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Friday, October 30, 2009


1. Lymphangiography: Contrast (distinct-colored) dye is infused into the lymphatic vessels of the feet, as well as x-rays are taken of the lymphatic system to find out distended lymph nodes, obstruction in the lymphatic system, and the occurrence of tumors if any.

2. Bone marrow biopsy: A minute quantity of bone marrow tissue is aspirated and scrutinized beneath the microscope intended for proof of cancerous cells.

3. Needle Biopsy: A pointer needle is put in into the tissue in problem, and a central part of that tissue is detached. Aspiration of a tissues or suction of a tissue possibly used to remove free cells as of a fluid-filled cavity. This biopsy is taken from the cystic areas of the breast or from a solid lump of tumor.

4. Peritoneoscopy: This modus operandi as well called laparoscopy. This method is used to examine the abdominal or peritoneal cavity for any tumors. A laparoscope or peritoneoscope is inserted into the peritoneal cavity from side to side a small cut in the abdominal wall.

5. Radionuclide scans: radionuclides are radioactive materials and they are infused through a syringe intravenously and images taken using a scan machine. Uneven distribution of radioactivity or absence of radioactivity indicates possible disease condition. This method is mainly used in liver and spleen scans. On bone scans, irregular regions of absorption or radioactivity possibly will point out bone devastation and metastasis process accompanying it. Irregularities in brain scans come into sight as increased gathering of radioactivity as the normal brain tissue usually does engage in radioactivity for the reason that it has the blood-brain barrier.

6. Exfoliative cytology: Cells are rubbed from the area of alleged ailment. These cells are looked at beneath the microscope. The best example of exfoliative cytology is the the Pap smear to ascertain carcinoma of the cervix or vagina.

7. Laparotomy: This is an extensive surgical opening of the abdomen that permits to discover the degree of malignant disease.

Some of the radioactive materials used in getting hold of scans are:
1. Gallium-67 or 67 Ga. This material is used in entire body scans to find out Hodgkin's disease, lymphomas, head and neck cancers, bone tumors, lung tumors.
2. Technetium-99 or 99'Tc-used in liver and spleen scans.
3. 99m polyphosphate used in bone scans.

In the next post we will read about important ABBREVIATIONS USED IN CANCER. Okay.

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Friday, October 9, 2009


In this post we will study about different laboratory tests done to diagnose cancer one by one. Okay.
1. Acid phosphatase-This is an enzyme brings into being in lofty intensity in the blood of patients who has prostate cancer.
2. Alpha-fetoprotein test- This test is useful in find out the occurrence of alpha-fetoprotein in the serum of the patient who has testicular or liver cancer.
3. beta-HCG test- This test is useful in finding out the occurrence of HCG or human chorionic gonadotrophin in the serum of the blood of the patients who has cancer in their testicles.
4. CA-125- The patients who has cancer in ovaries i.e. ovarian cancer has a protein material that is from the cell exterior portion. This is produced by the cancer cells that produce cancer in the ovaries.
5. CEA test- This test is useful in discovering CEA or carcinoembryonic antigen in the blood of the patients who have cancer in their gastrointestinal tract or GI tract.
6. Estrogen receptor or Estradiol receptor Assay- This test is useful in determining the intensity of estrogen receptor sites in tumor cells of breast cancer patients. If a tumor is found to be estrogen receptor positive a patient will likely respond to antiestrogen hormone therapy.
7. PSA or prostate specific antigen- A protein produced by prostate cancer cells found in the blood of the patients.

In the next post we will learn about Important Cancer Lab Tests. Okay.

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Tuesday, October 6, 2009

Cancer Treatment - Biological Therapy To Cure Cancer - Lesson 112

An additional fresh line of attack to cancer management is the employment of the body's individual resistance systems to scrap tumor cells. Researchers see the sights how the ingredients of the immune system can be brought back, developed, imitated, and influenced to annihilate cancer cells within the body. Chemical materials brought into being by standard cells that moreover in a straight line wedge tumor development before kindle the immune system and additional body barricades are called genetic reaction modifiers. The instances of these materials are interferon prepared by lymphocytes, monoclonal antibodies created by mouse cells, and proficiency of strapping to human tumors, colony-stimulating factors or CSFs so as to accelerate blood-forming cells and turn around the upshots of chemotherapy, and interleukins with the intentions of stimulating the immune system to annihilate tumors.

Now we will sort out chemotherapeutic and biological events one by one.



1. BCNU or carmustine
2. Cisplatin and carboplatin
3. Cyclophosphamide or Cytoxan
4. Melphalan or Alkeran
5. Nitrogen mustard
6. Chlorambucil


1. Actinomycin D
2. Bleomycin sulfate
3. Daunorubicin hydrochloride
4. Doxorubicin hydrochloride or Adriamycin
5. Idarubicin
6. Mitomycin C


1. Cystosine arabinoside or ara-C
2. 5-fluorouracil or 5-FU
3. Methotrexate or MTX
4. 6-thioguanine or 6-TG
5. Fludarabine
6. Pentostatin


1. CSFs or colony-stimulating factors
2. Interferon
3. Interleukins such as IL-1, IL-2, and IL-3
4. Monoclonal antibodies


1. Vinblastine sulfate or Velban
2. Vincristine sulfate or Oncovin
3. VP-16 or etoposide
4. VM-26 or teniposide
5. Taxol


1. Dexamethasone or Decadron
2. Diethylstilbestrol or DES
3. Flutamide
4. Leuprolide
5. Prednisone
6. Tamoxifen citrate


1. Dacarbazine
2. L-asparaginase
3. Lomustine Procarbazine hydrochloride
Tags: Biological therapy, chemotherapeutic agents, miscellaneous, steroid, plant derivative, plant products, antimetabolites, alkylating agents, steroids, antibiotics, cancer, chemotherapy, toxic

In the next lesson we will see about Biological Therapy to cure cancer. Okay.

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CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS:  The subsequent list categorizes all cancer chemotherapeutic agents:
1. Plant byproducts: These chemical substances are drawn from plants. These chemical materials are used recurrently in mixture as a supplement to other chemotherapeutic agents. The offshoot effects take account of myelosuppression, alopecia, and smash up of nerves.
2. Antimetabolites: These drugs slow down the amalgamation of drugs so as to the essential part of DNA or possibly will unswervingly hunk the copying DNA. The offshoot consequences of antimetabolites are myelosuppression with leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and bleeding. The other side effects are toxicity to the oral and digestive tract, as well as stomatitis called sore mouth, nausea, and vomiting.

3. Alkylating agents: These are artificial amalgams be full of two or more element groups names alkyl groups. The chemical substances get in the way by means of the development of DNA fusion next to putting together to DNA molecules. Venomous side effects take account of nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, bone marrow depression or myelosuppression, and alopecia or hair loss. These are widespread impacts for the reason that the cells in the gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow and scalp are hurriedly dividing cell, which is having for the above ground growth division that by the side of tumor cells are predisposed to the toxic consequences of chemotherapeutic drugs. The side effects fade away subsequent to treatment is on the edge.

4. Steroids: These are a course group of substances prepared in the body, and these chemical substances contain imperative consequences on duplication of sex cells during reproduction process, energy manufacture, and aging process, the instances for these kind are estrogens and androgen. These hormones bring bear to their encounter by means of putting together to receptor proteins in objective tissues. The development of a number of tumors for example breast and prostate is over and over again reliant lying on steroid hormones. A number of breast cancers encompass estrogen receptors or ER and will act in response on the way to the elimination of estrogen through oophorectomy otherwise the utilization of antiestrogen drugs such as tamoxifen. Those drugs break apart estrogenic end products. Fluid withholding, masculinization or feminization, nausea, and vomiting are selected feasible impacts of different steroids.

5. Antibiotics: These drugs are fashioned by bacteria or fungi. A lot of these chemical substances medication their duty by strapping to DNA and RNA inside the cell as a result nip in the budding of standard reproduction of cells. Poisonous upshots on or after their application take account of alopecia or hair loss, stomatitis, myelosuppression, and gastrointestinal turmoils.

In the next lesson we will see about Biological Therapy to cure cancer. Okay.

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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...