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Sunday, January 25, 2009

Important Prefixes - Lesson 46


1. a-, an- means no, not, without
apnea-no breathing
anoxia-without oxygen

2. ab- means away from
abnormal-away from normal

3. ad- means toward
adduction-a muscle draws the body towards the median plane

4. ana- means up, apart
anabolism-process of burning energy up

5. ante-before, forward
antecebum-before meals
anteflexion-bending forward
antepartum-before delivery

6. anti- means against
antisepsis- against infection

7. auto- means self, own
autoimmune-immune protection
8. bi- means two
bifurcation-dividing into two
bilateral-two sides

9. brady- means slow
bradycardia-slow heart beat

10. cata- means down
catabolism- process of burning energy down

11. con- means with, together
congenital anomaly-abnormal condition of childs
connective-to connect

12. contra- means against, opposite
contraindication-against indication
contralateral-opposite sides

13. de- means down, lack of
dehydration-lack of water in the body

14. dia- means through, complete
diameter-complete measurement

15. dys- means bad, painful, difficult, abnormal
dyspnea-difficult breathing

16. ec-, ecto- means out, outside
ectopic pregnancy-outside the uterus

17. en-, endo- means in, within
endotracheal-within the trachea
endocardium-within the heart

18. epi- means upon, on, above
epithelium-above the skin

19. eu- means good, normal
euthyoid-normal thyroid

20. ex- means out, away from
exophthalmia-bulging eyes

21. hemi- means half
hemiglossectomy-removal of half of the tongue

22. hyper- means excessive, above
hyperplasia-excessive development of cell numbers
hypertrophy-increase in the size of the cells
hyperglycemia-excessive sugar

23. hypo- means deficient, under
hypodermic-below the skin
hypoglycemia-less sugar

24. in- means not
insomnia-inability to sleeping

25. in- means into
incision-cut into

26. infra- means beneath
infracostal-sub costal or beneath the ribs

27. inter- means between
intercostal-in between the ribs

28. intra- means into, within
intravenous-into the vein

29. macro- means large
macrocephalic-pertaining to large head

30. mal- means bad
malnutrition-bad nutrition
malignant-tumor that spreads
malaise-vague sick feeling

31. meta- means change, beyond
metamorphosis-change in the form and functions

32. micro- means small
microscope-instrument to view small

33. neo- means new
neoplasm-new growth
neonatal-new born

34. pan- means all
pancytopenia-deficiency of all cells

35. para- means near, beside, abnormal
parathyroid glands-near thyroid glands

36. per- means through
percutaneous-through the skin

37. peri- means surrounding
pericardium-outer layer of the heart

38. poly- means many, much
polymorphonuclear-cell having many nuclei of many forms and structures

39. post- means after, behind
postmortem-viewing of a dead tissue
postnatal-before birth

40. pre- means before, in front of
precancerous-before cancer

41. pro- means before, forward
prodrome-early symptoms of a disease
prolapse-drooping or coming out

42. pseudo- means false
pseudocyesis-false pregnancy

43. re- means back, again
relapse-return of the disease
remission-symptoms lessen
recombinant DNA-one that inherits one gene

44. retro- means behind, backward
retroperitoneal-pertaining to backside of the pericardium
retroflexion-bending back

45. sub- means under
subcutaneous-under the skin

46. syn-, sym- means together, with
syndactyly-fingers and toes club together
synthesis-building up or putting together
syndrome-group of symptoms
symbiosis-association of two or more species for mutual benefit
symphysis-meeting point or union point

47. tachy- means fast
tachypnea-fast breathing

48. trans- means across, through
transfusion-transfer of one to another
transurethral-across the urethra

49. ultra- means beyond, excess
ultrasonography-measurement of deep structures using sound waves

50. uni- means one

To go to the next lesson please click the link below

Important Combining Forms and Suffixes Lesson 45


1. carp/o means wrist bones.

2. cib/o means meals

3. cis/o means to cut

4. cost/o means rib

5. cutane/o means skin

6. dactyl/o means fingers, toes

7. duct/o means to lead, carry

8. flex/o means to bend

9. furc/o means forking, branching

10. glosso/o means tongue

11. glyco/o means sugar

12. immun/o means protection

13. morph/o means shape, form

14. mort/o means death

15. nat/i means birth

16. nect/o means to bind, tie, connect

17. norm/o means rule, order

18. ox/o means oxygen

19. seps/o means infection

20. somn/o means sleep

21. son/o means sound
22. the/o means to put, place

23. thyr/o means shield

24. top/o means place, position, location

25. tox/o means poison

26. trache/o means windpipe, trachea

27. urethr/o means urethra


1. –blast means embryonic, immature cells

2. –cyesis means pregnancy

3. –drome means to run

4. –fusion means to pour

5. –gen means producing

6. –lapse means to slide, tall, sag

7. –lysis means breakdown, separation, loosening

8. –meter means to measure

9. –mission means to send

10. –or means one who

11. –partum means birth, labor

12. –phoria means to bear, carry, feeling (mental state)

13. –physis means to grow

14. –plasia means development, formation

15. –plasm means development, formation

16. –pnea means breathing

17. –ptosis means droop, sag, prolapse

18. –rrhea means flow, discharge

19. –stasis means to stop, control

20. –trophy means nourishment, development

In the next lesson we will see more about more new important prefixes..ok

Come on...

To go to the next lesson please click the link below

Tonsillits - Lesson 45

Tonsils are lymphatic tissue in the throat. They contain white blood cells (lymphocytes) and function to filter and fight bacteria, but they can also become infected and inflamed. Streptococcal infection of the throat can cause tonsillitis, which leads to the procedure of tonsillectomy.

Tonsillitis is an infection of the tonsils and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever.

There are 3 main types of tonsillitis: acute, subacute and chronic. Acute tonsillitis can either be bacterial or viral in origin. Subacute tonsillitis is caused by the bacterium Actinomyces. Chronic tonsillitis, which can last for long periods if not treated, is almost always bacterial.

Symptoms of tonsillitis include a severe sore throat (which may be experienced as referred pain to the ears), painful/difficult swallowing, crouch coughing, headache, fever and chills. Tonsillitis is characterized by signs of red, swollen tonsils which may have a purulent exudativ coating of white patches (i.e. pus). There may be enlarged and tender neck cervical lymph nodes.

Tonsillitis may be caused by Group A streptococcal bacteria, resulting in strep throat. Viral tonsillitis may be caused by numerous viruses such as the Epstein-Barr virus (the cause of infectious mononucleosis) or the Adenovirus.

Sometimes, tonsillitis is caused by a superinfection of spirochaeta and treponema, in this case called Vincent's angina or Plaut-Vincent angina.

Although tonsillitis is associated with infection, it is currently unknown whether the swelling and other symptoms are caused by the infectious agents themselves, or by the host immune response to these agents. Tonsillitis may be a result of aberrant immune responses to the normal bacterial flora of the nasopharynx.

Treatments of tonsillitis consist of pain management medications and lozenges. If the tonsillitis is caused by bacteria, then antibiotics are prescribed, with penicillin being most commonly used. Erythromycin is used for patients allergic to penicillin.

In many cases of tonsillitis, the pain caused by the inflamed tonsils warrants the prescription of topical anesthetics for temporary relief. Viscous lidocaine solutions are often prescribed for this purpose. Ibuprofen or other analgesics can help to decrease the edema and inflammation, which will ease the pain and allow the patient to swallow liquids sooner.

When tonsillitis is caused by a virus, the length of illness depends on which virus is involved. Usually, a complete recovery is made within one week; however, some rare infections may last for up to two weeks. Chronic cases may indicate tonsillectomy (surgical removal of tonsils) as a choice for treatment. Additionally, gargling with a solution of warm water and salt may reduce pain and swelling.

In the next lesson we will see more important combining forms and suffixes..ok

Come on...

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.

Ischemia - Lesson 43

In medicine, ischemia is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. It may also be spelled ischaemia or ischæmia.

Ischemia- Isch/o means hold back, -emia means blood from a part of the body. A tissue that becomes ischemic loses its normal flow of blood and becomes deprived of oxygen. The ischemia can be caused by mechanical injury to a blood vessel, by blood clots lodging in a vessel, or by the gradual closing off (occlusion) of a vessel owing to of fatty material.

Rather than in hypoxia (less oxygen), a more general term denoting a shortage of oxygen (usually a result of lack of oxygen in the air being breathed), ischemia is an absolute or relative shortage of the blood supply to an organ. Relative shortage means the mismatch of blood supply (oxygen delivery) and blood request for adequate oxygenation of tissue. Ischemia results in tissue damage because of a lack of oxygen and nutrients. Ultimately, this causes great damage because of a buildup of metabolic wastes.

Ischemia can also be described as an inadequate flow of blood to a part of the body, caused by constriction or blockage of the blood vessels supplying it. Ischemia of heart muscle produces angina pectoris.

This can be due to
1. Tachycardia (abnormally rapid beating of the heart)
2. Atherosclerosis (lipid-laden plaques obstructing the lumen of arteries)
3. Hypotension (low blood pressure, e.g. in septic shock, heart failure)
4. Thromboembolism (blood clots)
5. Outside compression of a blood vessel, e.g. by a tumor
6. Embolism (foreign bodies in the circulation, e.g. amniotic fluid embolism)
7. Sickle cell disease (abnormally shaped hemoglobin)

Since oxygen is mainly bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells, insufficient blood supply causes tissue to become hypoxic, or, if no oxygen is supplied at all, anoxic. This can cause necrosis (i.e. cell death). In very aerobic tissues such as heart and brain, at body temperature necrosis due to ischemia usually takes about 3-4 hours before becoming irreversible. This and typically some collateral circulation to the ischemic area accounts for the efficacy of "clot-buster" drugs such as Alteplase, given for stroke and heart attack within this time period. However, complete cessation of oxygenation of such organs for more than 20 minutes typically results in irreversible damage.
Ischemia is a feature of heart diseases, transient ischemic attacks, cerebrovascular accidents, ruptured arteriovenous malformations, and peripheral artery occlusive disease. The heart, the kidneys, and the brain are among the organs that are the most sensitive to inadequate blood supply. Ischemia in brain tissue, for example due to stroke or head injury, causes a process called the ischemic cascade to be unleashed, in which proteolytic enzymes, reactive oxygen species, and other harmful chemicals damage and may ultimately kill brain tissue.
Restoration of blood flow after a period of ischemia can actually be more damaging than the ischemia. Reintroduction of oxygen causes a greater production of damaging free radicals, resulting in reperfusion injury. With reperfusion injury, necrosis can be greatly accelerated.

In the next lesson we will learn something about tonsillitis..ok

Come on...

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below