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Sunday, July 31, 2011

Skin Neoplasms Benign Neoplasms -- Lesson 255

In this post we would learn some of the Skin neoplasms Benign neoplasms
1. Callus: - Increased growth of cells in the layer of horny of the epidermis dueto pressure or friction. The common sites are the feet and the hands. The type of callus that develops a hard core which  is a whitish, corn-like central kernel is called a corn.

2. Keloid: - Hypertrophied, thickened scar after trauma or surgical incision. These occur from excessive collagen formation in the corium during connective tissue repair. Here kelis means a blemish which comes from the Greek word.

3. Keratosis: - Area of the epidermis which is thickened. Due to excessive exposure to light or actinic keratosis, some keratosis appear red. Seborrhcic keratoses look yellow or brown and are also called senile warts. These both types occur in middle age and old age.

4. Leukoplakia: - On mucous membrane tissue of the tongue or cheek, there appears white, thickened patches. This is a precancerous lesion. This may be caused by chronic inflammation which is common in smokers.

5. Nevus: - The plural of nevus is nevi. It is the pigmented lesion of the skin. These nevi includes dialated vessels of blood called telangiectasis which radiating out from a point known as vascular spiders, hemangiomas, and moles. Many are present at birth, but some are acquired. Dysplastic nevi are moles that do not form properly and may progress to form a type of skin cancer called melanoma.

6. Wart (verruca): - The epidermal growth caused by a virus. Plantarwarts or verrucae occur on the soles of the feet, juvenile warts occur on the hands and face of children, and venereal warts occur on the genitals and around the anus. Warts may be removed by use of acids, electrocautery, or freezing with liquid nitrogen or cryosurgery. If the virus remains in the skin, the wart can regrow.

In the next post we would learn about Cancerous Lesions.

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Monday, July 25, 2011

Cutaneous Skin Lesions -- Lesson 254

In this post we would learn some more lesions.
8. Scabies: - A parasitic, contagious infection of the skin with intense pruritus. Scabies is often spread through commonly affected and sexual contact, areas are the penis, groin, nipples and skin between the fingers. The treatment for this is topical medicated cream to destroy the scabies mites (tiny parasites).

9. Scleroderma: - A chronic progressive disease of the skin with hardening and shrinking of connective tissue. Fibrous scar tissue infiltrates the skin and heart, lungs, kidney, and esophagus may be affected as well. Skin is thickened, hard, and rigid, and pigmented patches may occur. Etiology is not known so much; palliative treatment consists of drugs, such as immunosuppressives and anti-inflammatory agents, and physical therapy.

10. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): - This is the chronic inflammatory disease of collagen in the skin, of joints, and of internal organs. Lupus means wolf-like; physicians thought the shape and color of the skin lesions resembled the bite of a wolf and produces a characteristic ‘butterfly’ pattern of redness over the cheeks and nose. In most of the severe cases, the extent of erythema increases and all exposed areas of the skin may be involved. A disease of females which is primary  and this lupus is an autoimmune condition. High levels of antibodies are found in the patient’s blood. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs are used to control symptoms.  SLE should be differentiated from chronic discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), which is a milder, scaling, plaque-like, superficial eruption of the skin confined to the face, scalp, ears, chest, arms, and back. The reddish patches heal and leave scars.

11. Tinea: - The infection of the skin which is caused by a fungus. Tinea or ringworm, because the infection is in a ring-like pattern, is highly contagious and causes severe pruritus. The examples are tinea pedis (athiete’s foot), which affects the skin between the toes, tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp), and tinea barbace (ringworm of the skin under a beard). The treatment is with antifungal agents.

In the next post we will learn about Skin neoplasms Benign neoplasms.

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Monday, July 18, 2011

Cutaneous Skin Lesions -- Lesson 253

In this post we will learn in further
2. Burns: - Injury to tissues caused by contact of heart. The examples are dry heat (fire), moist heat (steam or liquid), chemicals, electricity, radiation or lightning. These burns are classified into three types.
First-degree burns: - These burns are superficial epidermal lesions, erythema, blisters, and hyperesthesis are the first-degree burns examples. Sunburn is an example of this type of burns.
Second-degree burns: - These burns are epidermal and dermal lesions, erythema, blisters and hyperesthesia.
Third-degree burns: - These burns of which epidermis and dermis are destroyed (necrosis of skin), and subcutaneous layer is damaged leaving charged while tissue.

3. Eczema: - The skin disease of inflammatory with erythematous, papulovesicular lesions. This chronic or acute dermatitis is often accompanied by pruritus and may occur without any obvious cause. It is a common allergic reaction in children and also occurs in adults. Allergy may be to foods, dust, or pollens. Treatment depends on the cause but usually includes the use of corticosteroids.

4. Exanthematous viral diseases: - Due to a viral infection rash (exanthema) of the skin. For this examples are rubella (German measles), rubeola (measles), and varicella (chickenpox).

5. Gangrene: - With the loss of blood supply, association of death of tissue. In this condition, ischemia resulting from injury, inflammation, frost bite diseases such as diabetes, or arteriosclerosis can lead to necrosis of tissue followed by bacterial invasion and putrefaction (proteins are decomposed by bacteria).

6. Impetigo: - Bacterial inflammatory skin disease which was characterized by vesicles, pustules, and crusted-over lesions. This is a contagious pyoderma in which py/o means pus and is usually caused by staphylococci or streptococci. Systemic use of antibiotics and proper cleaning of lesions are effective treatments.

7. Psoriasis: - Chronic, recurrent dermatosis marked by itchy, scaly, red patches covered by silgery gray scales. This commonly forms on the forearms, knees, legs and scalp. It s neither infectious nor contagious.

In the next post we would learn remaining lesions.

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Monday, July 11, 2011

Cutaneous Skin Lesions - Lesson 252

In this post we are going to learn some more lesions.
11. Ecchymosis: - On the skin a bluish-black mark (macule) present. Ecchymoses(in which ec- means out, chym/o means to pour) into the skin from injury which are caused by the hemhorrhages or spontaneous leaking of blood from vessels. The plural of Ecchymosis is Ecchymoses.

12. Petechia: - It is a small, pinpoint hemorrhage. Petechiae are smaller versions of ecchymoses. The plural of petechia is petechiae.

13. Pruritus: - This means itching. Pruritus is associated with most forms of dermatitis and with other conditions as well. It arises as a result of stimulation of nerves in the skin by enzymes released in allergic reactions or by irritation caused by substances from the blood or from foreign bodies.

14. Purpura: - Merging ecchymoses and petechiae over, any part of the body.

15. Urticaria (hives): - It is an acute allergic reaction in which red, round wheals develop on the skin. Pruritus may be intense, and etiology is commonly allergy to foods such as shellfish or strawberries. Localized edema or swelling occurs as well.

16. Vitiligo: - Loss of pigment (depigmentation) in the skin areas (patches in milk-white color). It is also known as leukoderma. There is an increased association of vitiligo with certain autoimmune conditions such as thyroiditis, hyperthyroidism, and diabetis mellitus. 

Abnormal Conditions: - 

1. Acne: - The conditon of the skin which is in papular and pustular eruption. Acne vulgaris is caused by the buildup of sebum and keratin in the pores of the skin. A blackhead or comedo is a sebum plug partially blocking the pore. The plural of comedo is comedones. If the pore becomes completely blocked, a whitehead forms. Bacteria in teh skin break down the sebum, producing inflammation in teh surrounding tissue. Papules, pustules, and cysts can thus form. Treatment consists of long-term antibiotic use and medications to dry the skin. Benzoyl peroxide and tretinoin (retin-A) are medications to prevent comedo formation; In severe cystic acne, isotretinoin is used also called accutane. 

In the next post we will learn remaining conditions.

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Monday, July 4, 2011

Cutaneous Lesions -- Lesson 251

In this post we are going to learn about cutaneous lesions.
Then what is cutaneous lesions?
The damaged tissue area caused by disease or trauma is called a lesion. The terms 1. Cyst, 2. Fissure, 3. Macule, 4. Papule, 5. Polyp, 6. Pustule,
7. Ulcer, 8. Vesicle, 9. Wheal are the terms to describe common skin lesions. Let us learn about them briefly.

1. Cyst: - A Cyst is defined as a thick-walled, closed sac or pouch containing fluid or semisolid material.
Examples of Cysts are 1. Pilonidal cyst, which is found over the sacral area of the back in the midline and contains hairs (in which pil/o means hair, nid/o means nest); and sebaceous cyst, which is a collection of yellowish, cheesy sebum commonly found on the scalp, vulva, and scrotum.

2. Fissure: - A fissure is a groove or crack-like sore. An anal fissure is abreak in the skin lining and anal canal.

3. Macule: - A macule is a discolored falt lesion or often reddened. The examples of this macule are freckles, tattoo marks and flat moles.

4. Papule: - It has small, solid elevation of the skin less than 1cm in diameter. Pimples are examples of papules. A larger, solid elevation is called a nodule.

5. Polyp: - A mushroom-like growth extending on a stalk from the surface of mucuous membrane.

6. Pustule: - A small elevation of the skin containing pus. A pustule is a small abcess on the skin.

7. Ulcer: - An erosion of the skin or mucous membrane. Decubitus ulcera (bedsores) are due to pressure from lying in one position (decubitus means lying down). Ulcers usually involve loss of tissue substance and pus formation.

8. Vesicle: - A small collection of clear fluid (serum); blister. Vesicles are found in burns, allergies, and dermatitis. Bullae are large vesicles or blisters.

9. Wheal: - A slightly elevatd, smooth, edematous or swollen are that is redder or paler than the surrounding skin; hives. Wheals may be circumscribed as in a mosquito bite, or involve a wide area, as in allergic reactions. Wheals (hives) are often accompanied by itching symptoms.

10. Alopecia: - Absence of hair from areas where it normally grows. Alopecia or baldness may be hereditary (usual progressive loss of scalp hair in men); or it may be due to disease, injury, or treatment (chemotherapy) or occur in old age. Alopecia areata is an idiopathic condition in which hair falls out in patches.  

In the next post we will learn some more lesions.

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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...