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Tuesday, September 28, 2010


In this post we would learn the remaining terms related to specific bones.

8. fibul/o means fibula or smaller lower leg bone.

9. humer/o means humerus or upper arm bone.

10. ili/o means ilium or upper part of the pelvic bone.

11. isch/o means ischium or posterior part of the pelvic bone.

12. malleol/o means malleolus or the process on each side of the ankle. The medial malleolus is at the bottom of the tibia and the lateral malleolus is at the bottom of the fibula.

13. mandibul/o means mandible or lower jaw bone.

14.  maxilla/o means maxilla or the upper jaw bone.

15. metacarp/o means metacarpals or hand bones.

16. metatars/o means metatarsals or foot bones.

17. olecran/o means olecranon or elbow.

18. patell/a means patella.

19. patell/o means kneecap.

20. pelv/i means pelvis or hip bone.

21. perone/o means fibula.

22. phalang/o means philanges or finger bones.

23. pub/o means pubis or anterior part of the pelvic bone.

24. radi/o means radius or lower armbone-thumb side.

25. scapula/o means radius or lower arm bone-thumb side.

26. stern/o means sternum or breast bone.

27. tars/o means tarsals or ankle bones.

28. tibi/o means tibia or shin bone.

29. uln/o means ulna or lower arm bone-little finger side.

In the next post we will study about the pathological conditions and fractures.


To go to the first lesson please click the link below:

To go to the prior lesson please click the link below:

Friday, September 17, 2010


 Some of the suffixes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM are given below:

1. –blast means embryonic or immature cell. Osteoblast is the cell breaks down bone to remove bone tissue.

2. –clast means to break. Osteoclast means the break down of cell to remove bone tissue.

3. –listhesis means slipping. Spondylolisthesis means forward slipping or subluxation of a vertebra over a lower vertebra.

4. –malacia means softening. Osteomalacia means a condition in which vitamin D deficiency leads to decalcification of bones known as rickets in children.

5. –physis means to grow. Epiphysis and Pubic symphysis are the best examples.

6. –porosis means pore or passage. Osteoporosis means loss of bony tissue and decreased mass of bone. Pathological conditions and fractures.

7. –tome means instrument to cut. Osteotome means surgical chisel which is designed to cut bone.


Let us discuss some of the related terms for the combining forms of some specific bones and their meaning.

1. Acetabul/o means acetabulum. Acetabular is the hip socket.

2. Calcanc/o means calcaneus or heel bone. Calcaneal is one of the tarsal (foot) bones.

3. carp/o means carpals (wrist bones). Carpal is the wrist bone.

4. clavicul/o means clavicle or collar bone. Supra_clavicular in which supra- means above.

5. cost/o means ribs(true ribs, false ribs, and floating ribs). Subcostal means part of ribs. Chondrocostal means cartilage that is attached to the ribs.

6. crani/o means cranium or skull bones. Craniotomy means study of skull bones.

7. femor/o means femur or thigh bone.

We will learn about some more combining forms in the next post.

Friday, September 10, 2010

Bladder cancer information

The cancer arises in the urinary bladder because of malevolent development of cancer cell in the urinary bladder.  Atypical cancer cells increase their growth in the bladder irregularly and uncontrollably. The urinary bladder is a concave and brawny organ that stocks up urine.  This type of cancer is known as transitional cell carcinoma or urothelial cell carcinoma.  The signs and symptom of this type of cancer in the urinary bladder is typically bring about blood in the urine.  The bleeding from the urinary bladder in the urine possibly noticeable to the bare eye called gross hematuria.  Sometimes the hematuria may be not noticeable to the bare eye called microscopic hematuria, as they can be seen only under microscope.  Additional likely symptoms of the bladder cancer comprise of pain through urination and recurrent urination called polyuria.  Hematuria and recurrent urination may occur possibly due to inflammation of the urinary bladder too.

The main reason for the bladder cancer is almost in common is smoking.  Smoking tobacco products is mainly the primary reason for the bladder cancer in most cases.  Both woman and men are affecting from smoking result, but men are more prone to this than woman.  Quitting smoking in earlier stages may be helpful in more spread of bladder cancer.

How to diagnose bladder cancer?
Cystoscopy is the first thing to be done to diagnose bladder cancer.  A biopsy is also obtained while doing cystoscopy.  Incidentally bladder cancer is found out in som patients whenever cystoscopy done for other reasons.  Voided urine sample is obtained from the patient and cell study is done to diagnose bladder cancer.  Bladder washing is the method of getting voided urine whenever cystoscopy is done to diagnose the bladder cancer.  In most cases cytology of urine is very precise in diagnosing bladder cancer.  In cystoscopy an flexible and stretchy tube attached to a camera and a variety of tools necessary is inserted into the bladder from the first to last to the urethra.  Doubtful wounds or lacerations inside the bladder perhaps is cut out by biopsy technique and sent it for pathologic analysis.  The pathologist classifies the cancer using the biopsy sample available to him.  Transitional cell carcinoma is the common occurrence of bladder cancer in many cases.  The second most probable conditions of bladder cancer are adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and sarcoma types.

Bladder cancer staging method:  Any cancer in the body can be classified by the staging method called TNM (tumor, lymph node, and metastasis) staging system like T0 N0 M0 or T1 N1 M1.  Ta is a stage of bladder cancer in which stage 0 cancer cells are found in the central lining of the bladder.  The cancer cells in the stage I cancer have flourished to the layer further than the central lining of the urinary bladder than stage 0 cancer.  In the stage II bladder cancer type, the cancer cells have flourished or multiplied to the muscles in the bladder wall that is more deeper than the stage I cancer.  The stage III bladder cancer is deeper than stage II, in which cancer cells have flourished to the fatty tissue surrounding the urinary bladder and may also to the prostate gland or vagina, or may even to the uterus.  In the stage IV bladder cancer, the cancer cells have flourished more to the lymph nodes, pelvic and abdominal wall, and/or more to the other nearby organs.

In the next post we will see about bone cancer.  Okay. Come on.

Wednesday, September 8, 2010

Cancer treatment alternative methods

There are many kinds of alternative treatment methods to treat cancer all over the world.  The conventional alternative cancer treatment methods are of using therapies like chemotherapy, chemoembolization method, radiation therapy, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and immunotherapy.  Even some methods of alternative cancer treatment techniques are costly.  They are useful in lessening the pain and discomfort of the patient.  In many cases, these alternative treatment methods give devastating and overwhelming side effects after it, but they are in no way important in reducing the symptoms of cancer.

Chemotherapy is a conventional method of treating cancer using drugs.  These chemotherapeutic drugs will obliterate and demolish cancer cells by obstructing and slowing down the development and duplication of the cancer cells.  Some chemotherapeutic drugs are Accutane, Mesnex, and PROCRIT.

Chemoembolization is another alternative treatment regimen and that conveys chemotherapeutic drugs in a straight line to a mass or tumor.  The contact or coverage of the treatment regimen drug should be avoided to the other nearby healthy regions of the cancer area.  In this method of treatment, chemotherapeutic drug is directly infused to the cancer area from side to side using a catheter by means of image guidance.  This method of direct application of drugs to the cancer area is used generally to cure colorectal cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer.

 Radiation therapy is performed after a resistance testing before that, which will help the physician to determine the right mixture of chemotherapy drugs previous to commence handling treatment to the cancer patient. This resistance test would be of helpful in deciding which drugs will work for the patient and also to lessen needless toxicity and side effects.  This test also helps to initiate the best useful chemotherapy routine for the patient’s needs.  To perform this test, a sample of the tumor is removed and tested against a variety of chemotherapy drugs. If the tumor cells grow in the presence of a drug, there is a high likelihood of resistance to that drug. By testing tissues and drugs outside of the body, we can minimize complications and target cancer cells as aggressively as possible from the start.

Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC):  This method of treatment is to treat mainly for ovarian and intestinal cancers.  In this method of alternative treatment of cancer, the physician who is doing the surgery eliminates cancer tissues gradually. The main objective of this type of treatment is to have keep only negligible tumor tissue rest in the patient. Subsequent to this alternative cancer treatment, chemotherapy is administered by way of the stomach for about one and half hours. The main objective of this type of chemotherapy is to administer an intense quantity of chemotherapy in a straight line to the cancer affected area in the stomach.  It is particularly noticeable to avoid the contact of other healthy body tissues.

Immunotherapy:  This type of alternative cancer treatment mainly stimulates, augments,  or restrains a particular immune response in the patient’s body.  These therapies are intended to bring out or increase an immune response.  There are two types of immunotherapies, such as activation immunotherapies and suppression immunotherapies.  The former one activates a particular immune response in the body and the second one reduces or suppresses a particular immune response in the body.  Immnomodulators are the vigorous agents of the immunotherapy. 

Tuesday, September 7, 2010

Cancer Information you need to know

What is cancer? We all should know about this fatal disease condition.  Most people die after some months or years once cancer affects them.  It affects all sort of social level people. So we must know about cancer. Cancer is a deadly disease, and what will it do for a patient who is affected with it? And how can we define cancer and how it develops? We should understand these questions first to know well about cancer.  Cancer is not a single disease condition like cough or fever, but cancer is of different types somewhat approximately 100 in number.  Will it affect any particular organ or system in our body? No.  It will affect more or less all body organs and systems.  Even the delicate organs like eyes and heart can even be affected by cancer when it spreads to those organs. In total cancer is a fatal disease condition of affecting overall body cells when it affects a patient.

As there are 100 more types of cancerous conditions that affect our body, each kind of cancer is distinctive from the other kinds of cancers with its own sources and signs and symptoms.  The treatments for different cancer types are also different.

We will see now how cancer develops in common.  Each organ in our body is fabricated of cells.  Cells are the building material like bricks for a house.  The cells of the body reproduce and segregate themselves and that makes growth and changes to the body. But, in some abnormal conditions, body cells continue to divide and multiply even when there is no need for growth or any other reasons, in such conditions, these cells accumulate and form a mass development called tumor.

These abnormal growth or development of mass in a particular organ or system can be divided into two types such as malignant tumor and benign tumor.  A malignant tumor is very dangerous as they invade deep inside an organ or system and it cannot be removed easily.  The spread of the cancer called metastasis for the malignant tumor is extensive to the close proximity too.  On the other hand, a benign tumor is not too fatal or dangerous, as they are superficial on the skin layer, and also can easily be removed.

The cancer is named from the origin of its spread, for example when cancer originates from the lung and spreads to the brain, it is simply called lung cancer.  Leukemia is a cancer condition of blood cells (white blood cells), but the cancer may metastasize to the other organs from the blood stream.

Signs and symptoms of each cancerous condition in our body may differ from the other cancer condition.  Generally, cancer patients affect with weight loss, fever, and tiredness.

To go to the first lesson click the link below

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Saturday, September 4, 2010


In this lesson, we will learn about important musculoskeletal system combining forms. All combining forms are very important to understand the medical terminology well.  As a medical transcription learner, you must know the meaning of all the system combining forms to do the live files once you promoted into production.  Every learner should have one good medical dictionary to know the meaning of each terminology crosschecked.  Each medical word is a combination of one or more combining forms bridging vowel in general the letter 'O' and a suffix or the word end.  In this way, every trainee should try to split each medical word and understand it.

1.  Calc/o means calcium.  Hypocalemia means a disease condition of less calcium in the bones.  Hypercalcemia means an abnormal condition of more calcium in the bones.

2.  Calci/o means calcium.  Decalcification is an abnormal condition of loss of calcium in the bones.

3.  Kyph/o means humpback.  Kyphosis is an abnormal condition of backward curvature of the backbone.

4.  Lamin/o means lamina that is a part of the vertebral arch.  Laminectomy is the surgical removal of vertebral arches in the backbone.

5.  Lord/o means curve anteriorly.  Lordosis is an abnormal condition of anterior curvature of the spinal cord.

6.  Lumb/o means lower back or loins.  Lumbar is pertaining to lower back.

7.  Myel/o means bone marrow.  Myelopoiesis is the process of production of bone marrow.

8.  Orth/o means straight or upright.  Orthopedics the study of musculoskeletal system that helps to make our body straight.

9.  Oste/o means bone.  Osteitis is an abnormal condition of inflammation in the bones.

10.  Scoli/o means bent or crooked.  Scoliosis is an abnormal condition of crook in the spinal cord laterally.

11.  Spondyl/o means vertebra.  Spondylitis is an abnormal condition of inflammation in the spinal bones.

12.  Vertebr/o means vertebra.  Vertebral is pertaining to vertebral bones.

In the next post, we will learn about important musculoskeletal suffixes. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the prior lesson from here, please click the link below.

To go to the FIRST lesson from here, please click the link below.

Wednesday, September 1, 2010


In this post we are going to learn about more important musculoskeletal system vocabularies.  You should try to use a medical dictionary to know more about each of these words using diagrams.  This will make your learning process better to create an inner picture of each of these terms inside you permanently.  This will give you more proficiency of medical terms and this will help you to transcribe easily when a dictator dictates these terms in his live file when you start transcription file for training or for job.  This is my own experience.  Please try it out.

 1.  Fossa:  Shallow hole or cavity like opening in a bone.
2.  Haversian canals:  Minute or tiny openings packed with blood vessels found in compact bone.
3.  Malleolus:  Ring-shaped processes on both faces of the ankle joint.
4.  Mastoid process:  Spherical and round-shaped protrusion or bulge on the temporal bone at the back of the ear.
5.  Medullary cavity:  Innermost, middle, burrowing area in the shaft or tunnel of a long bone.
6.  Olecranon:  Large process outwardly appearing on the elbow.
7.  Osseous tissue:  Bone tissue.
8.  Ossification:  Process of bone development.
9.  Osteoblast:  Bone cell that aids to develop bone tissue.
10.  Osteoclast:  Bone cell that takes up and takes away or removes unnecessary or surplus bone tissue.
11.  Periosteum:  Membrane nearby bones.
12.  Phosphorous:  Mineral material originates in bones in blend with calcium.
13.  Pubic symphysis:  Area of union or fusion of the two pubic bones.  Pubic symphyses are united by a piece of fibrocartilage.  Sym- means together –physis means to grow.
14.  Red bon marrow:  This is found in the cancellous bone at the site of hemopoiesis.
15.  Sinus:  A hollow cavity inside a bone.
16.  Styloid process:  Pole-like process on the temporal bone.
17.  Sulcus:  Groove-like depression.
18.  Trabeculae:  Holding up collection of bony fibers in cancellous bone.
19.  Trochanter:  Bulky process beneath the neck of the femur.
20.  Tubercle:  A small and rounded process of a bone.
21.  Tuberosity:  A huge and rounded process of a bone.
22.  Vertebra:  This is the back bone that is made up of vertebral body, vertebral arch, spinous process, transverse processes, lamina, and neural canal.
23.  Xiphoid process:  This is a inferior and narrow portion of the sternum.
24.  Yellow bone marrow:  Fatty tissue found in the diaphysis are of long bones.

In the next post we will start to learn about important musculoskeletal system combining forms and suffixes.  Okay.

Come on.

To go to the prior lesson from here please click the link below.

The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...