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Wednesday, September 2, 2009

CANCER PATHOLOGY EXPLANATIONS-LESSON 105


1. Cystic: Creating huge open spaces filled with fluid. Mucinous tumors are packed with mucus for example as solid and muggy fluid and serous tumors are filled wit a lanky and dilute fluid similar to serum. The largest part widespread of site of cystic tumors is in ovaries.

2. Fungating: Tumors originate in the colon are of this category. Rapidly increasing pattern of growth wherein tumor cells stack one on another and project from a tissue outside.

3. Inflammatory: These growths of cancer typically take place in the breasts. Comprising the features of tenderness and swelling with redness, swelling, and heat.

4. Medullary: Mostly thyroid and breast tumors possibly of medullary type. These varieties of cancers are appropriate to large, pliable, thickset tumors.

5. Necrotic: Some type of tumor can outgrow its blood supply and undertake necrosis. Necrotic tumors contain full of dead tissues.

6. Polypoid: Together benign and malignant tumors of the colon may develop at the same time as polyps. Developments those are similar to outcrops making longer outward from a foundation. Sessile polypoid tumors make longer from a wide base and pedunculated polypoid tumors make bigger from a stem or stalk.

7. Ulcerating: Ulcerating tumors are over and over again brought into being in the stomach, breast, colon, and skin. This type of cancer is differentiated by an open, uncovered outside ensuing on or after death of overlying tissue.

8. Verrucous: These types of tumors are usually on gingiva (cheek). They are similar to a wart-like growth.

In the next post we will learn about Cancer Pathology Explanations-2. Okay.

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CONNECTIVE TISSUE SARCOMAS-LESSON 104

In this post we will learn about Connective tissue Sarcomas from which they arise.
NERVE TISSUE:
Embryonic nerve tissue-Neuroblastoma
Neurological tissue-Astrocytoma.
MUSCLE:
1. Smooth visceral muscle: Leiomyosarcoma.
2. Striated visceral muscle: Rhabdomyosarcoma.

FAT:

Liposarcoma.

CARTILAGE:

Chondrosarcoma.

FIBROUS TISSUE:

Fibrosarcoma.

BONE:

Osteosarcoma or osteogenic sarcoma.

BLOOD VESSEL TISSUES:

Angiosarcoma.

BLOOD-FORMING TISSUE:

Leukocytes: Leukemia.

Lymphocytes:
1. Hodgkin's disease.
2. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
3. Burkitt's lymphoma.

Plasma Cells-Multiple myeloma.

MIXED-TISSUES TUMORS:

Kidney- Wilms' tumor or embryonal adenosarcoma.

Ovaries and Testes-Teratoma.

In the next post we will learn about Cancer Pathology Explanations. Okay.

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Carcinomas and Epithelial Tissues

CARCINOMA OF THE SKIN:
1. Squamous cell layer: Squamous cell carcinoma.
2. Basal cell layer: Basal cell carcinoma.
3. Melanocyte: Malignant melanoma.

CARCINOMA OF THE LUNG:
1. Adenocarcinoma of the lung.
2. Small cell carcinoma.
3. Epidermoid carcinoma.

CARCINOMAS OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT:
1. Esophagus: Esophageal carcinoma.
2. Stomach: Gastric adenocarcinoma.
3. Liver: Hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatoma.
4. Colon: Adenocarcinoma of the colon.

CARCINOMAS OF THE GLANDULAR TISSUE:
1. Thyroid: Carcinoma of the thyroid.
2. Adrenal Glands: Carcinoma of the adrenals.
3. Pancreas: Carcinoma of the pancreas or pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
4. Breasts: Carcinoma of the breasts.
5. Prostate: Carcinoma of the prostate.

CARCINOMA OF THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS:
1. Cystadenocarcinoma of the ovaries.
2. Adenocarcinoma of the uterus.
3. Squamous cell carcinoma or epidermoid carcinoma of the vagina or cervix.
4. Carcinoma of the penis.
5. Seminoma and embryonal cell carcinoma of the testes.
6. Choriocarcinoma of the uterus or testes.

CARCINOMA OF THE KIDNEY AND BLADDER:
1. Renal cell carcinoma or hypernephroma.
2. Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

In the next post we will learn about Sarcomas from each organ. Okay.

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To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below


Cancerous Tumors Lesson 102



About half of all cancer deceases are caused by malignancies that instigated in lung, breast, or colon. On the other hand in all there are in excess of 100 divergent types of cancer, each having a exclusive set of symptoms and requiring a specific kind of therapy. It is likely to divide these specific varieties of cancer into three extensive groups of the basis of histogenesis that is by identifying the particular tissue (hist/o) from which the tumor cells arise (-genesis). These major groups are called carcinomas, sarcomas, and mixed tissue tumors.

Carcinomas:  They are the major group are solid tumors that are resulting from epithelial tissue that lines external and internal body surfaces, including skin, glands, and digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs. Something like 90 percent of all malignant neoplasms are carcinomas.

Benign tumors of epithelial source are more often than not designated by adding the suffix -oma to the type of tissue in which the tumor occurs. For example a gastric adenoma is a benign tumor of the glandular (aden/o) epithelial cells lining the stomach. Malignant tumors of epithelial origin are named by using carcinoma added to the type of tissue in which the tumor occurs. Thus a gastric adenocarcinoma is a cancerous tumor arising from glandular cells lining the stomach.

Sarcomas:  Sarcomas are less common than carcinomas and are derived from supportive and connective tissue such as bone, fat, muscle, cartilage, and bone marrow, and from cells of the immune (lymph) system. Sarcomas account for approximately 5% of all malignant neoplasms.

Mixed Tissue Tumors:  Mixed tissue tumors are derived from tissue that is capable of differentiating into both epithelial and connective tissue. These uncommon tumors are thus composed of several different types of cells. Mixed tissue tumors can be found in the kidney, ovaries, and testes.

In the next post we will learn about carcinomas from each organ. Okay.

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Cancer Formation - Environment and Heredity



In this post we will see about cancer formation due to Environmental and Heredity reasons. Environmental Reasons for Cancer Formation:  Driving forces as of the surroundings for example chemicals and medicines, emission, and germs can source adjustments in DNA and as a result bring into being malignant cells. These ecological aspects outlining cancer are called carcinogens.

Substance carcinogens:  Chemical Carcinogens are brought into being in a variety of goods and drugs comprise hydrocarbons such as automobile drains, cigarette, cigar, pipe smoke, insecticides, dyes, industrial chemicals, radiation insulation, and hormones. For example, the hormone diethylstilbestrol or DES creates a malignant tumor, carcinoma of the vagina in females.

Radiation is a wave of energy. There are countless of sources for example sunbeams, x-rays, radioactive substances, muscular fission produce energy waves containing radiation. Whilst these resources act together with DNA it causes breaks or mutations that bring about cancer. Consequently leukemia is a job-related exposure of radiologists who are habitually exposed to x-rays. There is also a high occurrence of leukemia and other cancers among survivors of atomic bomb explosions, as at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Ultraviolet emission emitted by the sun can cause skin cancer for example as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma, principally in persons with lightly pigmented or fair skin.

A number of viruses have been provided evidence to be carcinogenic in a variety of animals. For case in point, the human T cell leukemia virus or HTLV causes a outward appearance of leukemia in adults. An interconnected virus, HIV or human immunodeficiency virus causes AIDS or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Additional viruses have been implicated as the cause of cervical cancer caused by papilloma virus and Burkitt's lymphoma caused by EBV or Epstein-Barr virus.

Oncogenic viruses go down into two categories for example RNA viruses and DNA viruses. RNA viruses compiled of RNA and so they are called retroviruses. DNA viruses are collected of DNA. As well to spread of cancer by entire viruses, pieces of viral DNA called viral oncogenes or similar broken or dislodged pieces of human DNA or cellular oncogenes can cause normal cells to turn into malignant if they are made active by mutations. An oncogene is a piece of DNA whose activation is associated with the conversion of normal cells into cancer cells.

Heredity Reasons for Cancer Formation:

Causes of cancer not only come from the environment, but may also originate within the body. Susceptibility to some forms of cancer is transmitted from parents to offspring through defects in the DNA of the egg and sperm cells. Examples of known inherited cancers are retinoblastoma or tumor of the retina of the eye, xeroderma pigmentosum or tumors o skin exposed to sunlight, and certain types of malignant melanoma, and polyposis coli syndrome or polyps that grow in the colon and rectum. Each of these diseases is believed to be caused by definite breaks or rearrangements of the DNA code. These changes can be seen in special studies of the DNA molecule.

In many cases it is supposed that these tumors take place for the reason that of inherited or get hold of abnormalities in alleged suppressor genes. In normal individuals these suppressor genes control growth and differentiation. Loss of a normal suppressor gene in effect takes the brake off the reproductive process leading to cancer.

In the next post we will learn about CLASSIFICATION OF CANCEROUS TUMORS. Okay.

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