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Sunday, October 14, 2012

Parathyroid Gland Disorders - 324

Parathyroid gland disorders is the topic matter of this post. In this article, we will see about the main abnormal conditions of parathyroid gland, such as, hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism.  Parathyroid gland is one of the important gland that is with thyroid gland. These are two small glands that are present inside the neck. They are two important endocrine glands that produce parathyroid hormone. The main function of parathormone is to control the level of calcium inside bones and bloodstream.  A grain-sized four small glands present superiorly and inferiorly on each side of thyroid of two is the parathyroid gland. When these glands fail to secrete or secrete less or more parathormone, human body will be affected with some abnormal conditions. We will see what are they now.

Hyperparathyroidism: This is an abnormal condition of secreting excessive parathormone. When they secrete more, the level of calcium in the blood and bones increase, which is an abnormal condition known as hypercalcemia. Due to this condition, bones are decalcified and they may fracture at any time. Cysts also may form inside bones known as osteitis fibrosa cystica. The excessive calcium may be deposited in kidneys and so form kidney stones. The treatment for this is to remove the abnormal parathyroid hormone.

Hypoparathyroidism:  This is due to abnormal secretion of low parathormone. Because of this kind of less production of parathormone, calcium level in the blood and bones are reduced. This abnormal condition is called as hypocalcemia and due to this weakness of muscles and nerves happen. This abnormal state is named as tetany, it is a condition of persisting contraction of muscles. The treatment for this state is to administer calcium with vitamin D.

In the next post, we will read about abnormal conditions of adrenal cortex, an important endocrine gland. Okay. 


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Sunday, October 7, 2012

Thyroid Cancer and Surgery - Lesson 323

Thyroid Cancer is the topic matter of this post. We will learn about another important abnormal condition of thyroid gland that is carcinoma or cancer of thyroid glands. We will learn briefly about how cancer forms, spreads inside the gland and outside, and what is the treatment methods. In general, there are two types, such as, benign tumors and carcinomas. In these, adenomas in thyroid are benign tumor types. Adenomas are not dangerous like thyroid carcinomas. Carcinomas are malignant cancer formation inside thyroid glands. Some cancers may develop somewhat in a slow manner, but other types may develop somewhat faster, and some may spread cancer to the adjacent areas too from the origin of cancer area.

Thyroid adenomas Vs Thyroid Carcinomas:  How can we differentiate a thyroid adenoma from thyroid cancer. When we check for cancers using radioactive iodine tracer, the specialists can differentiate them and identify they type of cancer by reading them. Benign tumor sites in the body would have more radioactivity than the other surrounding normal cells. High radioactivity in any place portrays the state of hyperthyroidism and benign cancer.  Sometimes it is not easy  to identify whether it is benign or malignant.  So doing a fine-needle aspiration test is highly useful to identify the type of cancer. A surgical biopsy can also be useful in cancer diagnosis. Excision of cancer area is also another important method for diagnosis of disease. There are four types of thyroid malignancies, such as, follicular, papillary, anaplastic and medullary.

Thyroid Carcinoma Symptoms: Formation of lump in the neck, neck enlargement, lymph nodes enlargement, hoarse voice, difficulty in swallowing, breathing difficulties, pain or sensitivity in the neck area, cough are the common symptoms of thyroid disease.

Thyroid Malignancy Treatment: In general, surgical excision is a common treatment for any cancer. After cancer is confirmed by blood tests, ultrasound, thyroid scan, and any biopsies, the treatment method is decided. Treatment may be surgery, hormone injection, radioactive iodine application, external radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. The above-mentioned treatments may be given separately or in combination. A followup care is important after the treatment too.

In the next post, we will learn about parathyroid gland abnormalities.

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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...