lying under the diaphragm. This is about 25-28 cm in length and 10-15 cm in diameter with the capacity of about 1 L. This is an muscular organ obtains food as of the esophagus. Digestion starts here and continuing in the duodenum next to it.

14. Triglycerides- Fat molecules large in structure consist of three fatty molecules, the one in three is glycerol.

15. Uvula- A fleshy mass of soft tissue lynching from the soft palate in the mouth.

16. Villi (singular-villus)-Small minute ridges or projections found in the walls of the small intestine. These projections absorb the food nutrients into the bloodstream.

In the next lesson we will study about important gastrointestinal medical terminologies..ok

Come on..
To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below


1. Emulsification-large fat molecular globules break up into smaller molecular globules. This increases the surface area of the fat and then fat is digested by the enzymes.

2. Enzyme- A protein that speeds up a reaction between chemical substances as a catalyst to induce chemical changes in other substances, itself remaining apparently unchanged by the process.

3. Esophagus- The portion of the digestive canal between the pharynx and stomach. It is about 25 cm long and consists of three parts: the cervical part, from the cricoid cartilage to the thoracic inlet; the thoracic part, from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm; and the abdominal part, below the diaphragm to the cardiac opening of the stomach.

4. Feces- bowel discharge while defecation or excretion, they are solid wastes called stools consist of food residues, epithelium, mucus of the intestines, waste food materials, and bacteria.

5. Fatty acids- the acids developed during fat digestion called hydrolysis. These acids contain long chains of monobasic organic acid.

6. Glycogen- principal carbohydrate reserve found in liver and muscle and converted into glucose. They are animal starch material. These are stored in the liver as glycogen.

7. Glucose- carbohydrates or simple sugars.

8. Gallbladder- on the inferior surface of the liver, there is one sac like pear-shaped structure, which stores bile.

9. Hydrochloric acid- an essential acid for digestion produced by the stomach called gastric juice. Another name is muriatic acid.

10. Hepatic portal system- the small blood capillaries carrying blood to the liver. These vessels are in abdominal viscera.

11. Insulin- the beta cells of islets of Langerhans of the pancreas produces this hormone. This is an polypeptide hormone supports utilization of glucose, protein synthesis, and the production and storage of neutral lipids.

12. Incisor- four frontal teeth in the dental arch

13. Ileum- Intestine-third part, which is the longest part of the small intestine for about 12 feet in length in human, which is slightly twisted in structure. Lesser in diameter than the second part.

14. Jejunum-Second part of the small intestine for about 8 feet in length. This part is probably mostly empty all the time. Larger in diameter with a thicker wall and being more vascular in nature, so in red color.

15. Liver-Largest organ in the right upper quadrant and the largest gland in the body, which lies underneath the diaphragm in the right hypochondrium and the upper part of the epigastric region. The liver only secretes bile and stores glucose and vitamins, and manufactures blood proteins, and also wipe out red blood cells. The normal adult liver weight is 2.5 to 3 pounds.

16. Mastication- the process of chewing food preparing for swallowing the food and digestion. Teeth grind food by communicating with the food.

17. Parotid gland- This is the largest salivary gland situated inferior and anterior to the ear on either side of the face.

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1. Anus- The lower opening of the digestive tract, lying in the cleft between the buttocks, through which fecal matter is extruded.

2. Amylase- One of a group of hydrolyzing enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen secreted by the pancreas.

3. Amino Acids- acids containing ammonium digest protein and are the building material of proteins.

4. Appendix- A wormlike intestinal diverticulum extending from the blind end of the cecum; it varies in length and ends in a blind extremity. (ap-means on, pend/o means hanging).

5. Alimentary canal-food canal i.e. gastrointestinal tract. Alimentum means nourishment.

6. Absorption-Taking in of food through the intestinal walls and then absorption of it into the bloodstream.

7. Bowel- Intestine

8. Bilirubin- A yellow bile pigment found as sodium bilirubinate (soluble), or as an insoluble calcium salt in gallstones; formed from hemoglobin during normal and abnormal destruction of erythrocytes by the reticuloendothelial system; a bilin with substituents on the 2, 3, 7, 8, 12, 13, 17, and 18 carbon atoms and with oxygens on carbons 1 and 19. Excess bilirubin is associated with jaundice.

9. Bile- The yellowish brown or green fluid secreted by the liver and discharged into the duodenum where it aids in the emulsification of fats, increases peristalsis, and retards putrefaction; contains sodium glycocholate and sodium taurocholate, cholesterol, biliverdin and bilirubin, mucus, fat, lecithin, and cells and cellular debris.

10. Common bile duct-This carries the bile from the liver, gallbladder, and duodenum.

11. Cecum- The cul-de-sac, about 6 cm in depth, lying below the terminal ileum forming the first part of the large intestine.

12. Colon- The division of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum, which consists of ascending, transverse, and descending parts.

13. Canine teeth-referring to the cuspid or point, dog-like, canine, distal to the incisors. The another name for this teeth is eyeteeth.

14. Deglutition-the act of swallowing.

15. Dentin-this is a protective layer covered by enamel in the crown of a teeth, which is composed of cementum.

16. Digestion- The mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic process whereby ingested
food is converted into material suitable for assimilation for synthesis of tissues or
liberation of energy.

17. Duodenum- The first division of the small intestine, about 25 cm or 12 fingerbreadths in length, extending from the pylorus to the junction with the jejunum at the level of the first or second lumbar vertebra on the left side.
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The Longest Medical Word

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