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Monday, August 3, 2009


This lesson is the continuation of urinary system disease conditions. 5. Polycystic kidneys: There are manifold liquefied pouches or cysts formed inside the kidneys. This is a genetic condition that typically stays behind asymptomatic or no symptom revealed until one's adult life. The symptoms in the adult life reveals this condition are enlargement of the kidneys (nephromegaly), hematuria (blood in the urine), UTI (urinary tract infection), uremia, and hypertension. 6. Pyelonephritis: This is a disease condition caused by a bacteria due to the inflammation of the renal pelvis in the kidneys. Pus is collected in the renal pelvis as tiny abscesses. The symptom of this disease is pyuria that is excretion of pus in the urine. Surgical repair is needed to remove the obstructions and antibiotics are the treatment options for this disease condition.

7. Kidney failure or renal failure: In this disease condition kidneys fail to send out urine. Nitrogenous wastes and some acids are formed in our body from the diet and body metabolism functions. These are to be excreted through the kidneys periodically. But when the kidneys failed they stop this function of sending out nitrogenous wastes and acids from the body. This condition may be for short period or for a long term or progressive in nature or may be mild one or may be a severe one. If it is severe it called ESRD or end-stage renal disease. It should be treated otherwise it is deadly. Erythropoietin is used to treat this condition.

8. Renal cell carcinoma: Cancerous growth of the kidney in middle age. Hematuria is the main symptom of this disease condition. This cancer may spread to the lungs and bones. Nephrectomy is the treatment option.

9. Renal hypertension: Hypertension (high blood pressure) caused by kidney disease. Renal hypertension is of two types such as Secondary hypertension and essential hypertension. Secondary hypertension is of an ordinary type caused due to renal artery stenosis or glomerulonephritis. Essential hypertension is one the cause of which is unknown. In this condition renal arteriole walls turn out to be thickened or narrowed.

Next lesson is the continuation of the urinary system disease conditions. OK.

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1. Bright's Disease or Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the kidneys. This is of two types such as, acute glomerulonephritis and chronic glomerulonephritis. When bacteria named Streptococcus infect kidneys, the symptoms will appear after 10 to 15 days. This will cure spontaneously. But if it persists for a longtime that is called chronic glomerulonephritis. This is a serious pathological condition. Symptoms of chronic disease are high blood pressure, albuminuria, kidney failure, and uremia. In more serious conditions kidney transplant and dialysis are needed.

2. Interstitial Nephritis: Renal tubules in the kidneys are connected by connective tissues called renal interstitium. When these tissues are infected that condition is called interstitial nephritis. Symptoms of this condition are fever, eosinophilia, skin rash, and poor kidney function. Corticosteroids are the anti-inflammatory drugs useful to cure this disease.

3. Nephrotic syndrome: Syndrome is a group of symptoms. Nephrotic syndrome is a combination of renal symptoms due to extreme passing away of protein in the urine. This condition is also called nephrosis. Symptoms of this condition are proteinuria, tissue swelling or edema, hypoalbuminuria, and exposure to more infections. Diabetes mellitus and glomerulonephritis and toxins in the blood are following this condition.

4. Renal stones or nephrolithiasis: Abnormal condition of formation of stones (calcium salts and uric acid) in the kidneys. The etiology of this is unknown. Calcium is accumulated in the kidneys when the parathyroid glands get any tumor and so not work efficiently. Renal stones may form in the conditions of accumulation of more uric acid in the kidney too. The gatehouse of these renal stones are may be ureters, bladder, or renal pelvis. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is the procedure used to break these stones and take away these stones.

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This lesson continues the prior lesson Urinalysis.6. Pus: Presence of pus in the urine is called pyuria. The urine is turbid or gloomy in color. This condition is due to the presence of more white blood cells in the urine. White blood cells are called leukocytes. Bacterial infection of the kidney or urinary bladder is the reason for this condition. 7. Glucose: Renal tubules in the kidney are unable to reabsorb the sugars from the urine and so more sugars excreted. This condition is called glycosuria. When the sugar is more in the blood this condition is called hyperglycemia. Glycosuria is a symptom of diabetes mellitus.8. Sediment: Urine is residuous or sedimentuous when it contains the red blood cells, white blood cells, epithelial cells, bacteria, and crystals. The presence of these materials in the urine is a disease condition.

Specific Gravity: This is a test of urine density. This density is compared with water density and the difference says the nature of the urine. Nephritis is a condition in which the reabsorption capacity of kidneys are less and so urine is more watery and specific gravity is less. Normally specific gravity is high in the sugar patients due to the presence of sugar more in it. 10. Ketone Bodies: Due to the fat catabolism ketones are created in the blood. Ketones are also called acetones. Fat is used to get energy in abnormal conditions such as diabetes mellitus energy is created by burning fat stored in the body other than sugar, and so ketones are formed. So more ketones are excreted in the urine. This condition is called ketonuria.

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In the next lesson we will learn about Urinalysis.
Urinalysis is an examination to ascertain the occurrence of any abnormal chemical substances in the urine.
There are 10 types of tests are there for the urine to determine it is contaminated or infected. They are of as following:

1. Color
2. Bilirubin
3. pH
4. Phenylketonuria (PKU)
5. Protein
6. Pus or Pyruia
7. Glucose
8. Sediments
9. Glucose
10. Ketone bodies

Now we will see about one by one in details.

1. Color: Straw color or Amber color is the normal color of the urine. If urine contains more water then it will be colorless or wishy-washy in appearance. Abnormal urine would be of cloudy in color or may be red in color with blood. Some food or drugs we intake may change sometimes the color of the urine too that is not a consideration or abnormality.

2. Bilirubin: Bilirubin is a substance created when hemoglobin is broken down in the blood. This material may be excreted in the urine may be a symptom of gallbladder disease or liver disease. The liver is the organ in our body removes the bilirubin from the blood when blood hemoglobin broken down. So more bilirubin are accumulated in the blood. This condition is called hyperbilirubinemia. Due to this condition, more bilirubin is filtered out by the kidney from the blood and excreted more in urine. This condition of urine is called bilirubinemia.

3. pH: This test indicates whether urine is acid in nature or basic or alkaline in nature. pH is a number, which is from 0 to 14. By the number value of the urine we can whether the urine acid in nature or alkaline. If the pH value is 0 then we can say urine is more acid. If the value is 14 then we can say urine is more alkaline in nature. Normal pH value is 6.5. Urine is slightly acidic in nature normally. If urinary tract is infected by bacteria pH value will increase and urine becomes alkaline. Nitrogen is broken down more by the bacteria to create ammonia. More ammonia content makes urine more alkaline.

4. Phenylketonuria or PKU: In our body one kind of amino acid named phenylalanine must be converted into tyrosine another amino acid. To do this conversion an important hormone called phenylalanine hydroxylase is essential. When this hormone is less phenylalanine will accumulate in the blood. This condition leads to mental retardation in infants. These are ketone bodies. PKU test is an important test in infants. To prevent this affected infant must be given a low-protein diet to leave out the excess phenylalanine in the blood.

5. Protein: Normally a very less amount of protein is excreted in the urine. Due to the reason of glomerular leakage in the kidney the filtered protein are excreted more in urine. The name of that protein is albumin. This condition is called albuminuria. This condition is confirmed by a positive protein test of the urine.

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