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Friday, May 28, 2010

HUMAN BONE STRUCTURE - LESSON 200

Now in this post we will learn about the structure of the bone. In our human body there are 206 bones of different types are there. The thigh, lower leg, and upper and lower arm consists of long bones. These bones have large surface areas for muscle attachment and are very strong, are broad at the ends where they join with other bones.

There are five types of bones in the human body. The five types are long, short, flat, irregular, and sesamoid.

1. Long bones:- These bones are comprised mostly of compact bone and lower amounts marrow, which is located within the medullary cavity, and spongy bone and are characterized by a shaft, the diaphysis, that is much larger in length than breadth. These bones are mostly present in the limbs, including those of the fingers and toes are long bones. Except the wrist, ankle, and kneecap these long bones are located in most.

2. Short bones:- These short bones are generally cube shaped and having a thin layer of compact bone surrounding a spongy interior. These short bones are found in the wrist and ankle and have small, irregular shapes.
3. Flat bones:- These bones are thin and generally curved, with two parallel layers of compact bones which are sandwiching a layer of spongy bone. Larger number of bones of the skull are flat bones as is the sternum. These flat bones are covered with soft body parts. These are the shoulder bone, ribs, and pelvic bones.

4. Irregular bones:- These bones do not fit into the above various bones. They contains of thin layers of compact bone surrounding a spongy interior. According to the name itself their shapes are irregular and complicated. These bones are in the spine and hips.

5. Sesamoid bones:- These bones are small, rounded bones resembling a grain of sesame in shape. They are found near the joints. The best example of this types of bone are present in kneecap. Because these bones are embedded in tendons. They hold the tendon further away from the joint, the angle of the tendon is increased and thus the leverage of the muscle is increased. The best examples of these sesamoid bones are the patella and the pisform. 

In the next lesson we will learn about the remaining structure of the bone.

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Monday, May 24, 2010

AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS - AN EXPLANATION - LESSON 199


ALS is nothing but amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The other name of this disease is Lou Gehrig's disease. Amyotrophy means muscle wasting caused by disease of the nerves that supply to the muscles.  The cause is unknown yet medically. A- means nothing, myo-means muscle, and -trophy means growth, sclerosis means hardening or thickening. That is a state in which muscle gets hardened or thickened due to no sensation.  

Our nervous system is of two types that is Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system (PNS).  Central nervous system includes brain and spinal cord and the nerves associated with it that is integrative and control centers of the body (central and autonomic nerves).  Peripheral nervous system consists of the cranial nerves (nerves that connect eyes, ears, nose, and mouth to the brain) and spinal nerves (nerves connect the brain to the hands and feet).  Peripheral nervous system is an extension of central nervous system, which unites CNS to the upper and lower extremities (hands and feet) and other organs in the body.  These two nervous systems coordinate all body functions in our body.   The functions of total nervous system are of two types that are motor and sensory, by which we connect ourselves internally and externally to the world.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurological disease condition, in which the nerves interrupted or collapsed from doing their normal function i.e. nerve tissues in the CNS (Central Nervous System) are affected and degenerated. When this disease affects a person's body movements affect, as this ALS has an effect on the motor nerves in charge for the movements.

Now we will see the description of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.   Body moves when the sensation from the upper motor neuron reaches the lower motor neurons through brain and spinal cord.  In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), these motor neurons answerable to the muscle movement stop working the 'voluntary' muscles in the hands, the feet, and the body.  This condition of muscles is called amyotrophy.  In this state the other sensations of the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth will not get affected, but only the muscle movements.

In the next post we will learn about STRUCTURE OF THE BONES..Okay..

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Sunday, May 23, 2010

FORMATION OF HUMAN BONES - 2 - LESSON 198

Now in this post we would learn about the remaining part of formation of bones.

This Ossification is also called Osteogenesis which is the process of laying down new bone material by cells. Intramembranous ossification involves primitive connective tissue called mesenchyme, while endochondral ossification involves cartilage as a precursor. In most of the fracture, endochondral osteogenesis the most commonly occurring process healing can be done for the long bones which is treated by plaster of paris.

Then what is intramembranous ossification?

This ossification mainly occurs during formation of the flat bones of the skull but also the mandible, maxilla, and clavicles.

Then what is Endochondral ossification?

This ossification occurs in long bones and most of the rest of the bones in the body. An initial hyaline cartilage which continues to grow is involved.

 Not only are calcium and phosphorous part of the hard structure of bone tissue but calcium is also stored in bones and small quantities are present in the blood. Nerve fibers are unable to transmit impulses effectively to muslces if the proper amount of calcium is lacking in the blood. These hart muscle becomes weak, and muscles attached to bones undergo spasms.

The sufficient level of calcium in the blood is maintained by the parathyroid gland that secretes a hormone to release calcium from bone storage. More of the hormone is caused by tumor or other pathological process will increase blood calcium at the expense of the bones, which become so weak by the loss of calcium.

The growth in the length of the bones continues until the age of 25. The full length of bone is attained by the main deposition of calcium on the epiphyses.

 In the next lesson we will learn about the structure of the bone.

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Friday, May 21, 2010

FORMATION OF HUMAN BONES - LESSON 197

Now in this post we will learn about the formation and structure of bones. 
FORMATION OF BONES: Bones are complete rigid organs, which forms part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates. They are helpful to move, protect, and support the different organs of the body. They also produce red and white blood cells and store minerals. This Bone tissue is a kind of dense connective tissue as bones come in a different shapes and a complex internal and external structure. They are light in weight and yet strong and hard in order to fulfill their many several functions. This connective tissue is also called osseous bony tissue which is helpful for rigidity and a honeycomb-like three-dimensional internal structure. Osseous tissue consists of osteocytes also called bone cells which is surrounded by a hard, intercellular substance filled with calcium salts.

During fetal development, the bones of the fetus are composed of cartilage tissue, which resembles osseous tissue and is more flexible and less dense of a lack of calcium salts in the soft, cartilaginous bones occurs and spreads throughout the life of the individual after birth. The general replacement of cartilage and its intercellular substance by immature bone cells and calcium deposits is called ossification or bone formation.

Osteoblasts are the immature osteocytes that produce the bony tissue that exchanges cartilage during ossification. Osteoclasts where -clast means to break are large cells that function to reabsorb or digest bony tissue. The osteoclasts are also called bone phagocytes which digest dead bone tissue from the inner sides of bones and thus enlarge the inner bone cavity so that this bone does not become more thick and heavy. Whenever a bone breaks, osteoblasts lay down the mineral bone matter also called calcium salts, and osteoclasts remove excess bone debris.

On the proper supply of calcium and phosphorous to the bone tissue, this formation of bone is dependent for a large extent. These mineral must be taken for the body with sufficient amount of vitamin D. The passage of calcium through the lining of the small intestine and into the bloodstream, this Vitamin D is helpful. Osteoblastic activity produces an enzyme once calcium and phosphorous are in the bones that causes the formation of calcium phosphate which is a substance giving bone its characteristic hard quality.

In the next post we would learn remaining part of formation of bones.

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Tuesday, May 18, 2010

BONE STRUCTURE AND FORMATION - LESSON 196

If you want to learn about FORMATION OF BONES AND THEIR STRUCTURES then read this article all the way to the end. Specifically, I'll cover bones are the rigid organs which are useful to protect, giving shape, and size to the body., The fetus bones when the child is in womb, are mainly composed of cartilage tissue. These tissues are less dense than the osseous tissues.  During ossification or bone formation the immature bony cells called osteoblasts replace the cartilage tissues. Bone tissue is reabsorbed and is digested by large cells called osteoclasts.

Bones are the rigid organs which are useful to protect, giving shape, and size to the body. is vital to FORMATION OF BONES AND THEIR STRUCTURES. Because FORMATION OF BONES AND THEIR STRUCTURES couldn't even survive without Bones are the rigid organs which are useful to protect, giving shape, and size to the body.. Bones are mainly calcium deposits which is also called ossification or bone formation Relates to this because.... Bones are composed of connective tissue named bony tissue or osseous tissue. This tissue are thick in structure and supplied with blood through blood vessels. These tissues are also connected with nerves. is also true. Both Bones are mainly calcium deposits which is also called ossification or bone formation and Bones are composed of connective tissue named bony tissue or osseous tissue. This tissue are thick in structure and supplied with blood through blood vessels. These tissues are also connected with nerves. are important. And that brings us to The fetus bones when the child is womb are mainly composed of cartilage tissue. These tissues are less dense than the osseous tissues

The fetus bones when the child is womb are mainly composed of cartilage tissue. These tissues are less dense than the osseous tissues. is vital to FORMATION OF BONES AND THEIR STRUCTURES. Because FORMATION OF BONES AND THEIR STRUCTURES needs The fetus bones when the child is womb are mainly composed of cartilage tissue. These tissues are less dense than the osseous tissues. to achieve End Result. When the child grows the calcium deposits on these soft cartilage tissues. This process of deposit of calcium on osseous tissues happens throughout the life of an individual until death. Relates to this because.... The process of bone formation is called ossification. During ossification immature bone cells and deposit calcium replace the cartilage and its intercellular substance. is also true. Both When the child grows the calcium deposits on these soft cartilage tissues. This process of deposit of calcium on osseous tissues happens throughout the life of an individual until death. and The process of bone formation is called ossification. During ossification immature bone cells and deposit calcium replace the cartilage and its intercellular substance. are important. Which is why During ossification or bone formation the immature bony cells called osteoblasts replace the cartilage tissues. Bone tissue is reabsorbed and is digested by large cells called osteoclasts. is vital to FORMATION OF BONES AND THEIR STRUCTURES.

During ossification or bone formation the immature bony cells called osteoblasts replace the cartilage tissues. Bone tissue is reabsorbed and is digested by large cells called osteoclasts. is a huge part of getting FORMATION OF BONES AND THEIR STRUCTURES to End Result. Because FORMATION OF BONES AND THEIR STRUCTURES will need During ossification or bone formation the immature bony cells called osteoblasts replace the cartilage tissues. Bone tissue is reabsorbed and is digested by large cells called osteoclasts. in order to start End Result. Sub-point 1 Relates to this because.... Sub-point 2 is also true. Both Sub-point 1 and Sub-point 2 are important. Getting End Result wouldn't even be possible without both of those. 

Conclusion: FORMATION OF BONES AND THEIR STRUCTURES is possible to understand, and you should always keep an eye out for Bones are the rigid organs which are useful to protect, giving shape, and size to the body., The fetus bones when the child is womb are mainly composed of cartilage tissue. These tissues are less dense than the osseous tissues., and During ossification or bone formation the immature bony cells called osteoblasts replace the cartilage tissues. Bone tissue is reabsorbed and is digested by large cells called osteoclasts.

In the next post we will continue to learn about BONE FORMATION. Okay.

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Wednesday, May 12, 2010

HUMAN MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM - LESSON 195

In this post we would learn about MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, The musculoskeletal system is also called as locomotor system, which is helpful to provide form, support, stability, and movement to the body. This system includes bones, muscles, and joints. These are very important so that they have functions in the body. 

1. BONES:  Bones give support to the framework around which the body is constructed, protect, and support internal organs. They also assist the body in movement because they are attached with muscles. The hematopoietic tissue, which is also called red bone marrow that manufactures blood cells. But the other parts of bone are very useful to minerals necessary for growth, such as calcium and phosphorous. The skeletal portion of the system serves as the main storage system.  

2. MUSCLES: Muscles are attached to bones or to internal organs and blood vessels, and are responsible for motion or movement. These muscle cells contain contractile filaments, which change the size of the cell. These mucles are varied as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscles. The main function is to produce force and cause motion. These muscles can affect locomotion of the organism itself or movement of internal organs. The contraction of cardiac and smooth muscle occurs without conscious thought and is necessary for survival. Internal movement involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles that are a part of viscera, and external movement is accomplished by the contraction and relaxation of muscles which are attached to the bones.

3. JOINTS:  Joints are the places where bones come together. Joints are mainly classified as structurally and functionally. So many types of joints are found within the body. They are build to allow movement and provide mechanical support. For greater or lesser flexibility of movement, the type of joint found in any specific location is determined.

Orthopedists are the doctors who treat bones and bone diseases. Orthopedics was a branch of medicine, which deals with correcting deformities in children. Where in which ortho means straight, and pedo means child. Doctors who treat joint diseases are known as Rheumatologists. Where in which Rheumato/ means watery flow and relates to joint diseases because several forms of arthritis are marked by collection of fluid in the joint spaces.

In the next post we would learn about the formation and structure of bones.

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Monday, May 10, 2010

PSYCHIATRIC ABBREVIATIONS - LESSON 194

1. AD - Alzheimer's disease(dementia)

2. ADHD - Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

3. C.A. - Chronological age

4. CNS - Central Nervous system

5. DSM - Diagnostic and statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

6. DT - Delirium tremens

7. ECT - Electroconvulsive therapy

8. I.Q. - Intelligent quotient.

9. LSD - Lysergic acid diethviamide (hallucinogen)

10. MAO - Monoamine oxidase
11. MA - Mental age

12. MMPI - Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

13. PCP - Phencyclidine (hallucinogen)

14. SAD - Seasonal affective disorder

15. TAT - Thematic Apperception Test

16. THC - delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (active ingredient in marijuana)

17. WAIS - Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.

18. WISC - Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.

Tags:  outpatient psychiatry, WAIS, WISC, psychiatry disorders, psychiatry treatment, clinical terminology, psychiatric terms, training terminology, psychology terminology, 

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Wednesday, May 5, 2010

PSYCHIATRIC - MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY AND PHOBIAS - LESSON 193

Now in this post we will learn about some prefixes and phobias.
1. a-, an- means no or not - apathy means absence of emotion.
2. cata- means down - catatonic stupor which means a type of schizophrenia in which the patient has a decrease in activity and reactivity to the environment.
3. hypo- means deficient or less than - hypomania means less activity.
4. hypo- means deficient or less than - hypochondriasis means abnormal cartilage of always feeling.
5. para- means abnormal - paranoia means delusion of persecution of mind.

PHOBIAS:-
1. Air - Aerophobia
2. Animals - Zoophobia
3. Bees - Apiphobia or melissophobia
4. Blood or Bleeding - Hematophobia, Hemophobia
5. Books - Bibliophobia
6. Cats - Ailurophobia
7. Corpses - Necrophobia
8. Crossing a Bridge - Gephyrophobia
9. Darkness - Nyctophobia, scotophobia
10. Death - Thanatophobia
11. Dogs - Cynophobia
12. Drugs - Pharmacophobia
13. Eating - Phagophobia
14. Enclosed places - Claustrophobia
15. Hair - Trichophobia, trichopathophobia
16. Heights - Acrophobia
17. Insects - Entomophobia
18. Light - Photophobia
19. Marriage - Gamophobia
20. Men - Androphobia
21. Needles - Belonephobia
22. Sexual Intercourse - Coitophobia, cypridophobia
23. Sleep - Hypnophobia
24. Snakes - Ophidiophobia
25. Spiders - Arachnophobia
26. Traveling - Hodophobia
27. Vomiting - Emetophobia
28. Women - Gynephobia
29. Worms - Helminthophobia
30.Writing-Graphophobia

Next post is about psychiatric abbreviations. Okay.

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Monday, May 3, 2010

PSYCHIATRY MEDICAL TERMINOLOGIES - LESSON 192

Psychiatry medical terminologies:
1. -genic means produced by - psychogenic which means produced by mind.
2. -leptic means to seize hold of - neuroleptic drugs which means drugs hold the nerves.
3. -mania means obsessive preoccupation - kleptomania means obsessed for stealing.
4. -mania means obsessive preoccupation - pyromania means obsession for fire or heat.
5. -phobia means fear - agoraphobia means fear being left alone and feel anxious when away from familiar surroundings.
6. -phobia means fear - xenophobia fear of strangers.
7. -phoria means feeling or bearing - euphoria means good feelings.
8. -phoria means feeling or bearing - dysphoria means bad feeling.
9. -thymia means mind - cyclothymia means recurring alternate periods of hypomania and depression.
10. -thymia means mind - dysthymia means bad or difficult chronic disorder of mind.

In the next post we will try to learn about some of the prefixes and phobias.

                       
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Sunday, May 2, 2010

PSYCHIATRY MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY - LESSON 191

Let us learn some of the Combining forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes and their Terminology.
1. anxi/o means uneasy or anxious, or distressed - anxiolytic means pertaining to leave anxiety. This type of drug relieves anxiety.
2. aut/o means self or own - autism means regressives into one self.
3. hallucin/o means hallucination or to wander in - hallucinogen is a substance producing hallucination which means sensory perception in the absence of any external stimuli, and an illusion is an error in perception in which sensory stimuli are present but incorrectly interpreted.
4. hypn/o means sleep - hypnosis means to sleep by touching them with his magic wand or by fanning them with his dark wings.

Next lesson continues the psychiatric termi
5. iatr/o means treatment - psychiatrist is a person who treats mind.
6. ment/o means mind - mental which pertains to mind.
7. neur/o means nerve - neurosis which is a term used to describe mental disorders in which symptoms are distressing but readily testing is intact.
8. phil/o means attraction to or love - paraphilia which means abnormal attraction.
9. phren/o means mind - schizophrenia which means splitting of mind withdrawing from reality.
10. psych/o means mind - psychosis means significant impairment of reality testing with symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and bizarre behavior.
11. schiz/o means split - schizoid which is used to describe a mild form of schizophrenia or a withdrawn, introverted personality.
12. somat/o means body - psychosomatic which is a somatoform disorder means resembling. Symptoms of these disorders resemble those of actual physical disease, but the origins are in the mind.

Next lesson continues psychiatric terminology

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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...