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Monday, November 16, 2009

Cancer-Clinical Procedures - Lesson 121

1. Lymphangiography: Contrast (distinct-colored) dye is infused into the lymphatic vessels of the feet, as well as x-rays are taken of the lymphatic system to find out distended lymph nodes, obstruction in the lymphatic system, and the occurrence of tumors if any. 2. Bone marrow biopsy: A minute quantity of bone marrow tissue is aspirated and scrutinized beneath the microscope intended for proof of cancerous cells. 3. Needle Biopsy: A pointer needle is put in into the tissue in problem, and a central part of that tissue is detached. Aspiration of a tissues or suction of a tissue possibly used to remove free cells as of a fluid-filled cavity. This biopsy is taken from the cystic areas of the breast or from a solid lump of tumor.

4. Peritoneoscopy: This modus operandi as well called laparoscopy. This method is used to examine the abdominal or peritoneal cavity for any tumors. A laparoscope or peritoneoscope is inserted into the peritoneal cavity from side to side a small cut in the abdominal wall.

5. Radionuclide scans: radionuclides are radioactive materials and they are infused through a syringe intravenously and images taken using a scan machine. Uneven distribution of radioactivity or absence of radioactivity indicates possible disease condition. This method is mainly used in liver and spleen scans. On bone scans, irregular regions of absorption or radioactivity possibly will point out bone devastation and metastasis process accompanying it. Irregularities in brain scans come into sight as increased gathering of radioactivity as the normal brain tissue usually does engage in radioactivity for the reason that it has the blood-brain barrier.

6. Exfoliative cytology: Cells are rubbed from the area of alleged ailment. These cells are looked at beneath the microscope. The best example of exfoliative cytology is the the Pap smear to ascertain carcinoma of the cervix or vagina.

7. Laparotomy: This is an extensive surgical opening of the abdomen that permits to discover the degree of malignant disease.

Some of the radioactive materials used in getting hold of scans are:
1. Gallium-67 or 67 Ga. This material is used in entire body scans to find out Hodgkin's disease, lymphomas, head and neck cancers, bone tumors, lung tumors.
2. Technetium-99 or 99'Tc-used in liver and spleen scans.
3. 99m polyphosphate used in bone scans.

In the next post we will learn about important lab tests to diagnose cancer. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.


Cancer-Important Abbreviations-Lesson 120



In this post, we are going to learn about important cancer abbreviations. These abbreviations are dictated often by physicians while we do online live medical transcription work in companies. So as a medical transcription learner, you all should be very much familiar with these medical terminologies.

1. bx means biopsy

2. ca means cancer

3. CEA means carcinoembryonic antigen

4. CMF means Cytoxan and methotrexate

5. 5-Fu means 5-fluorouracil

6. prot means protocol

7. CR means complete response

8. PSA means prostate specific antigen

9. DES means diethylstilbestrol

10. RNA means ribonucleic acid

11. DNA means deoxyribonucleic acid

12. TNM means tumor, nodes, and metastases

13. ER means estrogen receptor

14. XRT means radiation therapy

15. Ga means Gallium

16. mets means metastases

17. NED means no evidence of disease

18. NHL means non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

19. Pap smear means Papanicolaou's smear

20. PR means partial response

In the next post we will learn about Clinical procedures used to diagnose cancer. Okay.

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To go to the next post from here please click the link below.


Medical Radiation Technologists - Lesson 119



This is the treatment of ailment by means of also an external source of high-energy beams like photons, protons, and gamma rays. They are on the inside embedded radioactive substances. These radioactive waves and particles are helpful in destructing the cancer cells in the body especially the DNA of those cells and stopping the progress of their development. There are variable human resource people concerned in this medical field. A doctor who specializes in diagnostic radiology is called radiologist. A doctor who dedicates himself in the practice of management of investigative nuclear medicine course of action is called nuclear physician. A physician who is specialized in practice of radiotherapy is called radiation oncologist or radiotherapist.

Allied health care professionals who work with physicians in the fields of radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiotherapy are called radiologic technologists. Radiologic technologists can be divided into three categories such as:

1. Radiographers.
2. Nuclear medicine technologist.
3. Radiation therapy technologist.

Now we will see one by one.

Radiographer is an aide to physicians who manages investigative course of action.
Nuclear medicine technologist is a person who focusses on patients who goes through nuclear medicine methods and control devices under the direction of a nuclear physician. Radiation therapy technologist is a person who delivers course of radiation therapy prescribed by a radiotherapist.

In the next post we will important cancer abbreviations. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next post from here please click the link below.


Radiation Treatment for Cancer - Lesson 118



Wilhelm Conard Roentgen was invented x-rays and so study of x-rays is called roentgenology. Another name for study of x-rays is called Radiology. X-rays are indistinguishable wave particles of energy. X-rays are formed by means of an energy basis for instance an x-ray machine or cathode ray tube. X-rays are helpful in identifying and handling of diseases.

Nuclear medicine is the medical speciality facilitates us to study the distinctiveness and applications of radioactive materials in the analysis of diseases. Radioactive substances emit high-speed constituent parts and energy- containing beams of rays on or after the center of their substance. The given out particles and beams of rays. This activity is called radioactivity. There are three type of radioactive elements that emits radioactivity, such as alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays.

Gamma rays are analogous to x-rays because they comprise no mass and are used successfully seeing that an investigating marker to mark out the trail and uptake of chemical substances in the body.

In the next post we will learn about Radiation Technologists. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next post from here click the link below.

RADIATION TECHNOLOGISTS-CANCER-LESSON 117

This is the treatment of ailment by means of also an external source of high-energy beams like photons, protons, and gamma rays. They are on the inside embedded radioactive substances. These radioactive waves and particles are helpful in destructing the cancer cells in the body especially the DNA of those cells and stopping the progress of their development.

There are variable human resource people concerned in this medical field. A doctor who specializes in diagnostic radiology is called radiologist. A doctor who dedicates himself in the practice of management of investigative nuclear medicine course of action is called nuclear physician. A physician who is specialized in practice of radiotherapy is called radiation oncologist or radiotherapist.

Allied health care professionals who work with physicians in the fields of radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiotherapy are called radiologic technologists. Radiologic technologists can be divided into three categories such as:

1. Radiographers.
2. Nuclear medicine technologist.
3. Radiation therapy technologist.

Now we will see one by one.

Radiographer is an aide to physicians who manages investigative course of action.
Nuclear medicine technologist is a person who focusses on patients who goes through nuclear medicine methods and control devices under the direction of a nuclear physician. Radiation therapy technologist is a person who delivers course of radiation therapy prescribed by a radiotherapist.

In the next lesson we will learn about Radiation. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below


ATTRIBUTES OF X-RAYS-CANCER-LESSON 116



More than a few attributes of x-rays are helpful to physicians in the analysis and treatment of disease.
Capacity to be photographed: If beams of x-ray are focussed on a photographic plate the silver coating of the plate will change into black in color due to the chemical reaction of it on silver.

Radiolucency and Radiopacity: Ability to penetrate different substances to varying degrees. X-rays pass through the different types of substances in the human body such as calcium material in bones, water particle in the blood and lymph vessels, fat materials, muscles, and air space in the lungs, so as to give the image of that to diagnose. Radiolucency is the characteristic feature in which x-rays penetrate through lighter substances in the body like air in the lung and water in the blood, and muscles and form a black image. Radiopacity is the characteristic feature of the x-ray in which it cannot penetrate through densest hard substances like bone and metals inside the body and form an image that is whit in color.

Air is the smallest amount of thick material in the body and so displays the utmost transmission of x-rays. At the same time fat is the denser material, water is more dense than fat, and metal is the densest. When x-rays pass the through these materials the densest metals and calcium did not permit them to pass through them, but other rays pass through other fat, muscles, air will focus on the photographic plate. So the affected images of bone and other hard materials are visible for the diagnosis of fracture etc.

Nature of Invisibility: We cannot distinguish x-rays by our eyes. We cannot percept x-rays by any of our other sense organs like ears or skin too. They are very harmful and so one should be prevented from the exposure of x-rays. The mask used to avoid its exposure is called film badge. The special kind of films in the film badge are exposed by x-rays and so exposure is avoided. X-rays will be scattered when they come into contact with any other material across them. The more the density of the particle the more the scattering will occur.

Whenever x-rays pass through substances they ionize the materials i.e. neutrally charged particles become charged particles. When a particle is charged and becomes particles called ions. These charging activity of x-rays will be of greatly helpful in killing cancer cells in our body on the contrary to that normal cells when exposed by x-rays may get ionized and develop thyroid tumors, breast cancer, leukemia, etc.,

In the next post we will learn abour radiation technologists. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below
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