1. Lymphangiography: Contrast (distinct-colored) dye is infused into the lymphatic vessels of the feet, as well as x-rays are taken of the lymphatic system to find out distended lymph nodes, obstruction in the lymphatic system, and the occurrence of tumors if any.
2. Bone marrow biopsy: A minute quantity of bone marrow tissue is aspirated and scrutinized beneath the microscope intended for proof of cancerous cells.
3. Needle Biopsy: A pointer needle is put in into the tissue in problem, and a central part of that tissue is detached. Aspiration of a tissues or suction of a tissue possibly used to remove free cells as of a fluid-filled cavity. This biopsy is taken from the cystic areas of the breast or from a solid lump of tumor.
4. Peritoneoscopy: This modus operandi as well called laparoscopy. This method is used to examine the abdominal or peritoneal cavity for any tumors. A laparoscope or peritoneoscope is inserted into the peritoneal cavity from side to side a small cut in the abdominal wall.
5. Radionuclide scans: radionuclides are radioactive materials and they are infused through a syringe intravenously and images taken using a scan machine. Uneven distribution of radioactivity or absence of radioactivity indicates possible disease condition. This method is mainly used in liver and spleen scans. On bone scans, irregular regions of absorption or radioactivity possibly will point out bone devastation and metastasis process accompanying it. Irregularities in brain scans come into sight as increased gathering of radioactivity as the normal brain tissue usually does engage in radioactivity for the reason that it has the blood-brain barrier.
6. Exfoliative cytology: Cells are rubbed from the area of alleged ailment. These cells are looked at beneath the microscope. The best example of exfoliative cytology is the the Pap smear to ascertain carcinoma of the cervix or vagina.
7. Laparotomy: This is an extensive surgical opening of the abdomen that permits to discover the degree of malignant disease.
Some of the radioactive materials used in getting hold of scans are:
1. Gallium-67 or 67 Ga. This material is used in entire body scans to find out Hodgkin's disease, lymphomas, head and neck cancers, bone tumors, lung tumors.
2. Technetium-99 or 99'Tc-used in liver and spleen scans.
3. 99m polyphosphate used in bone scans.
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