Youtube Subscibe Button

Sunday, November 29, 2009

IMPORTANT CANCER TERMS-3-LESSON 129


This is the continuation of LESSON 128.
29. Morbidity: The condition of being diseased.
30. Mucinous: The cancer cells containing mucus.
31. Mutation: Change in the genetic material that is DNA of a cell may be caused by chemicals, radiation or viruses or may occur spontaneously.
32. Neoplasm: New growth that may be either benign or malignant tumor.
33. Oncogene: A region of genetic material in a cell that is DNA found in tumor cell (cellular oncogene) on in viruses that cause cancer called viral oncogene. Oncogenes are designated by a three-letter word, such as abl, erb, jun, myc, ras, and src.
34. Pedunculated: Possessing a stem or stalk (peduncle) characteristic of some polypoid tumors.

35. Pharmacokinetics: Study of the distribution and removal of drugs in the body over a period of time.

36. Protocol: An explicit, detailed plan for treatment.

37. Radiation: Energy carried by a stream of particles. Various forms of radiation can cause cancer.

38. Radiocurable tumor: Cells that are eradicated by radiation therapy.

39. Radioresistant tumor: Cells that require large doses of radiation to be destroyed.

40. Radiosensitive tumor: A tumor in which radiation can cause death of cells.

41. Radiosensitizers: Drugs that increase the sensitivity of tumors to x-rays.

42. Radiotherapy: Treatment using radiation.

43. Relapse: Return of symptoms of disease.

44. Ribonucleic acid or RNA: Cellular substance located within and outside the nucleus hat along with DNA, plays an important role in the synthesis of proteins in a cell.

45. Sarcoma: Cancerous tumor derived from connective tissue.

46. Serous: Pertaining to thin, watery fluid called serum.

47. Sessile: Having no stem characteristic of some polypoid tumors.

48. Solid tumor: Tumor composed of mass of cells.

49. Staging of tumors: System of evaluating the extent of spread of tumor. For instance is the TNM system i.e. tumor, nodes, and metastasis.

50. Steroids: Complex naturally occurring chemicals for example hormones that are used as chemotherapeutic agents.

51. Surgical procedures to treat cancer: Cryosurgery, en bloc resection, excisional biopsy, exenteration, fulguration, and incisional biopsy.

52. Ultraviolet radiation: Rays given off by the son.

53. Viral oncogenes: Pieces of DNA from viruses that infect a normal cell and cause it to become malignant.

54. Virus: An infectious agent that reproduces by entering a host cell and using the host's genetic material to make copies of itself.

In the next lesson we will learn about Cancer Combining Forms. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next lesson please click the link below



IMPORTANT CANCER TERMS-2-LESSON 128


This lesson is the continuation of the LESSON 127.
15. Electron beams: Low-energy beams of radiation for treatment of skin or surface tumors.
16. Encapsulated: Surrounded by a capsule. Benign tumors are generally encapsulated.
17. Fractionation: Giving radiation in small, repeated doses.
18. Grading of tumors: Evaluating the degree of maturity of tumor cells.
19. Gross description of tumor: Visual appearance of tumors, cystic, fungating, inflammatory, medullary, necrotic, polypoid, ulcerating, and verrucous.
20. Infiltrative: Extending beyond normal tissue boundaries.
21. Invasive: Having the ability to enter and destroy surrounding tissue.

22. Linear accelerator: Device that produces high-energy x-ray beams for treatment of deep-seated tumors.

23. Malignant: Tending to become worse and result in death. Tumors having the characteristics of invasiveness, anaplasia, and metastasis.

24. Metastasis: Spread of a malignant tumor to a secondary site. Literally beyond control (meta means beyond and stasis means control).

25. Microscopic description: The appearance of tumors as seen under the microscope. Those are alveolar, carcinoma in situ, diffuse, dysplastic, epidermoid, follicular, nodular, papillary, pleomorphic, scirrhous, and undifferentiated types of cancer are microscopic.

26. Mitosis: Replication of cells. This is a stage in the cell life cycle involving the production of two identical cells from a parent cell.

27. Mixed-tissue tumors: Tumors composed of different types of tissue such as epithelial as well as connective tissue.

28. Modality: Method of treatment, such as surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation.

In the next post we will see the continuation of this post. Okay.

Come on.
To go to the next lesson please click the link below15. Electron beams: Low-energy beams of radiation for treatment of skin or surface tumors.

16. Encapsulated: Surrounded by a capsule. Benign tumors are generally encapsulated.

17. Fractionation: Giving radiation in small, repeated doses.

18. Grading of tumors: Evaluating the degree of maturity of tumor cells.

19. Gross description of tumor: Visual appearance of tumors, cystic, fungating, inflammatory, medullary, necrotic, polypoid, ulcerating, and verrucous.

20. Infiltrative: Extending beyond normal tissue boundaries.

21. Invasive: Having the ability to enter and destroy surrounding tissue.

22. Linear accelerator: Device that produces high-energy x-ray beams for treatment of deep-seated tumors.

23. Malignant: Tending to become worse and result in death. Tumors having the characteristics of invasiveness, anaplasia, and metastasis.

24. Metastasis: Spread of a malignant tumor to a secondary site. Literally beyond control (meta means beyond and stasis means control).

25. Microscopic description: The appearance of tumors as seen under the microscope. Those are alveolar, carcinoma in situ, diffuse, dysplastic, epidermoid, follicular, nodular, papillary, pleomorphic, scirrhous, and undifferentiated types of cancer are microscopic.

26. Mitosis: Replication of cells. This is a stage in the cell life cycle involving the production of two identical cells from a parent cell.

27. Mixed-tissue tumors: Tumors composed of different types of tissue such as epithelial as well as connective tissue.

28. Modality: Method of treatment, such as surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation.

In the next post we will see the continuation of this post. Okay.

Come on.


To go to the next lesson please click the link below



IMPORTANT CANCER TERMS AND ITS MEANINGS-LESSON 127


1. Adjuvant therapy: Assisting primary treatment. Drugs are given early in the course of treatment along with surgery or radiation to attack cancer cells that may be too small to be detected by diagnostic techniques.

2. Alkylating agents: Synthetic chemicals containing alkyl groups that interfere with DNA synthesis.

3. Anaplasia: Loss of differentiation of cells. Reversion to a more primitive cell type.

4. Antibiotics: Chemical substances produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of cells used in cancer chemotherapy.

5. Antimetabolites: Chemicals that prevent cell division by inhibiting the formation of substances necessary to make DNA and used in cancer chemotherapy.

6. Apoptesis: Programmed cell death. Apo- means off, away, and -ptosis means to fall. Normal cells undergo apoptesis when they are damaged or aging. Some cancer cells have lost the ability to undergo apoptesis and live forever.

7. Benign: Noncancerous.

6. Biological response modifiers: Substances produced by normal cells that either directly block tumor growth or stimulate the immune system.

7. Biological therapy: Use of the body's own defense mechanism to fight tumor cells.

8. Carcinogens: Agents that cause cancer. Chemicals and drugs, radiation, and viruses.

9. Cellular oncogens: Pieces or DNA hat when broken or dislocated can cause a normal cell to become malignant.

10. Chemotherapy: Treatment with drugs

11. Combination chemotherapy: Use of several therapeutic agents together in the treatment of tumors.

12. Dedifferentiation: Loss of differentiation of cells. Reversion to a more primitive, embryonic cell type anaplasia.

13. DNA or deoxyribinucleic acid: Genetic material within the nucleus of a cell that controls cell division and protein synthesis.

14. Differentiation: Specialization of cells.

In the next post we will see the continuation of this post. Okay.

Come on.


To go to the next lesson please click the link below

http://learn-free-medical-transcription.blogspot.com/2009/11/lesson-128-important-cancer-terms-2.html

Saturday, November 28, 2009

IMPORTANT COMBINING FORMS-CANCER-LESSON 126


1. Aleveol/o- means a small bag or a sac
Alveolar means pertaining to a small bag.

2. Cac/o- means dreadful or bad
Cachexia means ill health and underfeeding. This may happen after a chronic disease.
-hexia means habit.

3. Carcin/o- means cancer or cancerous.
Carcinoma in situ means a cancer confined to a small area.

4. Cauter/o- means burn or heat.
Electrocauterization is a process of burning with electricity.

5. Chem/o- means chemical substance or a drug.
Chemotherapy is a treatment method of cancer using chemical substances i.e. drugs.

6. Cry/o- means cold or ice.
Cryotherapy is a treatment method of cancer using cold or ice in a fluid bag.

7. Fibr/o- means fibers.
Fibrosarcoma is a type of cancer of fibers and flesh portion of the body.

8. Follicul/o- means tiny glandular bags or sacs.
Follicular is pertaining to small glandular sacs or pouches or bags.

9. Fung/o- means fungus or yeast or toadstool or mushroom.
Fungating tumor is a tumor that appears like a toadstool or mushroom.

10. Medull/o- means spongy or malleable part.
Medullar tumor appears spongy inner portion of the body.

11. Mut/a- means a change by genetic.
Mutation is a process of heritable change.

12. Mutagen/o- means producing a genetic or inheritable change.
Mutagenic is pertaining to the production of change by genetic in a cell.

13. Onc/o- means cancerous growth.
Oncology is the study of cancer.

14. Papill/o- means nipple-like.
Papillary is pertaining to nipple like expansion.

15. Pharmac/o- means chemical or drug.
Pharmacology is the study of drugs.

16. Plas/o- means configuration of arrangement
Dysplastic is abnormal configuration or arrangement of formation.

17. Ple/o- means additional or extra or many.
Pleomorphic is pertaining to many varieties of cells i.e. the cancer is configured by a multiplicity of cells.

18. Polyp/o- means cyst or tumor or nodule.
Polypoid tumor is a cystic tumor.

19. -oid means resembling. Ex. Polypoid.

20. Radi/o- means beams or x-rays.
Radiotherapy is therapy of treating cancer using x-ray beams.

21. Sarc/o- means soft tissue, connective tissue.
Osteosarcoma is the tumor of fleshy tissue and bones.

22. Scrirrh/o- means tough or stiff.
Scirrhous is pertaining to toughness.

In the next lesson we will learn about important cancer Suffixes and Prefixes. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next lesson please click the link below


IMPORTANCE MEDICAL TERMINOLOGIES OF CANCER-LESSON 125


1. -blast means undeveloped or not fully formed.
Osteoblast is the undeveloped bone cells.

2. -oma means tumor or bunch.
Neuroma is the tumor of the nerve cells.

3. -plasia means creation or development.
Hyperplasia is disproportionate or extreme development of a cell.

4. -plasm means development or growth.
Neoplasm is new growth or development of a cell.

5. -therapy means management.
Radiotherapy is the management of cancer using beams of x-rays.

CANCER MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY-IMPORTANT PREFIXES

1. ana- means toward the back or rearward.
Anaplasia means backward growth of a cell.

2. apo- means off or not there.
Apoptosis is the peter out or fade out.

3. epi- means upon or ahead.
Epidermoid means the cells resembling epidermal tissue.

4. Meta- means away from or outside.
Metastasis means spread away of a growth of a cell outside the limit.

In the next post we will learn about Important Cancer Lab Tests. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.


CANCER LABORATORY TESTS-LESSON 124

In this post we will study about different laboratory tests done to diagnose cancer one by one. Okay.
1. Acid phosphatase-This is an enzyme brings into being in lofty intensity in the blood of patients who has prostate cancer.
2. Alpha-fetoprotein test- This test is useful in find out the occurrence of alpha-fetoprotein in the serum of the patient who has testicular or liver cancer.
3. beta-HCG test- This test is useful in finding out the occurrence of HCG or human chorionic gonadotrophin in the serum of the blood of the patients who has cancer in their testicles.
4. CA-125- The patients who has cancer in ovaries i.e. ovarian cancer has a protein material that is from the cell exterior portion. This is produced by the cancer cells that produce cancer in the ovaries.
5. CEA test- This test is useful in discovering CEA or carcinoembryonic antigen in the blood of the patients who have cancer in their gastrointestinal tract or GI tract.
6. Estrogen receptor or Estradiol receptor Assay- This test is useful in determining the intensity of estrogen receptor sites in tumor cells of breast cancer patients. If a tumor is found to be estrogen receptor positive a patient will likely respond to antiestrogen hormone therapy.
7. PSA or prostate specific antigen- A protein produced by prostate cancer cells found in the blood of the patients.

In the next post we will learn about Important Cancer Lab Tests. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.

http://learn-free-medical-transcription.blogspot.com/2009/11/lesson-125-importance-medical.html

PROSTATE CANCER-STAGING-LESSON 123



PROSTATE CANCER STAGING: What is staging? Prostate cancer assessment is vital in finding out the stage of it. By this examination the depth of spread of cancer is found out. This is called cancer staging. Awareness of the stage would be of greatly helpful in classify the prospects and also advantageous at what time decide on using chemotherapies or radiation therapies or surgery.

TNM staging system:  Most commonly a staging system is used nowadays called four-stage TNM system (T means tumor, N means nodes, and M means metastases). The elements of this staging system comprise of the dimension or extent of the tumor, the number of concerned lymph nodes, and the occurrence of metastases of any.

Aim of Staging Method:  The ultimate aim of any staging is to confirm whether or not the cancer is still limited to the prostate. Up to T1 and T2 levels of prostate cancers the spread of cancer found merely in the prostate, but in the T3 and T4 level of cancers the spread is away from the prostate.

Assessment of Staging and its importance:  The spread of the cancer is possibly evidenced by many tests. These comprise of a CT scan or computed tomography. CT scan is used to evaluate spread if any inside the pelvis. Bone scans are used to try to find the cancer spread to the bones. Endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging or MRI scan is used to meticulously assess the seminal vesicles and the prostatic capsule. Bone scans are supposed to make known of osteoblastic manifestation due to greater than before bone density in the areas of bone metastasis.

Fatal Characteristic Features of Prostate Cancer Cells:  Prostate cancer comes about at what time prostate gland cells grow nonstop and develop small tumors. The adaptation of prostate cell development is upset consequently breed wildly. Contrasting from normal cells, prostate cancer cells will not split, grownup, and vanishing in a firmly forbidden course for the reason that the cells are no longer well regulated. As opposed to dying as ordinary cells are supposed to, prostate cancer cells live longer than normal cells. They continue to form new and abnormal cells, which bring about tumors.

Prostate cancer characteristically is fabricated of many small tumors surrounded by the prostate gland. There are more chances of curing caner for about 90% if detected in this stage using surgical procedure called prostatectomy. Radiation also can be used at this stage if detected to eliminate cancer cells in the prostate gland.

Fatality of Prostate Cancer Cells:  Regrettably for the most part prostate cancer cases go overlooked at this stage because of not having symptoms and it is also difficult to identify the disease overtly in this early stage. Due to the nontreatment of cancer in this early stage unnoticed the cancer cells carry on to develop over and over again and spread accordingly. For the durations of this period cancer cells of the prostate developed are carried through the lymphatic system and the circulatory system, and also other parts of the body and they go on to breed tumors and spreads to the nearest regions and the chances of curing at this stage is very low.

The majority of the prostate cancer cases are sluggishly budding. They may take a few years too to be converted into large as much as necessary to be detected. In some cases it may take yet longer to proliferate further than the prostate gland. Some type of prostate cancers are of swift growing, as well as more destructive.

Treatment decisions to manage prostate cancer is taken depending on the type of whether it is speed growing one or a slow growing one. Presence of prostate cancer type cells in the seminal vesicle, rectum, bone, and lymph nodes in the groin area is the indications of proof.

In the next lesson we will learn about LABORATORY TESTS OF CANCER MEDICINE. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below


PROSTATE CANCER-LESSON 122

What prostate?  Prostate is a gland of chestnut in shape, which surrounds the foundation of the urethra (a canal which shows the say on or after the bladder that releases the urine outwardly and ejaculates semen during sex) in the male. The prostate gland is a component of the male reproductive organ that lends a hand to creat and stock up seminal fluid.

For the reason that of its location, prostate often gets infection or any other illnesses and over and over again and which have an effect on urination, ejaculation, and on the odd occasion defecation. The prostate is full of many small glands and which put together approximately 20% of the fluid adding up to semen. When this gland takes part in cancer, the cells of these glands transmute and hooked on into cancer cells.

The prostate glands need of androgen (common phrase for an hormone agent which excites activity of the accessory male sex organs and promotes growth of male sex uniqueness and this is a by-product of androstane), male hormones to their job accurately.

Androgens consist of testosterone (created in maximum amount by the interstitial cells of the testes and also perhaps produced by the ovary and adrenal cortex; possibly created in nonglandular tissues from androstenedione; which is brings into play in the management of hypogonadism, cryptorchism, menorrhagia etc.,), which is made in the testes; dehydroepiandrosterone secreted by the adrenal glands; and dihydrotestosterone, which is transferred from testosterone within the prostate itself. These androgens are also accountable for derivative sex attributes for example hair in the face and bulk muscles etc.

Anatomy of the prostate:  In fully developed adult men usually the prostate is roughly 3 centimeters of length. Prostate gland weighs about 20 grams. The location of this is in the pelvis (a big bone of cup-shaped at the inferior end of the stem of the body formed the hip bone i.e. the pubic bone, ilium, and ischium on each side of the body in front), which is situated below the urinary bladder facing the rectum. The prostate enfolds a fraction of the urethra.

Prostate Cancer:  This cancer commonly comes about in men who are more than 50 years of age. Watchful rectal checkup by a doctor with digital palpation is an useful method for recognition o near the beginning prostatic carcinoma. Lymphangiography and CT scans are able to identify lymph node metastases of prostate cancer.

Identification of Prostate Cancer:  When one person affected by prostate cancer his level of an enzyme called acid phosphatase is generally released into the blood in small quantities by the prostate normally. If the person has metastatic prostate cancer his level of acid phosphatase will increase in high levels when do the blood test.

Treatment for Prostate Cancer:  Treatment for this cancer commonly be surgical that is removal of the prostate gland called prostatectomy. The other nonsurgical methods include radiotherapy and hormonal chemotherapy. As the prostatic cancer cells need androgens for the development of cancer, antiandrogen hormones will also be helpful, as well as estrogens to slow down development of cancer cells.

In the next lesson we will learn about Prostate Cancer Staging. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next page from here please click the link below



Monday, November 16, 2009

Cancer-Clinical Procedures - Lesson 121

1. Lymphangiography: Contrast (distinct-colored) dye is infused into the lymphatic vessels of the feet, as well as x-rays are taken of the lymphatic system to find out distended lymph nodes, obstruction in the lymphatic system, and the occurrence of tumors if any. 2. Bone marrow biopsy: A minute quantity of bone marrow tissue is aspirated and scrutinized beneath the microscope intended for proof of cancerous cells. 3. Needle Biopsy: A pointer needle is put in into the tissue in problem, and a central part of that tissue is detached. Aspiration of a tissues or suction of a tissue possibly used to remove free cells as of a fluid-filled cavity. This biopsy is taken from the cystic areas of the breast or from a solid lump of tumor.

4. Peritoneoscopy: This modus operandi as well called laparoscopy. This method is used to examine the abdominal or peritoneal cavity for any tumors. A laparoscope or peritoneoscope is inserted into the peritoneal cavity from side to side a small cut in the abdominal wall.

5. Radionuclide scans: radionuclides are radioactive materials and they are infused through a syringe intravenously and images taken using a scan machine. Uneven distribution of radioactivity or absence of radioactivity indicates possible disease condition. This method is mainly used in liver and spleen scans. On bone scans, irregular regions of absorption or radioactivity possibly will point out bone devastation and metastasis process accompanying it. Irregularities in brain scans come into sight as increased gathering of radioactivity as the normal brain tissue usually does engage in radioactivity for the reason that it has the blood-brain barrier.

6. Exfoliative cytology: Cells are rubbed from the area of alleged ailment. These cells are looked at beneath the microscope. The best example of exfoliative cytology is the the Pap smear to ascertain carcinoma of the cervix or vagina.

7. Laparotomy: This is an extensive surgical opening of the abdomen that permits to discover the degree of malignant disease.

Some of the radioactive materials used in getting hold of scans are:
1. Gallium-67 or 67 Ga. This material is used in entire body scans to find out Hodgkin's disease, lymphomas, head and neck cancers, bone tumors, lung tumors.
2. Technetium-99 or 99'Tc-used in liver and spleen scans.
3. 99m polyphosphate used in bone scans.

In the next post we will learn about important lab tests to diagnose cancer. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.


Cancer-Important Abbreviations-Lesson 120



In this post, we are going to learn about important cancer abbreviations. These abbreviations are dictated often by physicians while we do online live medical transcription work in companies. So as a medical transcription learner, you all should be very much familiar with these medical terminologies.

1. bx means biopsy

2. ca means cancer

3. CEA means carcinoembryonic antigen

4. CMF means Cytoxan and methotrexate

5. 5-Fu means 5-fluorouracil

6. prot means protocol

7. CR means complete response

8. PSA means prostate specific antigen

9. DES means diethylstilbestrol

10. RNA means ribonucleic acid

11. DNA means deoxyribonucleic acid

12. TNM means tumor, nodes, and metastases

13. ER means estrogen receptor

14. XRT means radiation therapy

15. Ga means Gallium

16. mets means metastases

17. NED means no evidence of disease

18. NHL means non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

19. Pap smear means Papanicolaou's smear

20. PR means partial response

In the next post we will learn about Clinical procedures used to diagnose cancer. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next post from here please click the link below.


Medical Radiation Technologists - Lesson 119



This is the treatment of ailment by means of also an external source of high-energy beams like photons, protons, and gamma rays. They are on the inside embedded radioactive substances. These radioactive waves and particles are helpful in destructing the cancer cells in the body especially the DNA of those cells and stopping the progress of their development. There are variable human resource people concerned in this medical field. A doctor who specializes in diagnostic radiology is called radiologist. A doctor who dedicates himself in the practice of management of investigative nuclear medicine course of action is called nuclear physician. A physician who is specialized in practice of radiotherapy is called radiation oncologist or radiotherapist.

Allied health care professionals who work with physicians in the fields of radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiotherapy are called radiologic technologists. Radiologic technologists can be divided into three categories such as:

1. Radiographers.
2. Nuclear medicine technologist.
3. Radiation therapy technologist.

Now we will see one by one.

Radiographer is an aide to physicians who manages investigative course of action.
Nuclear medicine technologist is a person who focusses on patients who goes through nuclear medicine methods and control devices under the direction of a nuclear physician. Radiation therapy technologist is a person who delivers course of radiation therapy prescribed by a radiotherapist.

In the next post we will important cancer abbreviations. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next post from here please click the link below.


Radiation Treatment for Cancer - Lesson 118



Wilhelm Conard Roentgen was invented x-rays and so study of x-rays is called roentgenology. Another name for study of x-rays is called Radiology. X-rays are indistinguishable wave particles of energy. X-rays are formed by means of an energy basis for instance an x-ray machine or cathode ray tube. X-rays are helpful in identifying and handling of diseases.

Nuclear medicine is the medical speciality facilitates us to study the distinctiveness and applications of radioactive materials in the analysis of diseases. Radioactive substances emit high-speed constituent parts and energy- containing beams of rays on or after the center of their substance. The given out particles and beams of rays. This activity is called radioactivity. There are three type of radioactive elements that emits radioactivity, such as alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays.

Gamma rays are analogous to x-rays because they comprise no mass and are used successfully seeing that an investigating marker to mark out the trail and uptake of chemical substances in the body.

In the next post we will learn about Radiation Technologists. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next post from here click the link below.

RADIATION TECHNOLOGISTS-CANCER-LESSON 117

This is the treatment of ailment by means of also an external source of high-energy beams like photons, protons, and gamma rays. They are on the inside embedded radioactive substances. These radioactive waves and particles are helpful in destructing the cancer cells in the body especially the DNA of those cells and stopping the progress of their development.

There are variable human resource people concerned in this medical field. A doctor who specializes in diagnostic radiology is called radiologist. A doctor who dedicates himself in the practice of management of investigative nuclear medicine course of action is called nuclear physician. A physician who is specialized in practice of radiotherapy is called radiation oncologist or radiotherapist.

Allied health care professionals who work with physicians in the fields of radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiotherapy are called radiologic technologists. Radiologic technologists can be divided into three categories such as:

1. Radiographers.
2. Nuclear medicine technologist.
3. Radiation therapy technologist.

Now we will see one by one.

Radiographer is an aide to physicians who manages investigative course of action.
Nuclear medicine technologist is a person who focusses on patients who goes through nuclear medicine methods and control devices under the direction of a nuclear physician. Radiation therapy technologist is a person who delivers course of radiation therapy prescribed by a radiotherapist.

In the next lesson we will learn about Radiation. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below


ATTRIBUTES OF X-RAYS-CANCER-LESSON 116



More than a few attributes of x-rays are helpful to physicians in the analysis and treatment of disease.
Capacity to be photographed: If beams of x-ray are focussed on a photographic plate the silver coating of the plate will change into black in color due to the chemical reaction of it on silver.

Radiolucency and Radiopacity: Ability to penetrate different substances to varying degrees. X-rays pass through the different types of substances in the human body such as calcium material in bones, water particle in the blood and lymph vessels, fat materials, muscles, and air space in the lungs, so as to give the image of that to diagnose. Radiolucency is the characteristic feature in which x-rays penetrate through lighter substances in the body like air in the lung and water in the blood, and muscles and form a black image. Radiopacity is the characteristic feature of the x-ray in which it cannot penetrate through densest hard substances like bone and metals inside the body and form an image that is whit in color.

Air is the smallest amount of thick material in the body and so displays the utmost transmission of x-rays. At the same time fat is the denser material, water is more dense than fat, and metal is the densest. When x-rays pass the through these materials the densest metals and calcium did not permit them to pass through them, but other rays pass through other fat, muscles, air will focus on the photographic plate. So the affected images of bone and other hard materials are visible for the diagnosis of fracture etc.

Nature of Invisibility: We cannot distinguish x-rays by our eyes. We cannot percept x-rays by any of our other sense organs like ears or skin too. They are very harmful and so one should be prevented from the exposure of x-rays. The mask used to avoid its exposure is called film badge. The special kind of films in the film badge are exposed by x-rays and so exposure is avoided. X-rays will be scattered when they come into contact with any other material across them. The more the density of the particle the more the scattering will occur.

Whenever x-rays pass through substances they ionize the materials i.e. neutrally charged particles become charged particles. When a particle is charged and becomes particles called ions. These charging activity of x-rays will be of greatly helpful in killing cancer cells in our body on the contrary to that normal cells when exposed by x-rays may get ionized and develop thyroid tumors, breast cancer, leukemia, etc.,

In the next post we will learn abour radiation technologists. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below
.

Friday, November 6, 2009

CANCER-DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES-LESSON 115



X-rays are used in a variety of ways to detect pathological conditions. In dentistry x-rays are commonly used to diagnose to locate cavities in teeth. Further specialities use x-rays commonly are gastroenterology, neurology, gynecology, and endocrinology, and osteology.

Contrast Studies: In x-ray film, the likely variations in the thickness of body tissues create different outline images on the x-ray film. On the other hand when x-rays get ahead of two nearby divisions made up of materials of the identical density. Such as the digestive organs in the abdomen, their images cannot be notable on the film on the screen. It is obligatory followed by to infuse a dissimilar medium called contrast medium into the structure or solution to envisage as a negative mark on the thick contrast medium.

CT or Computerized Tomography scan or CAT or Computer-Aided Tomography Scan: This is one of the avant-garde techniques in radiologic analysis. The CT scans are very much receptive to find out bone diseases in delicate bone structures and is capable of making available of pictures of internal organs that are unfeasible with run of the mill x-ray method.

In the CT scan shaft of light ionizing x-rays all the way through a patient at manifold positions as they navigate the body is sensitized and communicated to body tissues. The computer then produces all the information it takes delivery of from numerous variable x-ray outlooks and gives a multipart picture of a definite portion of the head, chest, chest, or abdomen on a screen. The facility of CT scan is to distinguish abnormalities is increased by employing of contrast agents to draw round blood vessels.


CT scans further more engage in the use of contrast dyes to find out masses in the chest, liver, kidneys, and pancreas, hematomas, brain tumors, and spinal cord lesions.
In the next lesson we will learn about attributes of x-rays. Okay.

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.

The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...