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Friday, December 30, 2011

Information on Vertigo - Lesson 291


As of now, we have studied lessons about sense organs in our free medical transcription course series. In this post, we will learn about information on vertigo. What is vertigo? It is a sort of reeling sensation. It makes one feel like a sensation of losing balance. The main reason behind this abnormal condition is due to the intrusion in the inner ear. The person who is affected by vertigo will feel like the surrounding to be spun rapidly. The root causes of this whirling motion are labyrinthitis or acoustic neuroma. Labyrinthitis is the inflammatory condition of inner ear and acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor developed in the nerve that connects brain to the ear. Vertigo is sometimes accompanied by vomiting sensation, loss of balance, and over-sweating.

Types of Vertigo: Some persons may feel vertigo sensation just for a few minutes or a few seconds only and then it may resolve. This condition is called benign paroxysmal positional vertigo or BPPV. In some cases, vertigo may be associated with some other ear abnormalities such as vestibular migraine, Meniere's disease, vestibular neuritis, etc.,

Vertigo in Children: Vertigo is an uncommon condition in children, as the children cannot reveal this condition. A study proved that about 16% of the population in children are affected by vertigo. Presence of vertigo can be examined in children only performing ear visual examinations. General cause of the vertigo in children is BPPV in most cases.

Vertigo Treatment: The common medical treatment for vertigo is based on the diagnosis condition. The treatment differs based on the biological causes. If the inflammation of the ear is due to any bacteria, then antibiotic treatment would be the best solution. For the patients with Meniere's disease will be given sodium solution to increase the urinary output apart from antibiotic treatment. Some physical exercises are also recommended by the physician to the patients with BPPV.

Tags: info on vertigo, information on vertigo, types of vertigo, vertigo children, vertigo treatment, vertigo tinnitus

Saturday, December 24, 2011

Immunization Schedule for Babies - Lesson 290


Immunization schedule for babies is an important thing to maintain a child to prevent from some dangerous infections from viruses and also to maintain immunity. Immune vaccine shots should be applied to all children on a timely basis and should be followed by parents very carefully without fail. Now we will see the types of vaccines. There are BCG vaccines, DPT vaccine, oral polio vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine, hemophilus influence type b vaccine, MMR vaccine (Mumps, measles, rubella), TT or tetanus vaccine. All these seven types of vaccines must be given to any child in certain time periods without any delay. Now we will see your baby's age and the vaccine for the age in weeks to months one by one. On birth of a child, BCG vaccine, oral polio and hepatitis B vaccine should be administered. 

After the six weeks, DPT first one dose and oral polio second dose also should be administered along with hepatitis B vaccine second dose and hemophilus influence type b vaccine. Once the child's age reaches 10 weeks,  the child should be given DPT second dose, oral polio vaccine third dose and again hemophilus influence type b vaccine second dose. After 10 weeks of child birth, oral polio vaccine third dose, hemophilus influence type b second dose and DPT third dose are to be administered. After completing 14 weeks, any infant must be administered with oral polio vaccine fourth dose along with hemophilus influence type b vaccine third dose.

Once any infant attains six months to nine months of age, it should be given oral polio fifth dose with hepatitis B vaccine third dose. After 9 months of age, any child should be injected measles vaccine and hepatitis A vaccine booster. After 1 year of age, the child should be given varicella chickenpox vaccine and MMR or measles, mumps, rubella vaccine. After the age of 15 months to 18 months, the child should be provided with DPT booster dose first dose with oral polio vaccine of sixth dose. After above 5 years of age, second dose of DPT booster with polio vaccine seventh dose should be given. After 10 years of age, TT or tetanus third booster dose and hepatitis B vaccine booster dose should be given. After 16 years of age, TT or tetanus fourth booster dose should be administered.

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Wednesday, December 21, 2011

How to Heal Tinnitus? - Lesson 289


What is tinnitus? This is a sign of some ear diseases, such as Miniere's disease, abnormal bone growth in the middle ear, age-related hearing loss, chronic ear inflammation, inflammation in the labyrinth, and/or any other ear abnormalities. Tinnitus affects a person's day-to-day life activities if it is severe.  Making the patient relaxed would be a good treatment if this is the reason behind it. Medically tinnitus means tinkling sensation. In other words, tinnitus makes ringing sensation inside the ears. It is really a disturbing sensation for an individual. Tinnitus will happen in the ears even with the absence of any sounds from the surroundings. But it is not a disease kind, but it may exhibit as a symptom for any other underlying ear diseases. A drug named benzadiazepine, if consumes in high doses may cause tinnitus in the ears. Radio-surgery treatment using gamma knife, teflon device set-up, clearing wax from the ear canal are the common treatment to heal tinnitus.

Hearing Loss Tinnitus:  It is very common that most people with tinnitus would have some degree of hearing loss. The amount of hearing loss can be measured only after performing hearing examination in the patient who suffers from tinnitus. Once any patient is identified with tinnitus will commonly be fitted with hearing aid device in his or her ears. If the hearing aids are not supporting enough, tinnitus maskers will be tried next to it. Tinnitus instrument is a device that is manufactured by combining both hearing aid device and tinnitus maskers and which is helpful in treating tinnitus and hearing loss.

Tinnitus Home Remedy: Tinnitus is not a real disease condition. It is just a side effect due to other medications consumed by the patient for other disease causes. Tinnitus is also a symptom of any other underlying ear diseases. Apple cider vinegar and T-Gone remedies are used to reduce the tinnitus. Rest and anxiety reduction may also be helpful in relieving tinnitus if these are the psychological causes behind it.

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Sunday, December 18, 2011

Otitis Media in Adults - Lesson 288

Chronic Serous Otitis Media: It is an abnormal condition of inflammatory condition in the middle ear and so serum is accumulated inside. Generally it occurs in between the tympanic membrane and the inner ear. The main symptom is earache. Otitis media is not a serious condition other than it creates pain inside the ear and it may heal in a one or two months time period. When a person is affected with it, a pressure sensation will happen in the eardrum i.e. tympanic membrane and so the area is painful. The main cause of otitis media is infection by some bacteria or virus or any fungus. The main bacterias such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae, and viruses like RSV (respiratory syncytial virus). Cold condition may lead to this condition and so ear pains for a few days or weeks. Sometimes eardrum may break and so pus forms inside the ear. Small children are prone to otitis media generally under the 10 years of age. This can be visually found out by examining the tympanic membrane. Only performing otoscope or a tympanometer examination would not reveal the disease condition inside the ear. 

Treatment of serous otitis media is the surgical correction performed in the eardrum to release the excessive pressure in the eardrum. To free the air circulation, tympanostomy tubes can also be placed inside.

Suppurative Otitis Media: It is an abnormal condition of infection by bacteria and so pus is formed in the middle ear. The cause of infection may be streptococcus bacteria or staphylococcus bacteria. The treatment is the application of antibiotics.  In chronic conditions, myringotomy may be ordered to prevent hearing loss.

In the next lesson, we will learn about vertigo and tinnitus. Every learner of free medical transcription course should memorize these disease conditions while learning this. These terms will be helpful while doing practice audio files or live files.

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Tuesday, December 13, 2011

Common Ear Diseases - Lesson 287


Free medical transcription course website provides you free lessons to learn the subject on a weekly thrice basis. Anyone who is interested in learning medical transcription can use these lessons for their reference while learning online or in any institutions. We will help you. Every once in a while, you should go through the medical terms learnt here and memorize them and these terms will be very useful when you involve in live medical transcription files. In this lesson, we will deal about common ear diseases, such as Meniere's disease and otosclerosis.

In ear diseases, Meniere's disease is one kind. Meniere's disease is an abnormality of the inner ear on the labyrinth. This disease happens when the pressure in the cochlea increases because of the increased pressure by endolymph. This affects normal balance and hearing ability. The main symptoms of Meniere's disease are tinnitus and increased sensitivity to louder sounds. Headache, vertigo, and nausea are also accompanying symptoms. The cause of the disease is not yet recognized. Treatment for Meniere's disease is rest in bed and medications to combat nausea and vertigo. In some cases, surgery is also recommended to release the pressure inside the ear by the endolymph. This is one of the common ear diseases.

Otosclerosis Symptoms:  Otosclerosis is an abnormal state of thickening of labyrinth bony tissue in the ear. Hearing loss would happen due to otosclerosis. The thickening bone will cover the area around the oval window and so the ossicle gets stiffened. This condition is called ankylosis. The result of this condition is conduction hearing loss or conduction deafness. The treatment for this condition is surgical removal of stapes bone or stapedectomy and the damaged area is replaced by a graft by fatty tissue. Hearing is recovered by setting a prosthesis equipment of stainless wire. We will see more about other common ear diseases in the next post.

In the next post, we will learn about Otitis Media. Okay. Come on.

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Tuesday, December 6, 2011

Diseases of the Ear - Lesson 286



In this post, we will deal with diseases of the ear, acoustic neuroma and cholesteatoma. We will also learn some important suffixes of ear. Due to the diseases in the ear, one person may get some hearing loss or pain and so the quality of the life is affected in all. In the more complicated conditions, deafness or brain tumor or paralysis may happen. To avoid such serious conditions, proper diagnosis and treatment at the right time is important. In hearing process, all the outer, middle, and inner ears take part. Sound waves from environment enter through the outer ear and travels through the middle ear through three small bones, named ossicles and then the sound wave travels inside the inner ear to vibrate the eardrum.

Acoustic Neuroma: This is an abnormal condition in the ear of formation of a tumor on the eight cranial nerve in the brain that arises from acoustic nerve. The main symptom of acoustic neuroma is ringing in the ears, dizziness or vertigo and reduced hearing. These tumors if they are in small sizes can be removed using surgical methods named ablation method using radiosurgery. In radiosurgery method, radiation is used to remove the tumor other than any surgical incision equipment. This is one of the bad diseases of the ear.

Cholesteatoma: This is an abnormal condition in the ear of formation of extended growth of keratinizing squamous epithelium. This happens in the middle ear or in the mastoid process. Skin cells are collected in a pouch in the middle ear. The main reason for cholesteatoma formation is chronic otitis media and tympanic membrane perforation.

Now we will see some important ear suffixes.
-cusis means hearing. Presbycusis is a kind of deafness happens by a nerve due to the aging process.
-otia means any abnormal condition in the ear. Microtia is a birth defect in children with underdeveloped flap of the ear called pinna.

We will see more diseases of the ear in the next post. Okay. Come on.

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Sunday, December 4, 2011

Medical Terminology for Ear - Lesson 285



Ear is the important organ in the body and in the medical language, there are many words related to it. We will see some important medical terminology for ear in this post.

Ot/o means ear. Otomycosis is an abnormal condition of ear infection by a fungus. Otolaryngologist is a specialist who specializes in earn and larynx treatment.

Ossicul/o means ossicle. Ossiculoplasty is a surgical procedure of reconstruction of ossicle.

Myring/o means eardrum. Myringotomy is a surgical procedure to correct the eardrum.

Staped/o means stapes. Stapes is the third bone of the middle ear. Stapedectomy is the surgical correction of stapes bone in the middle ear.

Salping/o means auditory tube. The other name of auditory tube is eustachian tube. Salpingopharyngeal fold is a mucous membrane that is extended from the beneath of torus tubarius.

Tympan/o means middle ear. The other meaning is eardrum. Tympanoplasty is the surgical procedure done to correct the eardrum.

On the day to day life of a medical transcription professional, he or she is in the position to hear these terminologies dictated by the physicians or their registered nurses everyday. Every learner should memorize these words before starting the voice file tests. It should be learnt to how to pronounce each medical word and their meaning and their exact spelling. Then only the listening skill will improve. From the next post, we will learn about some important suffixes of ear and some abnormal disease conditions of ears. Okay. Come on.

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Saturday, December 3, 2011

Ear Medical Combining Forms - Lesson 284


This post explains about medical combining forms about ear. Each medical word in the medical language consists of three elements, such as root, suffix, and prefix. Medical words are rooted from Latin language. We will see some important combining forms related to ears now. A combining form is the beginning of a medical word that is called prefix that is connected to the suffix of the with a connector named root /o/. For example, smyositis, it means pain in the muscles. In this word, my/o is the prefix connected to a suffix, itis, by a connector /o/.

Ear Combining Forms Medical:  Audi/o is a word that means hearing. It also means the sense of sounds. For example audiography. It means recoding and editing of sound tracks.
Mastoid/o means mastoid process. Mastoiditis means inflammation of the mastoid process. This is an extended portion projection beneath the temporal bone.
Acou/o means also hearing. The example word is acoustics. It is the study of mechanical waves in gases.
Aur/o means ear. Aural means pertaining to ears.
Cochle/o means cochlea. Cochlear implant is a device attached to the cochlea for hearing disability.
Audit/o means hearing. Auditory nerve is a word releated to the hearing nerve in the head.
Auricul/o means auricle. Auricle is another word for pinna, the external flap portion of the ear. Auriculectomy is a procedure done to remove the auricle.

In the next lesson, we will see about the rest of the important medical combining forms related to the ears.

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Friday, December 2, 2011

Medical Terminology for Ear - Lesson 283


In the prior lesson, we have been introduced to the new ear medical terminology of a few important words. In this lesson also we will learn a few more imporant medical terminology for ear, such as, ossicle, oval window, perilymph, pinna, saccule, semicircular canals, stapes, tympanic membrane, and utricle. Learners should memorize these terms after reading the lesson and so it will be remembered while doing medical transcription files on a day-to-day basis.

Utricle and Saccule:   These are the two vertebrate parts of the inner ear. The other name of the utricle is utriculus. Saccule acts as a bed of sensory cells in the inside of the ear. Saccule interprets movements of the head into neural pulses while the up and down movements. Both utricle and saccule work as balancing organs.

Definition of Tympanic Membrane:  Tympanic membrane is an organ that splits the outer ear from the middle ear. The other name of this is eardrum. It helps to pass the sound waves from the environment to the ossicle bones present in the middle ear.

Other Ear Medical Terminologies:  
Staples: This is the third ossicle bone of the middle ear. This bone looks like a stirrup. Stapes bone is attached via the incudostapedial join to the incus bone. 

Ossicle: This is a tiny bone. The other names of ossicle bones is auditory ossicles. They are three in number. These bones are present in the middle ear. Ossicles pass sound waves from the environment to the labyrinth or cochlea.

Perilymph: This is a liquid like material that present in the labyrinth of the inner ear. This is an extracellular fluid material that presents in the cochlea.

Pinna: The other name of this part of the ear is auricle. Pinna is the flap portion of the outer ear.

Semicirular Canals: These openings that are present in the innear ear and they are helpful in maintaining equilibrium.

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Monday, November 28, 2011

Ear Medical Terminology - Lesson 282



In the free medical transcription course lessons, we are going to learn next about ear medical terminology words now. In the last lesson, we have learnt about auditory meatus, auditory nerve fibers, auricle, cochlea, and cerumen. In this lesson, we will learn about other ear medical terms, such as, endolymph, eustachian tube, malleus and incus bones, labyrinth, and organ of Corti.

Ear Vocabulary

Now we will see about endolymph and labyrinth and organ of Corti now in the lesson of ear medical terminology.

Endolymph: This is a fluid like material present in the labyrinth part of the ear. Endolymph is in the inner ear.

Labyrinth: In the inner ear, there are canal like structures. These canals contain other structures such as cochlea, saccule, utricle, and semicircular canals. Labyrinth looks like a maze.

Organ of Corti: This part of the inner ear is a sensitive receptor of sound waves. Organ of Corti is found in the cochlea.

Ear Ossicles: They are the smallest bones in the human body that are found in the middle ear. Ear ossicles act as auditory transmitters and they pass the sound waves to the environment to the cochlea.
Malleus and Incus:  Malleus is a hammer-like organ found in the middle ear. This is the first ossicle bone. Malleus is connected to the incus bone. Incus is the second ossicle bone attached to teh malleus and incus is attached to the ear drum in the inner ear. The other name of the incus bone is anvil.

Eustachian Tube in Ear:  This is a tube-like structure that connects the pharynx to the middle ear. The length of this tube is pproximately 35 millimeter. The new name of this tube is pharyngotympanic tube. This is an auditory tube. We have learnt some important ear medical terms now in the series of ear medical terminology.

Next lesson is the continuation of this post of ear medical terminologies. Okay.

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Thursday, November 24, 2011

Medical Term for Ears - Lesson 281


In this post, we are going to learn about medical term for ears. I am going to provide a list of vocabularies related to the sensory organ ear and it will provide you support to know about new medical terminologies. The meanings of each medical term is given as short definitions for your easy understanding. In everyday medical transcriptionist life, you could hear these terminologies when you do practice or live files from physicians.

Anatomical Vocabulary: In this lesson of medical term for ears, we will see the meanings of what is auditory meatus, auditory canal, auditory tube, auditory nerve fibers, auricle, cochlea, and cerumen. The rest of the medical terminologies related to the sensory organ ear will be included in the next lesson next week. Now we will see the meanings one by one. Okay.

Medical Terms and Meanings: 
Auditory Meatus:  Each ear consisits of internal auditory meatus and external auditory meatus. External auditory meatus is a tube in the ear that runs from the external ear to middle ear. The approximate length of this tube is 35 mm and diameter is 5 to 10 mm.

Auditory Canal: The other name of auditory meatus is auditory canal.

Auditory Nerve Fibers: These are a collection of nerve fibers. These auditory nerve fibers are helpful in communicating the sounds to the brain from cochlea.

Auricle: It is a word derived from a latin word auricula. This is the flap part of the ear. Auricle extends outside from the head. The other name of auricle is pinna.

Cochlea: This is a part of hearing in the inner ear. Cochlea is a cavity of spherically shaped bone like structure or bony labyrinth. Cochlea is a tube-like structure that consists of sensory receptor cells inside of it.

Cerumen: This is a wax like material present inside the ears. This wax is produced by the external ear. The other name of cerumen is ear wax.

This lesson of Medical Term for Ears will continue in the next lesson.

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Sunday, November 20, 2011

Equilibrium and Inner Ear - Lesson 280


In this post, we will learn about inner ear equilibrium. We all know already that human ear has three parts, such as, outer ear or pinna, middle ear, and inner ear. Each ear has its own significance in sending sound waves from our surroundings to the brain. The inner ear is an important area in maintaining equilibrium in the brain. What is equilibrium? Equilibrium is the feeling of balance. Balance of being is maintained by the inner ear. If one is off balance, then that state is called dizziness. Dizziness is purely a physical state and this equilibrium is maintained by three canals in the inner ear. Now we will see in detail about this now.

Inner Ear Equilibrium Problems: Inner ear has three organs that are responsible for balance. The name of these three semicircular tubes are semicircular canals, saccule, and utricle respectively. These three tubes contain a liquid named as endolymph and small sensitive hair like cells inside it. When we move head, this liquid is fluctuated because of the movement of the head. Due to this fluctuation, impulses are formed within the hair cells and so the vibration is transformed to the brain. Then the communication from the brain is sent to the muscle cells in all parts of the body and so inner ear equilibrium is maintained.

Auditory Receptors:   In the inner ear, the auditory liquids and auditory receptors are present inside an organ named organ of Corti in the labyrinth. Due to the problem in the inner ear, we are getting some abnormal conditions, such as benign positional vertigo, Miniere's disease, labyrinthitis or any other tumors. Benign positional vertigo is a disease condition of inner ear equilibrium. In the next lesson, we will learn about vocabularies of eyes and ears. Okay. Come on.

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Tuesday, November 15, 2011

Functions Of The Ear -- Lesson 279


In this post we would learn about the functions of the ear. Generally the ear can be divided into three separate regions. They are 1. Outer ear, 2. Middle ear and 3. Inner ear. These outer and middle ears function in the conduction of sound waves through the ear. The inner ear contains structures that receive the auditory waves and relay them to the brain. The auditory or estachian tube is a canal leading which is from middle ear to the pharynx. In an efficient way, this tube can prevent damage to the eardrum and shock to the middle and inner ears.  The pressure of air in the middle ear is equal to the pressure of the air in the external environment.

Functions of Middle Ear: Whenever we speak the outer ear collects the sound waves and sends them through the auditory canal. That is the vibrations are carried through the auditory canal to the eardrum. Then this vibrations goes to the middle ear. The smallest bones which are in the middle ear converts this vibrations in the air into liquid and then reaches to inner ear. In this inner ear the liquid causes vibration of the basilar membrane. The main spiral organ or corti is located. Approximately, 20,000 hearing cells were created by electric impulses. This nerve receives the impulses and passes them.

Functions of Inner Ear:  Actually the main basic function of the ear is hearing. Balancing is also other important function of the ear. Oriented at the right angles. With effect to gravity another part of the inner ear sends information to the brain in an idle position. The eardrum is a sensitive organ. It can detect the sounds and this vibration is transferred to the inner ear for further proceeding. The pinna and the ear canal pass the sound waves to the middle ear. As ear is the sensitive organ, we should never use  pins or pencil points or any type of fig into the ear. We have to use cotton ear buds to clean. We should keep our ears clean so that loss of hearing may be detected. A human ear can detect in the range of frequence between 16 hertz to 16384 hertz. 

In the next post we would learn some definitions shortly regarding this post.

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Wednesday, November 9, 2011

Ear Functions and Structure - Lesson 278


In this post, we are going to learn about ear functions and structure. This lesson begins the ear anatomy and physiology lessons. In the future posts, we will learn about human ear anatomy and physiology. As per the passage of sound waves from the ear to the brain, we can divide the ear structure into four divisions, such as outer ear, middle ear, inner ear or labyrinth, and brain. The outer ear consists of pinna, external auditory ear, and tympanic membrane. The middle ear consists of malleus, incus, stapes, and oval window. The inner ear or labyrinth consists of cochlea, auditory liquids and receptors, and auditory nerves. In the brain, the ear is connected with cerebral cortex. We will learn about each of these parts of the ear one by one now.

Ear Functions and Structure:  Outer Ear: Any sound waves from our surrounding will enter into the outer ear first through the muscle part called pinna or auricle, outside the ear, which projects outside the ear. Auditory canal is extended from the pinna, which is also known as external auditory meatus. This canal is lined with some glands and those glands secrete a wax substance called cerumen. Cerumen is brownish-yellow in color. Cerumen lubricates the auditory canal. We will learn about ear functions and structure of the middle ear now.

Middle Ear: There is a membrane that obstructs the sound wave that travels from the outer ear to the inner ear called ear drum or tympanic membrane. Due to this obstruction, the ear drum vibrates and so three small bones present in the middle ear called malleus, incus, and stapes. The common name for these three small bones is ossicles. As the one of the small bone called stapes moves, it brings into touch with the oval window, which separates the middle and the inner ear.

Functions of Inner Ear: Inner Ear: The middle ear extends into the inner ear as cochlea, which is a snail-shaped structured bone. Cochlea consists of a lubricant liquid named as perilymph and endolymph. The sound vibrations from the middle ear passes through this structure and liquids. Organ of Corti is a sound receptor present in the inner ear. Sound waves from organ or Corti passes through auditory nerves present in the inner ear to brain.

Brain: Sound wave is received in the inner ear to the brain to the cerebral cortex and so the sound perception is felt by the human beings. The lesson of ear functions and structure concludes now.

In the next lesson, we wil learn about the function of the ear. Okay. Come on.

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Sunday, November 6, 2011

Laser Eye Surgeries - Lesson 277

In this post, we will see about the eye treatment procedures, such as vitrectomy, keratoplasty, laser photocoagulation, and scleral buckle methods. Keratoplasty surgery is a method of transplanting the cornea inside the eye. This surgical process is also known as corneal graft method. In this method, the cornea is replaced with a normal cornea that can transparent well and so the vision is restored. If the cornea is replaced entirely, the surgical process is named as penetrating keratoplasty. If the cornea is replaced partially only, then the process is called as lamellar keratoplasty. The cornea is donated if a man orwoman dies by accidents or any other reason and they donate their cornea with their own consent.

In laser photocoagulation method, many eye diseases are treated. In this, the blood vessels inside the eye is cauterized using laser light waves. The laser light used in this method is known as argon laser beams. These beams stimulate the blood vessels inside the eye. Diabetic retinopathy is treated in this way. Senile macular degeneration is also treated using laser method. The blood vessels are sealed using laser and so the leakage of blood is stopped and also any unusual growth of blood vessels is also rectified.

In the scleral buckle method, a suture of silicone band is formed directly on the retinal detachment and so the retinal tear is rectified. The scleral buckle attaches two ends of the retina together. Usually retinal tears are created due to retinal detachments inside eyes.

In the vitrectomy method of surgery, the vitreous humor is replaced with another clear liquid. Simply the vitreous humor liquid inside the eye is removed using vitrectomy. In an unusual condition, the scar tissue and the blood vessels are gathered together in the vitreous humor and this may happen mostly due to retinopathy disease during diabetis called diabetic retinopathy. Vitrectomy is of two types, such as anterior vitrectomy and pars plana vitrectomy. If only small portions of the anterior vitreous humor is removed, it is known as anterior vitrectomy. If this procedure is performed in a deep level inside the eye and so entire vitreous humor is removed.

In the next lesson we will learn about anatomy of the ear and some abbreviations. Okay. Come on.

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Friday, November 4, 2011

Cataract Refractive Surgery - Lesson 276

In this lesson, we are going to study about cataract of the eyes. As a free medical transcription course learner, you should all know about cataracts of the eye. The dictators will dictate about cataract in dictation files in the surgical history of the patient or about the surgery files about cataracts etc. You should know about what is cataract and what are the surgical methods to remove cataracts. The reasons for cataract is a change in the protein structure, as well as the water stuff inside the lens. Changes in the protein affects the clarity of the vision. These changes in the crystalline lens create clouding in the eyes. Cataract is a disease. In the cataract disease, the lens is the primary thing affected by clouding process, from its normal clarity. Cataract affects the retina to focus the light rays on the lens. Cataract means waterfall in the latin language. Some patient with cataract would also have diabetes and they may meet complications while the physician decides to do surgery to remove the cataract due to high sugar in the blood. The main sign of cataract is the blurred vision and also difficulty in vision during nights, light sensitivity, fading of light colors, and sometimes double vision. Some old age patients may get cataract and glaucoma at the same time due to the ageing process. 

Types of cataracts: If the older people get cataract due to ageing process, it is called senile cataract. There is another type of cataract, which is named as Morganian cataract, in which a liquid like milk is formed in the lens. If the cataract form in a child, it is called congenital cataract.

Cataract Surgeries: Now we will see the surgical methods to remove the cataracts. In common there are two methods to remove cataracts. They are intracapsular and extracapsular methods. In the intracapsular method, the lens is removed totally with lens capsule. In the extracapsular extraction method, the posterior portion of the lens is kept in place, but the lens tissue is removed entirely. The extracapsular lens is removed by a method called aspiration-irrigation technique. In this process, the lens material is absorbed using a needle and the lens is broken using phacoemulsification method, in which an ultrasonic vibration is passed to break the lens. Intraocular lens, shortly termed as IOL is then implanted if the patient gets cataract again after extracapsular surgery.

In the next lesson, other surgical processes of the eye. Okay. Come on.

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Monday, October 31, 2011

Eye Diagnostic Tests - Lesson 275

In the last lesson, we have learnt about eye diseases and in this lessson we are going to learn about diagnostic procedures done to the eyes. As a medical transcription learner, you should all know about these procedures, as physicians will dictate about these procedures in their live files while you work in a company. These diagnostic procedures generally do to a patient while he is examined by a physician while doing an eye exam. In this post, we will learn about fluorescein angiography, ophthalmoscopy, slit lamp ocular examination, tonometry, visual acuity test, and visual field exam. 

Fluorescein Angiography: This procedure is done to identify hypertensive retinopathy or diabetic retinopathy. This test is also used to find any lesions in the macular area of the retina of the eye. In this test, a dye material called fluorescein is injected intravenously. By injecting this eye, blood flow is tracked by an instrument named ophthalmoscopy.

Ophthalmoscopy: This is a visual examination to check the eye, especially the inner side of the eye. In this test, the dilated pupil is examined to find if there are any lesions in the cornea or in the lens or in the retina by this test.

Slit Lamp Ocular Examination: This is an instrument used in the visual examination of the eye, which gives access to examine the anterior part of the ocular structures of the eye. A magnification lens is used in this instrument.

Tonometry: Ton/o means tension. This instrument is used to measure the pressure or tension inside the eye, especially in the ocular organs. This test is used to detect an abnormal condition in the eye called glaucoma.

Visual Field Examination: This visual exam is useful in measuring the sight in specific area when the eye is fixed. The other name of this test is Goldmann perimeter visual field examination.

Visual Acuity Test: This test examines the clarity of the sight. A chart named Snellen eye chart is used in this test. 

In the next post, we will learn about eye treatments. Okay. Come on.


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Friday, October 28, 2011

Degenerative Eye Diseases - Lesson 274

In the previous lessons, we have studied a list of eye diseases with eye diseases in children, and diabetic eye diseases. In this post, we will learn about retinitis pigmentosa and strabismus. As a medical transcription learner, you should know about these two diseases. In all the ENT medical files, you will hear about these medical terminologies often. This lesson concludes with these two diseases and we will learn about ENT clinical procedures from the next post. As of we have studied common pathological conditions of the eye, such as cataract, chalazion, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, hordoleum or stye, macular degeneration, and retinal detachment. Please read again those posts once again and memorize all the terms.

Retinitis Pigmentosa: This is a very bad disease kind of the eye. It may lead to incurable blindess to the eye. Retinitis pigmentosa is termed in short as RP. If a patient is affected with this disease, he or she may get blindness in nights that follows tunnel vision chronically. The patient has some vision until his 50s even if he is affected with this in the early ages. Some children too are affected with this. Retinal pigmentosa is progressive illness with both atropy and dystrophy of the retina with pigmentation. Decreased vision is the main symptom of this abnormal condition, particularly with night blindness termed as nyctalopia.

Strabismus: This is an abnormal condition of the improper alignment of the eye levels. The other names of this are crossed eye, squint, and lazy eye. This state happens while there is a lack of coordination of extraocular muscles. This is an abnormal deviated eye condition. When one gets strabismus, he cannot see in the same direction, as the extraocular muscles could not control the position of the eyes. There are five types of strabismus. They are estropia, extropia, hypertropia, diplopia, and amblyopia. Now we will see about one by one now.

In estropia, one eye turns inwardly and so looks cross-eyed. Estropia is an opposite condition of outward turning of the eye and called as wall-eyed. In hypertropia, the eye is deviated upward. This can be treated with lenses for correction and with some eye exercises and with patching or sometimes with surgery to get balanced muscles. Diplopia and amblyopia are strabismus condition in children in common. Some children may get loss of vision partially called as lazy eye. Amblyopia may get reversed if the retina if fully developed.

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Sunday, October 23, 2011

Common Eye Diseases and Disorders II – LESSON 273

In the last lesson we came through some of the pathological conditions of eyes.
Glaucoma: - Intraocular pressure in the anterior and posterior chambers is elevated because of the aqueous humor to drain from the eye and enter the bloodstream inability. Aqueous humor is generally formed by the ciliary body, passes into the posterior chamber and then into the anterior chamber, leaving the eye at the angle where the cornea and iris meet. This glaucoma is diagnosed by means of tonometry with an instrument applied in external to the eye after administration of local anesthetic. To lower intraocular pressure administration of drugs or miotics may prove effective in controlling the condition. To tighten fibers in the ciliary body or to create a hole in the periphery of the iris, which allows aqueous humor to flow from the posterior to the anterior chamber and thus reduce intraocular pressure sometimes, this laser therapy is used.

Hordeolum (stye): - This is a localized purulent, inflammatory staphylococcal infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid. In this hot compresses may help localize the infection and promote drainage. In some cases, surgical incision may be necessary. Hordeolum means barley corn.

Macular degeneration: - Deterioration or degeneration of the macula of the retina. This condition may be inherited, drug-induced or age-related, and it leads to a severe loss of central vision. Peripheral vision is which using the part of the retina that is outside the macular region is retained. There is no known medical treatment, although certain forms of the condition may be treated with laser photocoagulation to destroy blood vessels that grow beneath, the macula or the vessels leak fluid and blood and cause injury to macular nerve cells.

Retinal detachment: - The retina’s two layers separate from each other. Trauma to the eyeball, head injuries, bleeding, searing from infection, or shrinkage of the vitreous humor can produce holes or tears in the retina leading to separation of layers. Patients often see flashes of light and then later notice cloudy vision or loss of central vision. Photocoagulation is the process in which making pinpoint burns to form sear tissue and seal holes and cryotherapy is creating a “freezer burn that forms a scar and knits a tear together are used to repair retinal tears. A scleral buckle made of silicone may be sutured to the sclera directly over the detached portion of the retina to push the two retinal layers together.

In the next post we will some more pathological conditions.

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Monday, October 17, 2011

Esophagus Diseases And Disorders

In this article we will see what would be the causes of intestinal cancer, especially, gastrointestinal cancer.  As a medical transcriptionist trainee, we should all know about small intestinal cancer symptoms and gastic intestinal cancer symptoms. The long food tube, anatomically known as gastrointestinal tract is placed behind the heart. This is a long tube like structure that connects mouth with gastric tube or food tube where the food is settled from the mouth for digestion. This tube is called esophagus, which sized approximately of 25 cm to 30 cm and which has a capability of contraction and extension. There are two valves present at the junction where the mouth and esophagus meets. These valves will open only at the instant of swallowing of food materials or at the instance of vomiting.  Esophagus has the ability to push the food material that enters into the mouth to the small intestines. Even if we take from the head upside down, it has the ability to push the food from the mouth to the esophagus. The fraction of time to do this action is just 6 to 7 seconds. This time is common for any kind of food materials that may be liquid or solid food.

There are three kinds of diseases that will occur in the esophagus. The first one is inflammation happened due to the acid regurgitation from the intestines to the esophagus. The second one is called achalasia, which is a change in the esophagus’s extension and contractions due to a disease condition. The third abnormal condition occurs when there is any cancer or any abnormal masses present in the esophagus. The acidity is the common condition occurs in all people.

The reason for the above abnormal conditions in the esophagus like acidity, achalasia or any cancer is due to the change in food habits. We should avoid oil foods or junk foods and should encourage us to have natural foods like fresh vegetables and fruits to avoid any abnormal conditions. Due to the over consumption of oil foods is the primary reason for secretion of more acid in the intestines and then that acid regurgitates into the esophagus. We should avoid all kinds of fast foods, as these things contain more fat. All should try to do any kind of exercises, particularly the persons follow sedentary lifestyle. More fat accumulation not only disfigures the appearance and also affects the normal function of heart. Consumption more tea or coffee also affects the general wellbeing of the intestines.

In the next post, we will see the symptoms of esophagus abnormalities and its treatments. Okay. Come on.

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Friday, October 14, 2011

Common Eye Diseases and Disorders - LESSON 272

Any disease conditiion is called pathology. Pathology is the study of disease conditions. Like every other organ, eye also has many different kinds of disease conditions called eye pathologies. As an medical transcriptionist learner, you all should know about these pathologies or disease conditions of the eyes. There is difference in ages or gender, even eye diseases in children are found. In the list of eye diseases, we can include diabetic related eye diseases too. Diabetes is also a cause of eye diseases in elder people. These diseases are called degenerative eye diseases. The important disease conditions are cataract, chalazion, glaucoma, and retinopathy due to diabetes. We will see about one by one now. Okay.

Cataract: This is a common eye disese type, which causes decreased vision in the eyes. This decrease in vision happens due to the clouding process of the lens. This pathological condition occurs commonly in older people and so it is called senile cataract. This is a kind of a degenerative disease. Some children get cataract from birth. Cataracts may happen due to diabetes and also due to chronic usage of corticosteroids excessively. The state of lens clouding can be visually examined using a ophthalmoscope. The only treatment for this condition is to remove the affected lens and replace it with artificial one. Contact lenses or usage of glasses are the other two options for treating this condition.

Glaucoma:  In this disease condition, the pressure inside the eyes is increased. Due to this high intraocular pressure, the optic nerve is affected, and sometimes the retina is too affected.

Diabetic Retinopathy: Due to diabetes mellitus the retina of the eye is affected. The other effects are blood leakage in the blood vessels of the eye called hemorrhage, retinal veins are getting dilated, microaneurysms, and blood vessels form newly near the optic nerve etc. The vision is getting blurred due to the leakage of blood from the blood vessels into the retina of the eyes. The treatment for this condition are vitrectomy and photocoagulation if the patient gets more leakage of blood.

Chalazion: This is a pathological condition of the eye, in which, there is a small and rough cystic mass is formed on the eyelid. Chalazion mass is formed due to the inflammation of any of the sebaceous gland for a long time known as meibomian gland.

In the next lesson, we will learn about the other pathological conditions of the eyes. Okay. Come on.

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Monday, October 10, 2011

Eye Exam Refraction -- Lesson 271

In this post we would learn about errors of refraction.
Astigmatism: - Defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye is called Astigmatism. From one or more abnormal curvatures of the cornea or lens this problem leads in. This causes light rays to be unevenly and not sharply focused on the retina, so that the image is distorted. A cylindrical lens placed in the proper position in front of the eye can correct this problem.

Hyperopia: - The eye ball in this condition is too short or the refractive power of the lens is too weak. Parallel rays of light tend to focus behind the retina and this result in a blurred image. A convex lens which is thicker in the middle than at tht sides bends the rays inward before they reach the cornea, and thus the rays can be focused properly on the retina.

Myopia: - In myopia the eyeball is too long or the refractive power of the lens so strong that light rays does not properly focus on the retina. The image perceived is blurred because the light rays are focused  in front of the retina. Concave glasses which are thicker at the periphery than in the middle correct this condition because the lenses spread the rays out before they reach the cornea, and thus they can be properly focused directly on the retina.

Presbyopia: - This is the impairment of vision due to old age. With increasing age, loss of elasticity of the ciliary body impairs its ability to adjust the lens for accommodation to near vision. The lens of the eye cannot become fat to bend the rays coming from near objects are less than 20 feet. The light rays focus behind the retina, as in hyperopia. Therefore, a convex lens is needed to refract the rays coming from objects closer than 20 feet.

In the next post we will learn about pathological conditions of refraction.

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Thursday, October 6, 2011

Eyes And Ears Terminologies III - Lesson 270

In this post we would learn some more medical terminologies for eyes and ears. The other terminology is ambly/o which means dull or dim. Amblyopia in which -opia means vision. Amblyopia is a partial loss of sight and is also known as lazy eye. This is because it is associated with failure of the eyes to work together to focus on the same point. The next terminology is dipl/o which means double. The other terminology is glauc/o which means gray.The term glaucoma comes from the dull gray-green gleam of the affected eye in advanced cases. Here -oma means mass or collection of fluid or aqueous humor. 

The other terminology is mi/o which means smaller or less. Miosis is the contraction of the pupil. A miotic is a drug such as pilocarpine that causes the pupil to contract. The next terminology is mydr/o which means widen or enlarge. Mydriasis is the enlargement of pupils. Atropine and cocaine cause dilation or enlargement of pupils. The next terminology is nyct/o which means night. Nyctalopia is the term in which -opia means vision, al comes from ala meaning blindness. Night blindness is poor vision at night but good vision on bright days. Deficiency of vitamin A leads to nyctalopia. 

The other terminology of phot/o means light. Photophobia is the term which is the sensitivity to light. The next terminology is  presby/o which means old age. The term presbyopia is the loss of sight due to old age. The other terminology is  scot/o which means darkness. Sotoma is an area of depressed vision surrounded by an area of normal vision, a blind spot. This can result from damage to the retina or the optic nerve. The next terminology of xer/o means dry. The meaning of -opia is vision. Hypermetropia means farsightedness. 

The meaning of -opsia is vision. Hemianopsia means absence of vision in half of the visual field or the space of vision of each eye. Stroke victims frequently have damage to the brain on one side of the visual cortex and experience hemianopsia is the visual loss is in the right or left visual field of both eyes. The meaning of -tropia is to turn. The terminology of esotropia means an outward turning of an eye. These are examples of strabismus which is called defect in eye muscles so that both eyes cannot be focused on the same point at the same time.

In the next lesson we would learn about the errors of refraction.

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Monday, October 3, 2011

Eyes and Ears Medical Terminologies II - Lesson 269

Like in the previous post, we will learn some more important medical terminologies which are related to eyes and ears. The next terminology is opthalm/o, which means eye. Opthalmologist is an eye specialist is a medical doctor who specializes in treating disorder of the eye. The other terminology is opt/o or optic/o which means eye or vision. Optic is pertaining to eye and optometrist is the lens prescriber and examiner. A nonmedical person who can examine eyes to determine vision problems and prescribe lenses.

The other terminology is palpebr/o which means eyelid. Palpebral is pertaining to eyelid. The next terminology is papill/o which means optic disk or nipple-like. Papilledema is the swelling of optic disk, –edema means swelling. This condition is associated with increased intracranial pressure and hyperemia also called increased blood flow in the region of optic disk. The other terminology is phac/o which means lens of the eye. Phacoemulsification is the technique of cataract extension using ultrasonic vibrations to fragment or emulsify the lens and aspirate it out of the eye. Aphakia may be congenital, but most often it is the result of extraction of a cataract also called clouded lens.

The next terminology is pupil/o which means pupil. Pupillary is pertaining to pupil. The other terminology of retin/o is retina. Retinitis means inflammation of retina. Diabetic retinopathy means endocrinal disorder. The other terminology of sclera/o means sclera also called white of the eye. Corneoscleral is pertaining to sclera. Scleritis is the inflammation of sclera. The other terminology of uve/o is uvea which means vascular layer of the eye. Uveitis is the inflammation of vascular layer of the eye. The next terminology of vitre/o is glassy. Vitreous humor is the glassy liquid.

In the next post we would some more terminologies.

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Thursday, September 29, 2011

Sensory Organs - Eyes and Ears - Medical Terms - LESSON 267

In this lesson, we will learn about important medical terminologies related to eyes and ears. As a learner of free medical transcription course online, one should know about all these terminologies and this will be helpful in doing transcription files online. For every medical terminology, we should know the meaning and a related terminology to it and the meaning of it. In the day to day transcription jobs, every medical transcriptionist will hear these terminologies and so one should be very much familiar with these to be a successful medical transcriptionist. Now we will see about one by one. Okay. Come on.

The first terminology is aque/o, which means water. Aqueous humor is a fluid produced by the ciliary body found in the anterior and posterior chambers. The next one is blephar/o, which means eyelid. Blepharitis is a word that represents inflammation of the eyelid. The other one is conjunctiv/o, which means conjunctiva. Conjunctivitis is a word that means inflammation condition of the conjunctiva.

The next terminology is corne/o, which means cornea. Corneal ulcer is a term, which represents the ulcer of the cornea. The other term is cycl/o, which means ciliary body that is the muscle of the eyes. Cycloplegic means pertaining to ciliary muscle. The next one is dacry/o, which means tear drops. The other term, which means the same is lacrim/o, which also means tear glands. Dacryoadenitis is a word, which means inflammation of the tear glands.

The next important terminology is ir/o, which means iris that is the colored area of the eye, which surrounds the pupil. Iritis is a word that represents the inflammation of the iris. Kerat/o is a term, which means cornea. Keratitis represents inflammation of the cornea. Lacrim/o means tears. Lacrimal is a word, which pertains to the tear glands. Ocul/o means eye. Intraocular is a word that pertains to within eyes.

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Sunday, September 25, 2011

Eye Anatomical Terms Explanation - LESSON 266

In the travel of learning free medical transcription course, we are going to learn about anatomical terms explanations of eyes. As a medical transcriptionist student, you should know about all the anatomy and physiology, not like a medical student for surgical purpose, but you should know something basic 
information about them. We explained something in the prior lesson about this topic about what is accomodation, anterior chamber, aqueous humor, biconvex, layer of choroid, ciliary body, cones, conjuctiva, cornea, fovea centralis, fundus of the eyes, lens, iris, macula, optic chiasm, and optic disk. In this lesson, we will learn about, optic nerve, posterior chamber, pupil, refraction, retina of the eyes, rods, sclera, vitreous chamber, vitreous humor one by one. Okay.

Optic Nerve: The other name of optic nerve is cranial nerve 2, which receives and delivers eye sight messages to the brain from the part of cerebral cortex from the retina of the eye.

Posterior Chamber: This is a narrow area behind the iris, which contains a liquid called aqueous humor. Posterior chamber is situated in the front side of the lens's suspensory ligament, as well as ciliary processes.

Pupil: This is a dark hole that situated at the central portion of the iris. The light passes through the eye is taken in by the tissues present here. In simple, pupil is the entrance of the eye.

Refraction: An image is formed inside the eye through the process of refraction. By way of lens and cornea, the entered light rays from the pupil are bended and targeted towards the retina and so we can feel visual sensation of lights.


Retina: This is a tissue lining that is responsive to the light waves that is present inside surface of the eye. Retina consists of color receptor cells called cones and rods.

Rods: These are cells present inside the eye that are photoreceptor cells. Rods are present inside the retina. These rods absorbs mainly black and white waves and so we can see at night.

Sclera: Each eye contains an external coat in the eyeball called sclera, which is very tough in structure. We can see this portion outside and this is also called as 'white of the eye. This hard layer performs as the protective cover of the eye made up of elastic fibers and collagen.

Vitreous Chamber: This chamber occupies about four fold place in five of the eyeball area. This chamber is present between the retina and the lens.

Vitreous Humor: It is a gel-like material present inside the viterous chamber and named as vitreous humor.

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Thursday, September 22, 2011

Anatomical Definitions Of Eye -- Lesson 265

In this post we would come through the definitions shortly.
1. Accommodation: - The adjustment of the eye made normally for looking at objects at different distances. To bring an object into focus on the retina, the lens is made thinner or fatter by the ciliary body.
2. Anterior chamber: -  This is the area behind the cornea and in front of the lens and iris.  Aqueous humor is contained in it.
3. Aqueous humor: - Fluid is produced by the ciliary body and found in the chambers which are anterior and posterior.
4. Choroid layer: - The vascular and middle layer of the eye between the retina and the sclera.
5. Ciliary body: - It is the structure which is on each side of the lens that connects the choroids and the iris. This also contains ciliary muscles, which control the shape of the lens, and secretes aqueous humor.
6. Cones: - The receptor cells which is called photosensitive receptor cells transform light energy into a nerve impulse. Cones are responsible for color and central vision.
7. Conjuctiva: - A delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior eyeball.
8. Cornea: - Fibrous transparent layer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eyeball.
9. Fovea centralis: - The tiny pit or depression in the retina that is the region of clearest vision.
10. Fundus of the eye: - The posterior and inner part of the eye.
11. Iris: - The colored portion of the eye.
12. Lens: - Behind the pupil of the eye, a transparent biconvex body is situated. It bends light rays to bring them into focus on the retina.
13. Macula: - A yellowish region on the retina, lateral to and slightly below the optic disk; and also contains the fovea centralis.
14. Optic chiasm: - The point at which the fibers of the optic nerve cross in the brain.
15. Optic disk: - The region at the bake of the eye where the optic nerve meets with retina. It is the blind spot of the eye because it contains nerve fibers only and there are no rods and cones and thus this is insensitive to light.
                   
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Eye Anatomical Short Definitions -- Lesson 264

EIn this post we would come through the definitions shortly.
1. Accommodation: - The adjustment of the eye made normally for looking at objects at different distances. To bring an object into focus on the retina, the lens is made thinner or fatter by the ciliary body.
2. Anterior chamber: -  This is the area behind the cornea and in front of the lens and iris.  Aqueous humor is contained in it.
3. Aqueous humor: - Fluid is produced by the ciliary body and found in the chambers which are anterior and posterior.
4. Choroid layer: - The vascular and middle layer of the eye between the retina and the sclera.
5. Ciliary body: - It is the structure which is on each side of the lens that connects the choroids and the iris. This also contains ciliary muscles, which control the shape of the lens, and secretes aqueous humor.
6. Cones: - The receptor cells which is called photosensitive receptor cells transform light energy into a nerve impulse. Cones are responsible for color and central vision.
7. Conjuctiva: - A delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior eyeball.
8. Cornea: - Fibrous transparent layer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eyeball.
9. Fovea centralis: - The tiny pit or depression in the retina that is the region of clearest vision.
10. Fundus of the eye: - The posterior and inner part of the eye.
11. Iris: - The colored portion of the eye.
12. Lens: - Behind the pupil of the eye, a transparent biconvex body is situated. It bends light rays to bring them into focus on the retina.
13. Macula: - A yellowish region on the retina, lateral to and slightly below the optic disk; and also contains the fovea centralis.
14. Optic chiasm: - The point at which the fibers of the optic nerve cross in the brain.
15. Optic disk: - The region at the bake of the eye where the optic nerve meets with retina. It is the blind spot of the eye because it contains nerve fibers only and there are no rods and cones and thus this is insensitive to light.
                   
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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...