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Monday, October 31, 2011

Eye Diagnostic Tests - Lesson 275

In the last lesson, we have learnt about eye diseases and in this lessson we are going to learn about diagnostic procedures done to the eyes. As a medical transcription learner, you should all know about these procedures, as physicians will dictate about these procedures in their live files while you work in a company. These diagnostic procedures generally do to a patient while he is examined by a physician while doing an eye exam. In this post, we will learn about fluorescein angiography, ophthalmoscopy, slit lamp ocular examination, tonometry, visual acuity test, and visual field exam. 

Fluorescein Angiography: This procedure is done to identify hypertensive retinopathy or diabetic retinopathy. This test is also used to find any lesions in the macular area of the retina of the eye. In this test, a dye material called fluorescein is injected intravenously. By injecting this eye, blood flow is tracked by an instrument named ophthalmoscopy.

Ophthalmoscopy: This is a visual examination to check the eye, especially the inner side of the eye. In this test, the dilated pupil is examined to find if there are any lesions in the cornea or in the lens or in the retina by this test.

Slit Lamp Ocular Examination: This is an instrument used in the visual examination of the eye, which gives access to examine the anterior part of the ocular structures of the eye. A magnification lens is used in this instrument.

Tonometry: Ton/o means tension. This instrument is used to measure the pressure or tension inside the eye, especially in the ocular organs. This test is used to detect an abnormal condition in the eye called glaucoma.

Visual Field Examination: This visual exam is useful in measuring the sight in specific area when the eye is fixed. The other name of this test is Goldmann perimeter visual field examination.

Visual Acuity Test: This test examines the clarity of the sight. A chart named Snellen eye chart is used in this test. 

In the next post, we will learn about eye treatments. Okay. Come on.


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Friday, October 28, 2011

Degenerative Eye Diseases - Lesson 274

In the previous lessons, we have studied a list of eye diseases with eye diseases in children, and diabetic eye diseases. In this post, we will learn about retinitis pigmentosa and strabismus. As a medical transcription learner, you should know about these two diseases. In all the ENT medical files, you will hear about these medical terminologies often. This lesson concludes with these two diseases and we will learn about ENT clinical procedures from the next post. As of we have studied common pathological conditions of the eye, such as cataract, chalazion, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, hordoleum or stye, macular degeneration, and retinal detachment. Please read again those posts once again and memorize all the terms.

Retinitis Pigmentosa: This is a very bad disease kind of the eye. It may lead to incurable blindess to the eye. Retinitis pigmentosa is termed in short as RP. If a patient is affected with this disease, he or she may get blindness in nights that follows tunnel vision chronically. The patient has some vision until his 50s even if he is affected with this in the early ages. Some children too are affected with this. Retinal pigmentosa is progressive illness with both atropy and dystrophy of the retina with pigmentation. Decreased vision is the main symptom of this abnormal condition, particularly with night blindness termed as nyctalopia.

Strabismus: This is an abnormal condition of the improper alignment of the eye levels. The other names of this are crossed eye, squint, and lazy eye. This state happens while there is a lack of coordination of extraocular muscles. This is an abnormal deviated eye condition. When one gets strabismus, he cannot see in the same direction, as the extraocular muscles could not control the position of the eyes. There are five types of strabismus. They are estropia, extropia, hypertropia, diplopia, and amblyopia. Now we will see about one by one now.

In estropia, one eye turns inwardly and so looks cross-eyed. Estropia is an opposite condition of outward turning of the eye and called as wall-eyed. In hypertropia, the eye is deviated upward. This can be treated with lenses for correction and with some eye exercises and with patching or sometimes with surgery to get balanced muscles. Diplopia and amblyopia are strabismus condition in children in common. Some children may get loss of vision partially called as lazy eye. Amblyopia may get reversed if the retina if fully developed.

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Sunday, October 23, 2011

Common Eye Diseases and Disorders II – LESSON 273

In the last lesson we came through some of the pathological conditions of eyes.
Glaucoma: - Intraocular pressure in the anterior and posterior chambers is elevated because of the aqueous humor to drain from the eye and enter the bloodstream inability. Aqueous humor is generally formed by the ciliary body, passes into the posterior chamber and then into the anterior chamber, leaving the eye at the angle where the cornea and iris meet. This glaucoma is diagnosed by means of tonometry with an instrument applied in external to the eye after administration of local anesthetic. To lower intraocular pressure administration of drugs or miotics may prove effective in controlling the condition. To tighten fibers in the ciliary body or to create a hole in the periphery of the iris, which allows aqueous humor to flow from the posterior to the anterior chamber and thus reduce intraocular pressure sometimes, this laser therapy is used.

Hordeolum (stye): - This is a localized purulent, inflammatory staphylococcal infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid. In this hot compresses may help localize the infection and promote drainage. In some cases, surgical incision may be necessary. Hordeolum means barley corn.

Macular degeneration: - Deterioration or degeneration of the macula of the retina. This condition may be inherited, drug-induced or age-related, and it leads to a severe loss of central vision. Peripheral vision is which using the part of the retina that is outside the macular region is retained. There is no known medical treatment, although certain forms of the condition may be treated with laser photocoagulation to destroy blood vessels that grow beneath, the macula or the vessels leak fluid and blood and cause injury to macular nerve cells.

Retinal detachment: - The retina’s two layers separate from each other. Trauma to the eyeball, head injuries, bleeding, searing from infection, or shrinkage of the vitreous humor can produce holes or tears in the retina leading to separation of layers. Patients often see flashes of light and then later notice cloudy vision or loss of central vision. Photocoagulation is the process in which making pinpoint burns to form sear tissue and seal holes and cryotherapy is creating a “freezer burn that forms a scar and knits a tear together are used to repair retinal tears. A scleral buckle made of silicone may be sutured to the sclera directly over the detached portion of the retina to push the two retinal layers together.

In the next post we will some more pathological conditions.

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Monday, October 17, 2011

Esophagus Diseases And Disorders

In this article we will see what would be the causes of intestinal cancer, especially, gastrointestinal cancer.  As a medical transcriptionist trainee, we should all know about small intestinal cancer symptoms and gastic intestinal cancer symptoms. The long food tube, anatomically known as gastrointestinal tract is placed behind the heart. This is a long tube like structure that connects mouth with gastric tube or food tube where the food is settled from the mouth for digestion. This tube is called esophagus, which sized approximately of 25 cm to 30 cm and which has a capability of contraction and extension. There are two valves present at the junction where the mouth and esophagus meets. These valves will open only at the instant of swallowing of food materials or at the instance of vomiting.  Esophagus has the ability to push the food material that enters into the mouth to the small intestines. Even if we take from the head upside down, it has the ability to push the food from the mouth to the esophagus. The fraction of time to do this action is just 6 to 7 seconds. This time is common for any kind of food materials that may be liquid or solid food.

There are three kinds of diseases that will occur in the esophagus. The first one is inflammation happened due to the acid regurgitation from the intestines to the esophagus. The second one is called achalasia, which is a change in the esophagus’s extension and contractions due to a disease condition. The third abnormal condition occurs when there is any cancer or any abnormal masses present in the esophagus. The acidity is the common condition occurs in all people.

The reason for the above abnormal conditions in the esophagus like acidity, achalasia or any cancer is due to the change in food habits. We should avoid oil foods or junk foods and should encourage us to have natural foods like fresh vegetables and fruits to avoid any abnormal conditions. Due to the over consumption of oil foods is the primary reason for secretion of more acid in the intestines and then that acid regurgitates into the esophagus. We should avoid all kinds of fast foods, as these things contain more fat. All should try to do any kind of exercises, particularly the persons follow sedentary lifestyle. More fat accumulation not only disfigures the appearance and also affects the normal function of heart. Consumption more tea or coffee also affects the general wellbeing of the intestines.

In the next post, we will see the symptoms of esophagus abnormalities and its treatments. Okay. Come on.

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Friday, October 14, 2011

Common Eye Diseases and Disorders - LESSON 272

Any disease conditiion is called pathology. Pathology is the study of disease conditions. Like every other organ, eye also has many different kinds of disease conditions called eye pathologies. As an medical transcriptionist learner, you all should know about these pathologies or disease conditions of the eyes. There is difference in ages or gender, even eye diseases in children are found. In the list of eye diseases, we can include diabetic related eye diseases too. Diabetes is also a cause of eye diseases in elder people. These diseases are called degenerative eye diseases. The important disease conditions are cataract, chalazion, glaucoma, and retinopathy due to diabetes. We will see about one by one now. Okay.

Cataract: This is a common eye disese type, which causes decreased vision in the eyes. This decrease in vision happens due to the clouding process of the lens. This pathological condition occurs commonly in older people and so it is called senile cataract. This is a kind of a degenerative disease. Some children get cataract from birth. Cataracts may happen due to diabetes and also due to chronic usage of corticosteroids excessively. The state of lens clouding can be visually examined using a ophthalmoscope. The only treatment for this condition is to remove the affected lens and replace it with artificial one. Contact lenses or usage of glasses are the other two options for treating this condition.

Glaucoma:  In this disease condition, the pressure inside the eyes is increased. Due to this high intraocular pressure, the optic nerve is affected, and sometimes the retina is too affected.

Diabetic Retinopathy: Due to diabetes mellitus the retina of the eye is affected. The other effects are blood leakage in the blood vessels of the eye called hemorrhage, retinal veins are getting dilated, microaneurysms, and blood vessels form newly near the optic nerve etc. The vision is getting blurred due to the leakage of blood from the blood vessels into the retina of the eyes. The treatment for this condition are vitrectomy and photocoagulation if the patient gets more leakage of blood.

Chalazion: This is a pathological condition of the eye, in which, there is a small and rough cystic mass is formed on the eyelid. Chalazion mass is formed due to the inflammation of any of the sebaceous gland for a long time known as meibomian gland.

In the next lesson, we will learn about the other pathological conditions of the eyes. Okay. Come on.

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Monday, October 10, 2011

Eye Exam Refraction -- Lesson 271

In this post we would learn about errors of refraction.
Astigmatism: - Defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye is called Astigmatism. From one or more abnormal curvatures of the cornea or lens this problem leads in. This causes light rays to be unevenly and not sharply focused on the retina, so that the image is distorted. A cylindrical lens placed in the proper position in front of the eye can correct this problem.

Hyperopia: - The eye ball in this condition is too short or the refractive power of the lens is too weak. Parallel rays of light tend to focus behind the retina and this result in a blurred image. A convex lens which is thicker in the middle than at tht sides bends the rays inward before they reach the cornea, and thus the rays can be focused properly on the retina.

Myopia: - In myopia the eyeball is too long or the refractive power of the lens so strong that light rays does not properly focus on the retina. The image perceived is blurred because the light rays are focused  in front of the retina. Concave glasses which are thicker at the periphery than in the middle correct this condition because the lenses spread the rays out before they reach the cornea, and thus they can be properly focused directly on the retina.

Presbyopia: - This is the impairment of vision due to old age. With increasing age, loss of elasticity of the ciliary body impairs its ability to adjust the lens for accommodation to near vision. The lens of the eye cannot become fat to bend the rays coming from near objects are less than 20 feet. The light rays focus behind the retina, as in hyperopia. Therefore, a convex lens is needed to refract the rays coming from objects closer than 20 feet.

In the next post we will learn about pathological conditions of refraction.

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Thursday, October 6, 2011

Eyes And Ears Terminologies III - Lesson 270

In this post we would learn some more medical terminologies for eyes and ears. The other terminology is ambly/o which means dull or dim. Amblyopia in which -opia means vision. Amblyopia is a partial loss of sight and is also known as lazy eye. This is because it is associated with failure of the eyes to work together to focus on the same point. The next terminology is dipl/o which means double. The other terminology is glauc/o which means gray.The term glaucoma comes from the dull gray-green gleam of the affected eye in advanced cases. Here -oma means mass or collection of fluid or aqueous humor. 

The other terminology is mi/o which means smaller or less. Miosis is the contraction of the pupil. A miotic is a drug such as pilocarpine that causes the pupil to contract. The next terminology is mydr/o which means widen or enlarge. Mydriasis is the enlargement of pupils. Atropine and cocaine cause dilation or enlargement of pupils. The next terminology is nyct/o which means night. Nyctalopia is the term in which -opia means vision, al comes from ala meaning blindness. Night blindness is poor vision at night but good vision on bright days. Deficiency of vitamin A leads to nyctalopia. 

The other terminology of phot/o means light. Photophobia is the term which is the sensitivity to light. The next terminology is  presby/o which means old age. The term presbyopia is the loss of sight due to old age. The other terminology is  scot/o which means darkness. Sotoma is an area of depressed vision surrounded by an area of normal vision, a blind spot. This can result from damage to the retina or the optic nerve. The next terminology of xer/o means dry. The meaning of -opia is vision. Hypermetropia means farsightedness. 

The meaning of -opsia is vision. Hemianopsia means absence of vision in half of the visual field or the space of vision of each eye. Stroke victims frequently have damage to the brain on one side of the visual cortex and experience hemianopsia is the visual loss is in the right or left visual field of both eyes. The meaning of -tropia is to turn. The terminology of esotropia means an outward turning of an eye. These are examples of strabismus which is called defect in eye muscles so that both eyes cannot be focused on the same point at the same time.

In the next lesson we would learn about the errors of refraction.

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Monday, October 3, 2011

Eyes and Ears Medical Terminologies II - Lesson 269

Like in the previous post, we will learn some more important medical terminologies which are related to eyes and ears. The next terminology is opthalm/o, which means eye. Opthalmologist is an eye specialist is a medical doctor who specializes in treating disorder of the eye. The other terminology is opt/o or optic/o which means eye or vision. Optic is pertaining to eye and optometrist is the lens prescriber and examiner. A nonmedical person who can examine eyes to determine vision problems and prescribe lenses.

The other terminology is palpebr/o which means eyelid. Palpebral is pertaining to eyelid. The next terminology is papill/o which means optic disk or nipple-like. Papilledema is the swelling of optic disk, –edema means swelling. This condition is associated with increased intracranial pressure and hyperemia also called increased blood flow in the region of optic disk. The other terminology is phac/o which means lens of the eye. Phacoemulsification is the technique of cataract extension using ultrasonic vibrations to fragment or emulsify the lens and aspirate it out of the eye. Aphakia may be congenital, but most often it is the result of extraction of a cataract also called clouded lens.

The next terminology is pupil/o which means pupil. Pupillary is pertaining to pupil. The other terminology of retin/o is retina. Retinitis means inflammation of retina. Diabetic retinopathy means endocrinal disorder. The other terminology of sclera/o means sclera also called white of the eye. Corneoscleral is pertaining to sclera. Scleritis is the inflammation of sclera. The other terminology of uve/o is uvea which means vascular layer of the eye. Uveitis is the inflammation of vascular layer of the eye. The next terminology of vitre/o is glassy. Vitreous humor is the glassy liquid.

In the next post we would some more terminologies.

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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...