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Tuesday, December 11, 2012

Symptoms of Cushing's Syndrome - Lesson 326

Cushing Syndrome is the topic matter we are going to deal today in the series of endocrine gland abnormalities. What is Cushing's Syndrome? It is an abnormal condition of accumulation of excess of secretion of a hormone called cortisol in the body. This may happen because of over consumption of corticosteroid medications or by other factors like other steroid hormones. Cushing's syndrome can be felt by some symptoms of excessive cortisol secretion by adrenal cortex in the kidneys.

Symptoms of Cushing's Syndrome:  Onset of obesity, fullness of human face like a moon, buffalo hump, hyperglycemia, excessive sodium in the blood, low potassium level in the blood, osteoporosis and increase of blood pressure are the overt symptoms of Cushing's syndrome.

Causes of Cushing's Syndrome:  Excessive ACTH secretion leads to this condition and this may happen due to any abnormal growth or tumor on the adrenal cortex.

Tests to identify Cushing's Disease:  Serum cortisol level test, salivary cortisol level, 24-hour urine test, dexamethasone suppression test, ACTH level, magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland, bone mineral density are some of the tests that are done to confirm the diagnosis of Cushing's disease.

Treatment:  Common treatment for Cushing's disease is to administer some drugs and if this drug therapy is not effective, an adrenalectomy may be considered by the physician.

In the next post, we will see about another abnormal condition of endocrine glands, such as, Addison's disease. Okay. Come on.

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Monday, December 10, 2012

Virilization and Endocrine Glands - Lesson 325

Virilization is the topic matter of today's lesson in the series of endocrine glands abnormal conditions. Today we will see about virilization or adrenal virilism.  This is an abnormal condition of excessive secretion of the hormone androgen by adrenal cortex of the kidneys.

Causes of Adrenal Virilism:  The common reason for the excessive secretion of androgen is hyperplasia of adrenal cortex or may be due to a growth of a tumor on adrenal cortex. Virilization or adrenal virilism is commonly found in adult women.

Symptoms of adrenal virilism:  Common symptoms of virilization in female is no regular mensus or amenorrhea, excessive growth of hair in face and body in women, voice deepening or any formation of acne in the skin.

Treatment for Adrenal Virlism: Common treatment for adrenal virilism is to administer drugs to reduce the production of androgen or in  serious conditions, the adrenal cortex with abnormal growth of tumor may be surgically removed by a procedure called adrenalectomy.

Virilization may happen both in men and women of all age groups.

Sunday, October 14, 2012

Parathyroid Gland Disorders - 324

Parathyroid gland disorders is the topic matter of this post. In this article, we will see about the main abnormal conditions of parathyroid gland, such as, hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism.  Parathyroid gland is one of the important gland that is with thyroid gland. These are two small glands that are present inside the neck. They are two important endocrine glands that produce parathyroid hormone. The main function of parathormone is to control the level of calcium inside bones and bloodstream.  A grain-sized four small glands present superiorly and inferiorly on each side of thyroid of two is the parathyroid gland. When these glands fail to secrete or secrete less or more parathormone, human body will be affected with some abnormal conditions. We will see what are they now.

Hyperparathyroidism: This is an abnormal condition of secreting excessive parathormone. When they secrete more, the level of calcium in the blood and bones increase, which is an abnormal condition known as hypercalcemia. Due to this condition, bones are decalcified and they may fracture at any time. Cysts also may form inside bones known as osteitis fibrosa cystica. The excessive calcium may be deposited in kidneys and so form kidney stones. The treatment for this is to remove the abnormal parathyroid hormone.

Hypoparathyroidism:  This is due to abnormal secretion of low parathormone. Because of this kind of less production of parathormone, calcium level in the blood and bones are reduced. This abnormal condition is called as hypocalcemia and due to this weakness of muscles and nerves happen. This abnormal state is named as tetany, it is a condition of persisting contraction of muscles. The treatment for this state is to administer calcium with vitamin D.

In the next post, we will read about abnormal conditions of adrenal cortex, an important endocrine gland. Okay. 

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Sunday, October 7, 2012

Thyroid Cancer and Surgery - Lesson 323

Thyroid Cancer is the topic matter of this post. We will learn about another important abnormal condition of thyroid gland that is carcinoma or cancer of thyroid glands. We will learn briefly about how cancer forms, spreads inside the gland and outside, and what is the treatment methods. In general, there are two types, such as, benign tumors and carcinomas. In these, adenomas in thyroid are benign tumor types. Adenomas are not dangerous like thyroid carcinomas. Carcinomas are malignant cancer formation inside thyroid glands. Some cancers may develop somewhat in a slow manner, but other types may develop somewhat faster, and some may spread cancer to the adjacent areas too from the origin of cancer area.

Thyroid adenomas Vs Thyroid Carcinomas:  How can we differentiate a thyroid adenoma from thyroid cancer. When we check for cancers using radioactive iodine tracer, the specialists can differentiate them and identify they type of cancer by reading them. Benign tumor sites in the body would have more radioactivity than the other surrounding normal cells. High radioactivity in any place portrays the state of hyperthyroidism and benign cancer.  Sometimes it is not easy  to identify whether it is benign or malignant.  So doing a fine-needle aspiration test is highly useful to identify the type of cancer. A surgical biopsy can also be useful in cancer diagnosis. Excision of cancer area is also another important method for diagnosis of disease. There are four types of thyroid malignancies, such as, follicular, papillary, anaplastic and medullary.

Thyroid Carcinoma Symptoms: Formation of lump in the neck, neck enlargement, lymph nodes enlargement, hoarse voice, difficulty in swallowing, breathing difficulties, pain or sensitivity in the neck area, cough are the common symptoms of thyroid disease.

Thyroid Malignancy Treatment: In general, surgical excision is a common treatment for any cancer. After cancer is confirmed by blood tests, ultrasound, thyroid scan, and any biopsies, the treatment method is decided. Treatment may be surgery, hormone injection, radioactive iodine application, external radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. The above-mentioned treatments may be given separately or in combination. A followup care is important after the treatment too.

In the next post, we will learn about parathyroid gland abnormalities.

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Tuesday, September 25, 2012

Hypothyroidism Causes and Symptoms - Lesson 322

Hypothyroidism - Today we are going to see about one of the topic about endocrine gland abnormal conditions. What is the meaning of hypothyroidism? It means now secretion or production of thyroid hormones inside the thyroid glands. These glands are present inside the neck. Simply hypothyroidism is a state of under activity of the thyroid glands. What are the most common reasons for hypothyroidism? The causes for hypothyroidism is not bounded to a single reason. It may happen due to several conditions, such as, surgical removal of whole or partial removal of thyroid glands by thyroidectomy, another abnormal state of endemic goiter, or due to any destructive conditions of thyroid glands, such as, irradiation etc.

Symptoms of Hypothyroidism: All abnormal conditions inside human body is expressed outside by any one or combination of some symptoms. The most common symptoms of hypothyroid state are fatigue, sluggishness of mind and muscles, and/or constipation. We will now see about two advanced stages of hypothyroid state.

Myxedema: This happens mostly in adulthood ages. In this abnormal stage, thyroid gland atrophy (less growth) happens and so there is only less production of thyroid hormone only. The outward symptoms are edematous puffy dry skin. Myx/o means mucus. Myxedema is an abnormal state of accumulation of mucus under the skin. The common treatment for this condition is application of thyroid hormone inside the body.

Cretinism: Another abnormal condition of hypothyroid condition is known as cretinism. This happens mostly in the infancy. This is an extreme hypothyroid condition. The child who is affected by this will stop its growth of skeletal bones and mental growth. These children look obese, short and stocky. The main treatment to cure this condition is to apply thyroid hormone only.

In the next lesson, we will see about another important abnormal states of endocrine glands. Okay. Come on.

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Saturday, August 18, 2012

Hyperthyroidism Treatment - Lesson 321

Updating a new post on free medical transcription course blog after an one and half month gap. The delay in posting is due to some personal reasons. Today we are going to see about hyperthyroidism. We are now following abnormal conditions of endocrine system.

As we read hyper- means high or overactive, -thyroidism means condition of thyroid gland. Hyperthyroidism means higher secretion of thyroid hormone secretion above its normal condition. This state is also termed as overactive thyroid gland. Thyroid hormones are thyroxine, triiodothyronine and thyroid hormone. Hypothyroidism is another condition, which is opposite to hyperthyroidism with less functioning thyroid gland or less production of thyroid hormones.

The other name of hyperthyroidism in medical terms is Grave's disease. It is also termed as thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid gland is formed by glandular cells named as thyroid parenchyma cells. Due to the high growth of thyroid parenchyma glandular cells more production of thyroid hormones happen. This is the primary reason of hyperthyroidism. Due to this hyper state, the cell metabolism in thyroid gland cells happen. Higher secretion of thyroid hormones produce some symptoms, such as adenomatous goiter. Underactive thyroid symptoms and overactive thyroid symptoms happen both in men and women of all ages. A thyroid function test will reveal the right result of how one's thyroid gland is functioning. The common symptom of hyperactive thyroid is swelling under the eyes.

Symptoms of Overactive Thyroid: Enlarged thyroid gland, nervouseness, hair loss, heat intolerance, tachycardia, bulging eyes, irregular menstrual flow, frequent bowel movements and irritability.

Treatment for Hyperthyroidism: Commonly the treatment are thyroidectomy that is surigcal removal of thyorid gland and/or drug therapy, such as antithyroid drugs. These treatments will reduce the production of high thyroid hormone in the blood. Another kind of treatment for this is oral application of radioactive iodine. This will lessen the production of thyroid hormone by destructing the tissues that produce hormone. 

In the next post, we will see about hypothyroidism. Okay. Come on.

Monday, June 25, 2012

Goitre - Causes of Thyroid Problems - Lesson 320

What causes thyroid problems? There are many abnormal conditions that causes thyroid problems. One of the abnormal condition of thyroid is goiter. What is goiter? Goiter is an abnormal state of enlargement of the thyroid gland. This is not a symptom for any one disease. Goiter may be a reflection of more than one disease conditions. There are two kinds of goiters, such as endemic goiter and nodular or adenomatous goiter. Now we will see about each goiter types one by one.

Endemic Goiter: Endemic means inside. We will see what causes this thyroid problem now. This is meant as goiter inside. Endemic goiter occurs in a patient because of a deficiency condition of iodine in the food of the patient. When this forms, a celluloid material, which seems like a gel is collected in the thyroid gland. This collection of celluloid liquids makes the gland big in size. This is an expression of struggle of the body to compensate the less iodine in the body. Endemic goiter can be cured by the intake of more iodine food or through supply of iodine material inside the body. The figure below is an example of endemic goiter.

Nodular Goiter or Adenomatous Goiter: The second type of goiter is nodular goiter. The another name of nodular goiter is adenomatous goiter. In this type of goiter, the thyroid gland gets enlarged, as well as addition of some nodules and adenomas inside the goiter. The another terminology for enlargement is hyperplasia. Hyperplasia means abnormal growth.

Symptoms of Goiter:  The common symptoms of goiter may be nervousness, excessive sweating, high pulse rate or tremor etc.

Treatment: Common treatment for goiter is to suppression of thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH. The patient will be injected with thyroid hormone.

Tags: what causes thyroid problems, thyroid problems, thyroid gland problems, symptoms of thyroid problems. thyroid problem symptoms

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Saturday, June 16, 2012

Physiology of Cells - Lesson 319

This is about physiology of cells, all should know about this topic very clearly of what are the nuts and bolts of a cell. The topics covered here are cytoplasm, golgi bodies, diffusion, filtration process of cells, phagocytosis, cytopenesis, and cilia. All medical transcription learners should know about physiology of a cell. We will see about one by one now.

1. Cytoplasm: The portion of the protoplasm outside the nucleus of cells is called as cytoplasm.

2. Golgi Bodies: These are complex packages secretions for export from the cell and golgi bodies producer lysosomes.

3. Diffusion Process: This is the process of movement of ions from regions of higher to lower concentration.

4. Filtration: This is the process by which a substance is forced through a membrane by hydrostatic pressure.

5. Phagocytosis: The process of white cells in getting other substances is phagocytosis.

6. Cytopenesis: The duplication of chromosomes prior to cell division of cytoplasm to form two cells is termed as cytopenesis.

7. Tissues: Each tissue is combination of cells.

8. Epithelial Cells: They are classified according to their shape, such as, squamous, columnar and cuboidal.

9. Gland: Any structure that is differentiated to produce a secretion is called as a gland.

10. Muscle Tissue: It consists of bundles or sheets of long, narrow cells arranged in parallel and having the capacity to shorter under appropriate stimulation is neuron.

11. Cardiac Muscle: The muscle found only in the heart wall is called as cardiac muscle.

12. Nervous Tissue: They are specialized to transmit neural impulses.

13. Cilia: They are tiny hair like organelles projecting from the surfaces of many types of cells that help move materials outside a cell.

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Tuesday, June 12, 2012

Important Suffixes and Prefixes Used in Medical Transcription - Lesson 318

Today we will see about important suffixes and prefixes that are used in medical transcription field commonly on a daily basis. Every transcriptionist must memorize these words with its meanings. Next two posts will follow  this topic. I am going to add more videos hereafter for each topic. Many new changes will happen soon in our blog. We need your support as usual. Now we will see important suffixes and prefixes used in medical transcription one by one now.

1. -tomy means cutting or incision

2. -graphy means process of writing or recording

3. -oligo means scany or deficient

4. -logy means study of

5. super- means above or excessive

6. -uria means pertaining to urine

7. inter- means between

8. -pathy means disease

9. post- means after

10. -plasia means development or growth

11. -algia means painful condition

12. -osis means an abnormal condition

13. -rrhea means discharge

14. meno- means pertaining to menses

15. crypto- means hidden or concealed

16. myco- means fungal

17. mono- means one or single

18. poly- means many or more than one

19. hema- means pertaining to blood 

20. intra- means within

This post ends here. We will see the rest of the important suffixes and prefixes used in medical transcription in the next post. Okay. Come on.

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Thursday, June 7, 2012

Endocrine Terms - Lesson 317

Today we will see about some important endocrine medical terms. These terms are very much important about endocrine system. Studying about these important terms are really helpful when listening these terms while doing training files or while doing live files. Read the terms and understand the meaning of each clearly. We will see about some important hormones related to the endocrine systems too in this lesson. We will see about catacholamines, vasopressin,corticosteroids,glucocortcoid, and mineralocorticoid. 

Catacholamines: These are important hormones that are derived from an amino acide. Catacholamines are produced by adrenal medulla. The best example for a catacholamine is epinephrine.

Vasopressin: This hormone is secreted by the back lobe or postrerior lobe of the pituitary gland. This area of the brain is also named as neurohypophysis. The another name of vasopressin is antidiuretic hormone.

Corticosteroids: These are hormones that are produced by the adrenal cortex. Corticosteroids are steroid hormones. The best example for these types of hormones are mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids. We will see about these two steroid hormones one by one below.

Glucocorticoids: Adrenal cortex secretes glucocorticoid hormones. These hormones are helpful for the body and that are helping the human body to use essential chemicals, such as, sugars, proteins and fats inside the body in the blood. Glucocorticoids are also useful for the body to produce normal stress responses from the brain.

Mineralocorticoids: These hormones are produced by the adrenal cortex. Mineralocorticoids are helpful in regulating electrolytes in the body (minerals). The balance of water is managed by mineralocorticoids in the body. The best example of mineralocorticoid type hormone is aldosterone.

In the next lesson, we will see about other important endocrine system related terms, such as, sympathomimetic, steroid, sella turcica, hypothalamus, hormone, homeostasis, and electrolyte. Okay. Come on.
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Thursday, May 31, 2012

Medical Transcription Important Units - Lesson 316

This post is the continuation of the lesson 314 of Important Medical Transcription Units. Please memorize these units by reading them. All units are very important one when you do live transcription work or any other dummy files for transcription training. The next lesson will also be the continuation of this lesson.

1. IU - Internation Unit

2. IV - Intravenous

3. J- Joule

4. K - Kelvin

5. kg - kilogram

6. km - kilometer

7. L - litre

8. lb.- pound

9. m - metre

10. mA - milli ampere

11. mcg - microgram

12. mCi - millicurie

13. mEq/l - milli equivalent/litre

14. mg - millgram

15. mg/cc - milligram/cubic centimetre

16. mIu - milli internation units

17. mL - milli litre

18. mg/kg - milligram/kilogram

19. mmol - millimole

20. mOsm - milliosmol

In the next post, we will see more important prefixes and suffixes. Okay.

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Wednesday, May 23, 2012

Medical Transcription Suffixes and Prefixes - Lesson 315

In this lesson, we will see about important suffixes and prefixes. In the next lesson, we will see about important plural words used in medical transcription. These suffixes and prefixes are very much useful in live files and in practice files. Now we will see one by one.

1. Nephro- means pertaining to kidneys

2. -opsy means to view

3. ichtylo- pertaining to fish

4. -ectomy means excision of part or all of an organ

5. myelo- means pertaining to spinal cord

6. myo- means pertaining to muscle

7. neo- means new

8. infra- means situated below or beneath

9. pseudo- means false

10. dys- means painful or difficult

11. -genesis means condition of producing or forming

12. exo- means outside

13. -odynia means pain

14. -lysis means breakthrough

15. -a means without 

16. -oma means tumor or mass

17. histo- means pertaining to tissue

18. -plasty means denoting plastic surgery

19. -scopy means pertaining to use of an instrument

20. -ptosis means sagging

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Tags: suffixes prefixes, medical prefixes and suffixes dictionary, medical term prefixes and suffixes, medical dictionary prefixes and suffixes, medical terms with prefixes and suffixes

Sunday, May 13, 2012

Medical Transcription Important Suffixes and Prefixes - Lesson 314

In this post, we will see about important suffixes and prefixes that are used in medical transcription. Even there are thousands of prefixes and suffixes, all medical transcriptionists should memorize these words. They are used often in all live files by physicians everyday. Please understand meaning of each word. Now we will about one by one now.

1. -tomy means cutting or incision

2.  -graphy means process of writing or process of recording

3.  oligo- means scanty or deficient

4.  super- means above or excessive

5.  inter- means between

6. -uria means pertaining to write

7. -pathy means disease

8.  post- means after

9.  -plasia means development or formation

10. -algia means denoting a painful condition

11. -osis means a condition, usually an abnormal condition

12. -rrhea means pertaining to flow or discharge

13. meno- means pertaining to menses

14. crypto- means hidden or concealed

15. myco- means fungal

16. mono- means one or single

17. poly- means more than one

18. hema- means pertaining to blood

19. intra- means within

20. hyper- means above or excessive

In the next post, we will see more important prefixes and suffixes. Okay.

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Tags: medical prefixes and suffixes dictionary, medical term prefixes and suffixes, medical dictionary prefixes and suffixes, medical terms with prefixes and suffixes

Tuesday, May 1, 2012

Medical Transcription Important Units of Measurement - Lesson 313

Medical Transcription Units of measurement is the topic matter of this post. In the free medical transcription course lessons series, we are going to see this topic today. These units are used in denoting measurements and scales of healthcare related things.Measurements are used in food materials, drugs, equipment usages, and use of x-rays etc. As a free medical transcription course learner, you must all know about these unites importantly. Everyday doctors will dictate in all type of medical files about units. Now we will see about each unit one by one.

1. a.c. - ante cebum - before meals

2. ad lib - ad libitum - at pleasure

3. a.m. - ante meridum - morning

4. b.i.d. - bis in die - twice daily

5. C - Calorie

6. cc - cubic centimeter

7. cm - centimeter

8. cm3 - cubic centimeter

9. d - die - day

10. dL - deci litre

11. EU - Euphorium

12. F.- Faraday

13. ft. - fect

14. g - gram

15. gm - gram

16. gr. - gravida

17. hr. - hora/hour

18. h.s. - hora somni - at bed time

19. IM - Intramuscular

20. IU- International Unit

In the next lesson, we will see more about these units. You should all memorize these units by reading it again and again with its meaning.

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Tags: medical assessment units, health units

Wednesday, April 4, 2012

Endocrinology Terms - Lesson 312

We will see about endocrinology terms. This lesson also is the continutation of endocrine terms, such as, somatotropin, testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH, thyroixine, and triiodothyronine. You must read and understand the importance of each term and the usage of these terms in the practical medical transcription work and also for training purposes. As free medical transcription course learner, I advise you to memorize these terms by their meaning, but not just as words. The next set of lessons will focus on endocrinology disorders.

Somatotropin: This is a hormone that is formed by the pituitary gland in the brain exactly at the anterior part. This anterior part of pituitary gland is called as adenohypophysis. The another name of somatotropin is growth hormone.

Testosterone: This is a male hormone. Testosterone is formed by the male reproductive gland that is found in the male reproductive organ called testes.

Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH): This important hormone is produced by the anterior part of the pituitary gland in the brain. The anterior part of the pituitary gland is called as adenohypophysis. Thyroid-stimulating hormone works on the thyroid gland and helps to function it well. TSH is also called as thyrotropin.

Thyroxine: The another name of thyroxine is T4. Thyroid gland forms thyroxine. The another name of thyroxine is tetraiodothyronine. The main function of thyroixine is increasing of metabolism function of
the cells.

Triiodothyronine: The another name of triiodothyronine is T3. This hormone is produced by thyroid gland. The main fuction of triiodothyronine is increasing of metabolism in body cells.

Next two lessons will also be the continuation of these terms. After that we can focus on important endocrine combining forms, prefixes, and suffixes.

Tuesday, March 27, 2012

Important Endocrine Terms - Lesson 311

We are seeing about important endocrine terms in the last few posts. This chapter is a long one. We have seen about glucagon, insulin, FSH, estradiol, estrogen, calcitonin, and cortisol in the prior lesson. In this lesson we are going to see explanations about luteinizing hormone (LH), melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), progesterone, parathormone (PTH), oxytocin and norepinephrine.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH): This hormone is produced by the anterior pituitary gland portion named as adenohypophysis. Luteinizing hormone or LH induces the formation of ovum or egg in female reproductive system. In male LH stimulates the creation of an important hormone named as testosterone.

Melanocyte-stimulating Hormone (MSH): MSH induces the color cell formation on the skin. Melanocyte-stimulating hormones is formed on the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The another name of anterior pituitary gland is adenohypophysis.

Progesterone: This important hormone is produced by ovaries. Progesterone helps to make ready the uterus before pregnancy and while prognancy.

Parathormone (PTH): PTH is formed in the parathyroid gland in the neck. The another name of parathormone is parathyroid hormone. The main function of parathormone is to increase in blood calcium level in the blood.

Oxytocin: It is one of the important endocrine terms. This important hormone is formed on the backside portion of the pituitary gland in the brain. This posterior portion of the pituitary gland is called as neurohypophysis. The important function of oxytocin is to induce the shrinking and extension of the uterus during labor pain and childbirth.

Norepinephrine: This hormone is produced by the outer covering of adrenal gland named as adrenal medulla. The another name of norepinephrine is noradrenaline. Norepinephrine helps in the sympathomimetic action of the nervous system in human. This hormone also helps to increase the heart rate and pressure in the blood.

We have seen important endocrine terms yet. In the next lesson, we will see about other important endocrine terms, such as, thyroid-stimulating hormone, somatotropin, testosterone, prolactin, and thyroxine. Okay. Come on.

Endocrine System

Saturday, March 24, 2012

Endocrine Medical Terms - Lesson 310

In this article, we are going to see about endocrine medical terms. Endocrinology is an important medical speciality. Many women suffer from hormone deficits and so suffer from many sexual and appearance problems. Late menstruation, irregular menstrual cycles, abnormal hair growth, bone thinness etc. Proper timely treatment and medications will solve these problems, but many women have no idea of what kind of treatment to be done. As a medical transcription online trainee, you should know about endocrinology terms. In this lesson, we will see about insulin, glucagon, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen, estradiol, calcitonin, cortisol, and epineprhine. 

Glucagon: This is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas, especially by the cells of the Islet of langerhans. The main duty of glucagon is to increase blood sugar by converting glycogen into 

Insulin: This very very important hormone is produced by the same pancreas, especially by the Islet of langerhans. Insulin lessents blood sugar and converting glucose into glycogen. Insuling works opposite 
to glucagon.

Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH): This important hormone is secreted by pituitary gland in the anterior part. The anterior part of pituitary gland is called as adenohypophysis. The short form of follicle-stimulating hormone is FSH. It induces secretion of hormones and also stimulates production of egg by the ovaries. FSH also stimulates the production of sperm cells by the testes.

Estradiol: This is a female hormone. Estrogen is secreted by the ovaries.

Estrogen: This is also a female hormone. Estrogen is secreted by the ovaries. Estrogen is also secreted by the adrenal corted in a smaller portions.

Calcitonin: This hormone is produced by the thyroid gland. The main function of calcitonin is to lessen calcium levels in the blood. The another name of calcitonin is thyrocalcitonin.

Cortisol: This hormone is produced by the adrenal cortex, the outer layer of adrenal glands. The main function of cortisol is to increase the levels of sugar in the blood.

We have seen about endocrine medical terms. The next lesson also is the continutation of endocrine terms, such as, growth hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), norepinephrine, oxytocin, progesterone, parathormone (PTH), and prolactin. Okay. Come on.

Endocrine System Information

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Thursday, March 22, 2012

Endocrine Terms - Lesson 309

In the endocrine terms information for free medical transcription course, the learners today are going to learn about some other important endocrine terms. Today we are going to deal about thyroid gland, adrenaline hormone, aldosterone, androgen, ACTH, and anti-diuretic hormone. Free medical transcription learners should study these words and remember them. Using a medical dictionary installed and refer it always in your computer is a good habit to learn the meanings of these words. Referring and keeping the meanings in mind is very essential in our learning process. Whenever you involve in doing training files or live files this habit of reference will add more pace to your profession.

Thyroid Gland: This gland is situated in the neck. Thyroid is the biggest gland in the human body. It is present below the thyroid cartilage. There are two thyroid glands on each side of the Adam's apple bone. The joining area of two lobes of thyroid gland is called as isthmus, which is present below the cricoid cartilage. The energy or stamina is created by consuming food materials. Thyroid gland determines how quickly this energy should be used by the body to form proteins and makes the body sensible to hormones.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH): In the lesson of endocrine terms, we will see about ACTH. Corticotropin is the other name of ACTH. It is a polypeptide kind of tropic hormone. Corticotropin is produced by anterior pituitary gland in the brain. This hormone helps in secreting and discharge of corticosteroids, named cortisol from the outer covering of the adrenal glands named as adrenal cortex.

Adrenaline Hormone: The other name of adrenaline hormone is epinephrine. Epinephrine is a neurotransmitter. It helps to stimumate heart rate and pulse rate of blood vessels. Adrenaline also dilates air passages and helps to function the sympathetic nervous system. Epinephrine is one of the catecholamines.

Aldosterone: This is produced by the outer cover of the adrenal glands called adrenal cortex. Aldosterone hormone is yellow in color. This functions mainly on the nephron in the kidneys. It helps to

increase liquid retention in our body and also helping in increasing blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive tablets functions opposite to the aldosterone.

Antidiuretic Hormone: The other name of ADH is vasopressin. This hormone helps to enhance absorption of water by the nephrons in the kidneys. This is also a peptide kind of hormone. ADH helps ot increase blood pressure in the arteries. Body's homeostasis is acheived by this hormone by regulating glucose, essential salts, and water in the body. It is believed that human behaves like a social animal only because of the influence of this hormone.

We have studied about endocrine terms. In the next lesson, we will learn about other important endocrine medical terms, such as, androgen, calcitonin, estradiol, estrogen, and FSH. Okay. Come On. 

Tuesday, March 20, 2012

Important Endocrine Terms - Lesson 308

We will study bout important endocrine terms now. We will deal with a list of words that are related to endocrine system. Small definitions of each term should be understood well by medical transcription course learners. You will hear these words often while you do tests and do online files of medical transcription. Today we will see words about endocrine system in alphabetical order. Today we are going to see about adrenal medulla, adrenal cortex, ovaries, testes, pancreas, parathyroid glands, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland.

Adrenal Medulla: This is a part of one of adrenal gland. It is situated at the middle of the adrenal gland. Adrenal gland is covered by adrenal cortex. The innermost covering of the adrenal gland is adrenal medulla. Important hormones that are secreted by adrenal medulla are  adrenaline or epinephrine, noradrenaline or norepinephrine, and dopamine.

Adrenal Cortex: This is the outermost layer of adrenal gland. It covers the outer area of adrenal gland. This outer covering secretes important hormones like mineralaocorticoids, glucocorticoids, cortisol, and aldosterone. The male hormone named androgen is synthsized in this layer.

Ovaries: It is the sexual gland, which produces egg. Ovary is found in pairs in female reproductive system. It is situated in the side wall of the pelvis in the ovarian fossa. The hormones secreted by ovaries are estrogen and progesterone. These hormones decide the secondary sexual characteristic features in women.

Testes: These are the male sexual gland that are homologous to the ovaries. Sperm is produced by testes by a process called spermatogenesis. The hormones secreted by testes are androgen and testosterone. These hormones decide the secondary sexual characteristic features in men.

Pancreas: Pancreas is one of the gland in the human body. This is situated in the digestive system in human. Pancreas is not only function as a digestive organ, but also an endocrine gland. Pancreas secretes pancreatic juice. Pancreas is present behind the stomach. Islets of Langerhans produce hormones from the pancreas.

Parathyroid Glands: These are two small-sized endocrine glands that are present on both sides of thyroid glands in the neck area. Parathyroid hormones produce parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid glands are four in number. The level of calcium in the blood and bones are controlled by these glands.

Pituitary Gland: The other name of pituitary gland is hypophysis. This gland is in the size of a pea. Pituitary gland is present beneath the hypothalamus. It is present at the base of the brain. Anterior pituitary is called adenohypophysis and posterior pituitary is known as neurohypophysis.

In the next lesson, we will see about thyroid gland, adrenaline hormone, androgen, aldosterone, and calcitonin. Okay. Come on.

Saturday, March 17, 2012

Reproductive System Hormones - Lesson 307

We will study about reproductive system hormones now. In this article, we will see about female and male reproductive systems, hormones secreted by them, and their functions in human body. Female reproductive system consists of ovaries. Ovaries are two small, about 1.5-inch sized glands situated in the lower part of the abdomen in female. The other important parts of female reproductive system are vagina, cervix, uterus and fallopiant tubes. These are inner reproductive parts. The other parts are in the outer side are labia, clitoris and urethra. Whenver a male has intercourse with a female sperm is discharged into the vagina. The sperm is then deposited at the end of the vagina near the tightly-closed mouth of the cervix. Cervix is the narrow head portion of the uterus.

Anatomy of Female Reproductive System: The outer area of the female reproductive organ is labia muscles. Labia are of two types, such as labia minora and labia majora. Labia majora is the bigger outer muscle of the vagina with hairs. Labia minora is the smaller hairless muscle concealed inside the labia majora. Both labia majora and labia minora are lip-like structures and they are made up of adipose tissue. Clitoris is a small button-like structure. This is an important sexual organ in female. It is situated adjacent to the upper junction of the labia minora. Clitoris is present above the urinary opening called as urethra and the reproductive opening called as vagina. Vagina is a fibromuscular tube. Sexual intercourse and birth of a child happens here only. Vaginal canal leads to the cervix. Cervix is attached with uterus. Uterus is attached with fallopian tubes. Two fallopian tubes on both sides of the cervix attached to ovaries. Ovaries produce eggs. Eggs travel via fallopian tubes to enter into the uterus. Where the sperm cell unite with the egg to form a gamete. Two glands are present on the backside of the left and right side of the vagina called as Bartholin's glands. Sexual lubricants are secreted by these glands on arousal and also produce mucus.

Female Reproductive System Hormones: Ovaries are the important female reproductive organ, which secretes two important hormones to perform normal body functions during menstrual cycle and childbirth.  The two important hormones are estradiol or estrogen and progesterone. 

Function of Estradiol: The hormone estradiol or estrogen is useful for the growth and management of secondary sexual characteristics, for example, hair growth and breast growth in female.
Function of Progesterone: The other hormone progesterone is useful for the management and preparation of the uterus during pregnancy.

Male Reproductive System Anatomy: There are a series of organs that form male reproductive system that are present around the pelvic area of male. Penis, testes, prostate glands and Cowper's glands are 

the importnat parts of the male reproductive system. Penis can be enlarged or shrink at times on arousal. Urine is excreted via the penis. Testes is the important glands that are small in structure. Testes are surrounded by scrotal sac. Spermatic cord attaches to it.

Function of Testes: Testes create male gametes, known as spermatozoa. Testes also secrete testosterone. Testosterone is a male steroid hormone type. The other name is androgen. Androgen is responsible for secondary male characteristics, such as, voice difference, hair growth in the face and body, big shoulders etc.

Monday, March 12, 2012

Endocrine Glands List - Lesson 306

We will now see main endocrine glands list now. There are 9 important endocine glands in our body. They secrete different types of hormones. Each homones does its unique function inside our body. These hormones directly mix with blood from the glands of its production and so they are named as endocrine glands. Our body also has a system of exocrine glands, such as sweat glands. Exocrine glands have its own ducts to contact with bloodstream. The important endocrine glands are thyroid glands in the neck, parathyroids glands on both sides of thyroid glands, adrenal cortex and medulla in the kidneys, pancreas in the liver, pituitary gland in the brain,  ovaries in female reproductive system, and testes in male reproductive system.

Thyroid and Parathyroid Hormones: Thyroid gland secretes two important hormones, such as, thyroxin and triiodothyroxine. These two hormones help to increase body metabolism in body cells. Another one important hormone secreted by thyroid glands is calcitonin. This hormone helps to lower blood calcium levels in blood. Parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone, This hormone helps to increase blood calcium. Calcitonin and parathyroid hormone are opposite in their actions. 

Adrenal Gland Hormones: Adrenal glands in the kidney secrete a hormone named as aldosterone, the other name of this hormone is mineralocorticoid. This hormone is helpful in increasing re-absorption of sodium. The outer cover of adrenal glands called as adrenal cortex secretes this hormone. The other hormones secreted by adrenal cortex is cortisol, the other name of cortisol is glucocorticoid, and other sexual hormones, such as androgens, estrogens, and progestins. Cortisol is helpful in increasing blood surgar. Androgen, estrogen, and progestin are helpful in maintaining secondary sexual characteristics in both men and women. Medulla is the inner layer of adrenal gland. Medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine hormones. The other name of epinephrine is adrenaline and the other name of norepinephrine is nor-adrenaline. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are responsible for sympathomimetic actions in the body.

Pancreas Hormones: The homones secreted by pancreas are insulin and glucagon. The main function of insulin is to decrease blood sugar by coverting glucose into glycogen. The function of glucagon is to increase blood sugar. Insulin and glucagon are opposite to each other in functions.

Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by pituitary gland are growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 
luteinizing hormone (LH), melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), antidiuretic hormone (ADH), and oxytocin. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) helps to increase skin pigmentation. Luteinizing hormone (LH) helps in promoting ovulation in female, secretion of testosterone, breast growth, and milk production. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) helps in the process of oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Growth 
hormone (GH) helps to increase bone and tissue growth. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) helps to stimulate secretion of thyroxine and development of thyroid gland. Adrenocorticotropic hormone helps to 
stimulate production of hormones from the adrenal gland, mainly the cortisol.

Reproductive Hormones: Ovaries in female and testes in men secrete estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. Estradiol helps in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in female. Progesterone helps in preparation and maintenance of uterus during pregnancy. Testosterone helps to promote development and maintaining secondary sexual characteristics in men.
We have dealt with endocrine glands list now. In the next lesson, we will deal about female reproductive system hormones and functions. Okay. Come on.

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Friday, March 9, 2012

Hormones Produced by the Pituitary Gland - Lesson 305

Anatomy of Pituitary Gland: All medical transcription learner should know about pituitary glands and horomones produced by the pituitary gland. In fact, all vertebrate animals have pituitary gland. The other name of pituitary gland is hypophysis. Pituitary gland is an endocrine gland of peanut shaped. It weighs approximately half gram or 0.02 ounces. It is situated beneath the brain and it extends from the downside of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. It is packed inside a hallow depression in the skull named as sella turcica cavity of the brain and it is surrounded by diaphragma sellae. A small tube like structure named as pituitary stalk that connects median eminence of the brain to the hypothalamus.

Parts of Pituitary Gland: Pituitary gland has two lobes anteriorly and posteriorly. The anterior lobe is called as adenohypophysis and the posterior lobe is called as neurohypophysis. Adenohypophysis is an extension from the pharynx. This part is glandular in nature. Neurohypophysis is an downward extension from the base of the brain. Neurohypophysis is formed by neuron tissues. An organ named as hypothalamus is situated near the pituitary gland.

Functions of Pituitary Gland: Apart from hormones produced by the pituitary gland, they perform important functions in the body. As it is an important gland our body protects naturally with skull on the upper side and by the nasal cavity in the down side. The hormones secreted by the pituitary glands control the function of the hypothalamus.

Hormones Produced By the Pituitary Gland: Anterior pituitary gland secretes more number of hormones when comparing posterior part of it. Anterior pituitary area secretes nearly 7 hormones and posterior area secretes only 2. The hormones secreted by anterior pituitary gland are adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The posterior pituitary hormone secretes antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin.

Functions of Pituitary Hormones: Adrenocorticotropic hormone or ACTH helps in stimulating the development of adrenal cortex of the thyroid gland. ACTH helps to increase the formation of cortisol and other steroid hormones. Follicle-stimulating hormone or FSH in female helps to stimulate the development opf eggs in the ovaries, ovulation process, and in the production of essential hormones. Luteinizing hormone or LH works the same as FSH. Growth hormone or GH works on bones tissues to stimulate its development in the body. The other name of GH is somatotropin. Thyroid-stimumalating hormone or TSH helps to stimulate the development of thyroid gland and its production of a hormone named thyroxine. Prolactin or PRL helps to stimulate and keep producing milk in female after a child birth. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone or MSH has an influence in the development of melanin in the skin. It also helps to increase pigmentation of the skin.

The other hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary named as antidiuretic hormone or ADH helps to stimulate re-absorption of water by kidney tubules. The other name of ADH is vasopressin. It also helps to increase blood pressure by shrinking arterioles. The other hormone oxytocin helps to contract uterus during labor and childbirth. This hormone helps to increase milk production while a child suckles the breast nipples.
We have seen about hormones produced by the pituitary gland. In the next lesson, we will learn about Important Endocrine Glands and their Functions in the next lesson. Okay. Come on.

Monday, March 5, 2012

Function of Pancreas - Lesson 304

What is Pancreas and Where is it situated and What are the Function of Pancreas?: Pancreas is an endocrine gland that is situated in the small intestine. It is situated at the backside of the stomach in the area of the first and second lumbar vertebral bones. The head part of the pancreas lies in the concave area of the duodenum. The body part of the pancreas lies behind the stomach. The tail area of the pancreas lies in touch with spleen.  Function of pancreas is the lesson topic we are going to see now. Pancreas is a very important gland in our body. It is situated in the digestive system. Pancreas is an endocrine gland. It secrets a number of important hormones. The names of hormones that are secreted by pancreas are insulin, somatostatin, glucagon, and pancreatic juice. In these hormones, pancreatic juice is a hormone that has important enzymes that are useful in digestion of food and also pancreatic juice helps to absorb essential nutrient particles from the food and also helps in digesting food materials in the small intestine. All the hormones of pancreas helps to break down food nutrients, such as, fat, protein, and sugars.

Functions of Pancreas: What is the function of pancreas? Pancreas functions both as an endocrine gland as well as an exocrine gland. Any endocrine gland has no ducts to secrete its content to mix in the blood stream and a gland with exocrine function mixes its secretion in the blood throuth ducts. The organ named as islets of Langerhans in the pancreas functions as an endocrine gland. Islets of Langerhans is an organ of the pancreas that is made up of cluster of cells of millions in number. These cells have specialized functions. Islets of Langerhans secretes important hormones named as insulin and glucagon. Insulin is produced by beta cells of the islets of Langerhans and glucagon is produced by alpha cells of it. In food metabolism function of the body insulin and glucagon play a vital role. In human body, sugar and starch are formed in the blood once food is consumed. Insulin secreted by the iselt of Langerhans makes the free glucose present in the blood to enter the body cells and excess of glucose is stored in the liver as glycogen. When no more glucose in the blood stream, liver converts glycogen into glucose. The process converting glycogen into glucose whenever 
needed is called as glucogenesis. Glucagon functions oppositely of the insulin. When sugar levels are less in the blood stream, glucagon is secreted and so it breaks down the glycogen into glucose and 
so the level of sugar in the blood increases.

Exocrine Function of Pancreas: Other cells of pancreas apart from islets of Langerhans work like an exocrine gland. These cells secrete essential digestive enzymes and pancreatic juice in the alimentary canal. Pancreas has a duct to release its enzymes into the bloodstream.

In the next lesson of free medical transcription course, we will learn about pituitary gland anatomy and functions. Okay. Come on

Friday, February 24, 2012

Adrenal Glands Function - Lesson 303

Adrenal glands function is the subject matter we are going to study now. In the series of free online medical transcription course, we have dealt about the anatomy of adrenal glands in the prior lesson. Adrenal glands have the outer adrenal cortex and the internal adrenal medulla covers. Both inner and outer covers of adrenal glands secrete different types of hormones and each hormone does its separate functions to maintain important functions of the human body.

Adrenal Cortex Hormones: The hormones secreted by adrenal cortex are called as corticosteroids. Corticosteroids are of three types, such as, mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids, and sexual hormones in male and female, such as, androgens, estrogens, and progestins. We will see about adrenal glands function of the cortex now.

Mineralcorticoids: These hormones are essentially helpful in regulating the amount of electrolytes retaining in the body. Electrolytes are mineral salts. For the normal functioning of the body a good balance of electrolytes and water are very important. 

Aldosterone: This is the main hormone of mineralcorticoids. Adrenal cortex secretes this hormone. Aldosterone helps to expel excessive potassium from the body through kidneys.

Glucocorticoids: These are steroid hormones. These hormones influence metabolism of protein, carbohydrates, and fat inside the body. They have anti-inflammatory effect. Cortisol is an important hormone of this type. The other name of cortisol is hydrocortisone. This hormone is helpful in increasing the ability of cells to form new carbohydrates from the protein and fat deposits inside the body by a process called as glucogenesis. Cortisol also regulates the amount of sugars, proteins, and fat in the body. Cortisone is another important glucosteroid hormone. This is somewhat resemble the cortisol. Cortisone is helpful in curing inflammations in the body.

Sexual Horomones: Adrenal cortex secretes sex hormones, such as, androgen, estrogen, and progestin both in men and women. Human sexual characteristics, such as, formation of hair in the face and body, growth of breasts, and other reproductive actions. Ovaries in women and testes in men secrete these hormones.

Hormones of Adrenal Medulla:

Adrenal medulla secretes two kinds of hormones. They are commonly known as catacholamines. Catacholamines are of two types, such as epinephrine or adrenaline and norepinephrine or noradrenaline. 

Epinehphrine helps to increase heart rate, dilatation of bronchial tubes, and also helps to increase the production of glucose. Norepinephrine helps to constrict blood vessels and so body blood pressure is controlled. Both epinephrine and norepinephrine play an important role in the nervous system in sympathomimetic actions during stress situations. Our body heart rate, blood pressure, increased heartbeat and increased breathing etc.

We have studies about adrenal glands function now. We will study about pancreas in the next lesson. Okay.

Wednesday, February 22, 2012

Adrenal Glands Function - Lesson 302

We are going to learn about adrenal glands function now.  Adrenal means above kidneys (ad- above, renal - related to kidneys). The another name of adrenal glands is suprarenal glands. Adrenal glands are endocrine glands as they have ducts. The two glands on the left and right of the kidney have different shapes. The right side adrenal gland is normally triangular in shape and the left side adrenal gland is semilunar in shape. While we are in stress situations, adrenal glands secrete hormones, such as, cortisol, catacholamines, and epinephrine. Function of the kidneys are also affected by the secretion of a hormone named as aldosterone by adrenal glands. Aldosterone controls osmolarity of plasma in blood.

Adrenal glands are situated at the retroperitoneal area above kidneys on both sides. Adrenal glands have two different structures. The outer layer of adrenal glandd is adrenal cortex and the inner layer is medulla. Both adrenal cortex and medulla secrete hormones. The adrenal cortex secretes hormones, such as, cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. The medulla secretes two hormones named as epinephrine and norepinephrine. The another name of epinephrine is adrenaline and the another name of norepinephrine is noradrenaline. The average weight of adrenal glands is 8 to 10 grams.

Adrenal Glands (above kidney glands)

The hormones that are secreted by the adrenal cortex are termed as corticosteroids. Corticosteroid hormones are of three types, such as, mineral corticosteroids, glucocorticosteroids, cortisol, and andgrogen, estrogen, and progestin. The adrenal medulla secretes two kinds of hormones named commonly as catacholamines. Catacholamines are epinephrine and norepinephrine.

We have learnt something about adrenal glands function. In the next lesson, we will learn about Pancreas. Okay. Come on.

We have learnt something about adrenal glands function. In the next lesson, we will learn more about Adrenal Glands Function. Okay. Come on.

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To go to the prior lesson about Function of The Parathyroid Gland, please visit the following link.

Friday, February 17, 2012

Function of the Parathyroid Gland - Lesson 301

We are going to understand about anatomy of parathyroid and parathyroid gland function in this lesson. Parathyroid glands are four tiny glands that are present in the neck. These small glands produce a hormone known as parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid glands are oval in shape. They are present in the inferior part of thyroid glands on the both sides of the pharynx. In rare cases parathyroid glands are present within thyroid glands and in some patients they are present even in the chest area. The main function of the parathyroid hormone is to control the level of calcium in the blood and in the human bones. In abbreviated form the parathyroid hormone is referred as PTH. The another name parathyroid hormone is parathormone. This hormone helps in the function of moving calcium from the blood into the bones. Calcium is an essential mineral to maintain important body functions.

Functions of the Parathyroid Glands: We get calcium mineral that is necessary for our body's function from the food materials we eat. Calcium consumed from the blood is absorbed in the intestines and transferred into the bloodstream. From the bloodstream, the absorbed calcium is stored inside the bones by parathyroid hormones. By this activity of PTH, our body homeostasis is controlled. Homeostasis is an equilibrium of body's internal environment. 

If human body calcium level decreases due to any diseases in the body, such as, vitamin D deficiency, PTH is secreated by the body in excess and urges bone calcium deposit to release again into the bloodstream. By this way it regulates calcium level in the blood. If body calcium level is increased in the bloodstream then brain orders parathyroid gland to stop its production.

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To go to the prior lesson about Health Abbreviations - Sense Organs -Lesson 300, please visit the following link.

Saturday, February 11, 2012

Health Abbreviations - Sense Organs - Lesson 300

I've missed to add some health abbreviations related to sense organs portions. As a learner of free medical transcription online, you should know about these important abbreviations that are used by physicians in training voice files and live voice files. You should all read and keep all these six abbreviations in your memory.

The abbreviation for right ear is  AD, which means auris dextra. Left ear is  AS, which can be extended as auris sinistra, and to express both ears by the abbreviation AU, which is auris uterque. Left eye is termed as OS, its extension is oculus sinister. Right eye is denoted as OD, which means oculus dexter. Both eyes can be denoted as oculus uterque. HEENT is head, ears, eyes, nose, and throat. HEENT is often used in all medical transcription files in the physical examination area. EENT denotes ears, eyes, nose, and throat. A tube is placed in the eardrum, which is called in short as PE tube, which can be extended as polyethylene ventilating tube.

In the next post, we will learn about parathyroid gland and its functions. Okay. Come on.

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To go to the prior lesson about Thyroid Gland and Hypothyroidism from here, please click the link below.

Sunday, February 5, 2012

Thyroid Gland and Hypothyroidism - Lesson 299

Where is Thyroid Gland?

This lesson will deal with thyroid gland and hypothyroidism and thyroid functions. The biggest endocrine gland in the human body is thyroid gland. It is situated in the neck inferiorly to the thyroid cartilage. Thyroid cartilage forms a prominence in that area named as Adam's apple. Thyroid gland consists of two lobes and isthmus is a bridge like structure that attaches two thyroid glands. Isthmus is situated under the cricoid cartilage. The two lobes of the thyroid gland are situated on both sides of the wind pipe or trachea. Thyroid gland functions as an important endocrine gland in the body. It has no ducts to pass their hormones into bloodstream. Thyroid gland secretes two important hormones, such as, thyroxine or tetraidothyroxine and triiodothyronine. Using iodine thyroid gland produces these hormones. Iodine is captured by thyroid glands from the blood and tyrosine. Thyroxine is much thicker hormone than triiodothyronine.

We will now see about thyroid gland and hypothyroidism. When thyroid gland secretes excess amount of hormones, this abnormal condition is called as hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, if the gland produces less hormones than human body requires normally that condition is called as hypothyroidism. The most common reason for hypothyroidism is deficiency of iodine. Stress is a main symptom associated with hypothyroidism. Congenital hypothyroidism is an abnormal condition of less secretion of thyroid hormones from the birth of a child. Other reasons for hypothyroid are may be due to any autoimmune disorders like Hashimoto's thyroiditis. If the thyroid gland is removed due 
to any thyroid cancer would also lead to hypothyroidism.

Functions of Thyroid Gland
The primary funciton of thyroid gland is to produce three hormones, such as, triiodothyronine (T3), calcitonin, and thyroxine (T4). These hormones are essential for body metabolism activity among body cells (T3 and T4). Thyroid hormones help to absorb oxygen by cells. Body metabolic rate is maintained by thyroid glands. Calcitonin controls the level of calcium in the blood and it pulls the excessive calcium in the blood to store in the bones. Thus it restores body's normal calcium level.

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To go to the prior lesson of Endocrine Tissue, please click the link below.

The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...