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Sunday, August 30, 2009

Cancer Formation




CARCINOGENESIS:  Carcin/o means cancer and -genesis means formation that is the conversion of a normal cell to a cancerous ell is called carcinogenesis.  We can understand the process of malignant conversion of a cell on the basis of genetic material called DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid of the cell. Filaments of DNA in the cell nucleus form chromosomes, which are simply seen from time to time during the development series of the cell.

DNA has the power of not only in the production of new cells, but also the cell's capacity to breed. DNA is full of codes or programs called genes that guide the construction of new proteins called protein synthesis. When a cell splits, the DNA substance duplicates itself so that the identical DNA is passed to two new cells that are formed. This process is called mitosis or self-replication. Among cycles of replication, DNA doles out as the workstation program that guides the cell's vital functions.

DNA drives a molecular note to the cytoplasm of the cell so that proteins for example hormones and enzymes are able to be made for cellular growth. This program is sent out in the following line of attack. In the nucleus, a coded message is copied from DNA against one more molecule called RNA or ribonucleic acid. RNA passes through as of nucleus to cytoplasm hauling the message that guides the configuration of definite proteins in the cell.

When a cell develops into malignant, on the other hand, the method of mitosis concerned that the cancer cells duplicate almost constantly. Cancerous cells as well grow to be anaplastic that is their DNA stops producing the codes that let cells to carry on normal function as a substitute makes new signals that lead to movement of cells, invasion of nearby tissue, and metastasis.

Every one of these changes are characteristic of malignant cells and take place as the consequence of changes in DNA. The changes in DNA that result in malignancy occur as the result of environmental factors such as toxic chemicals, sunlight, a host of other sources of injury, and rarely, by certain viral and chemical infections. Once these changes are established in a cell they are passed on to its offspring cells. Such a take over of change in a cell is called a mutation. Cellular mutations consequently go in front to malignant development.

Even though nearly all DNA changes or mutations show the way to higher than normal rates of development. Some mutations found in cancer cells put a stop to the cells from dying. In modern years, scientists have recognized that some types of cancers have lost the normal outline that express aging or damaged cells to die. Normal cells undergo impulsive breakdown by a process known as apoptosis or programmed cell death. Cancer cells have lost this program and thus can live without end.

In the next lesson we will see about environmental agents of cancer production. Okay.

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MESOTHELIOMA LUNG CANCER- DIAGNOSIS USING MANY TECHNIQUES-4-LESSON 99



This is the continuation of the lesson mesothelioma diagnosis using many techniques. MEDIASTINOSCOPY TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:  Mediastinoscopy is now and then used to give support to in staging to know the extent of mesothelioma cancer. The distended inflamed nodes appear while by means of imaging techniques.

LAPAROSCOPY TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:  Laparoscopy technique is used in patients with mesothelioma on the circumstances where imaging techniques put forward potential invasion of the tumor through the diaphragm. This in sequence know how to be imperative in assessing a patient for budding pleurectomy or extrapleural pneumonectomy.

MESOMARK BLOOD TEST TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:  SMRP is extended as Soluble Mesothelin-Related Peptide is a protein or a biomarker is released into the blood of a patient with mesothelioma by the cancer cells. The amount of SMRP in a blood sample is measured. This is an better option to monitor mesothelioma in a patient and to keep an eye on the advancement of a patient by the doctor. The effectiveness of this test is not so high. This is proved by the statistics available yet. This test is not permitted for the early diagnosis of mesothelioma cancer. HUD or Humanitarian Use Device permitted this test to diagnose mesothelioma to be diagnosed earlier with certain conditions.

This test is used to lend a hand to keep an eye on response to treatment for the patients with biphasic malignant and epithelial mesothelioma. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in January 2007 permitted the MESOMARK assay test. In the MESOMARK testing the patient will be taken one or more blood specimens and send it to a national reference laboratory for analysis and decisions concerning the treatment will be after the other clinical and laboratory data obtained.

Coverage of the cost of MESOMARK blood test is not done by insurance. So the patient must pay all the cost. It is better for a patient to check the availability of coverage for MESOMARK with insurance prior to do this test.

In the next lesson we will see about the CARCINOGENESIS. Okay.

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MESOTHELIOMA LUNG CANCER- DIAGNOSIS USING MANY TECHNIQUES-3-LESSON 98


This is the continuation of the lesson mesothelioma diagnosis using many techniques. 
VIDEO-ASSISTED THORACOSCOPIC SURGERY (VATS) TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:  Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is used in the recent years is one of the good number far and wide used paraphernalia in the assessment of mesothelioma cancer. The biopsy samples of the nodules, pleural lining, masses, and pleural fluid can at present without difficulty be there gotten hold of using VATS, a simple invasive procedure.

At the same time as, the supplementary therapies for example pleurodesis (talc) for pleural effusions consider to be done. At the same time as under general anesthesia of the patient a quite a lot of small incisions called ports are created through the chest wall.

In this procedure the surgeon then inserts a small camera, via a scope, into one incision, and other surgical instruments used to retrieve tissue samples into the other incisions. By looking at a video screen showing the camera images, the surgeon is able to complete whatever procedures are necessary. In many cases, this video-assisted technique is having the capability to put back thoracotomy, which requires a much bigger opening to put on admittance to the chest cavity.

This procedure is a simply invasive one. The patient the largest part time and again has less pain after the surgery and possibly a smaller upturn period.

THORACOSCOPY TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:  When a patient with pleural mesothelioma the physician possibly seem to be inside the chest opening with a thoracoscope, which is an tube like instrument. The thoracoscope will then be inserted through the chest wall into the chest between two ribs. The patient will be administered a local anesthesia for painkilling purposes.

Thoracentesis or thoracocentesis:

It is a procedure done to remove the fluid collected in the chest by the doctor and drains the fluid out by putting a needle into the chest. The doctor uses a gentle suction to remove the fluid. The patient's discomfort due to the collection of fluid is controlled.

PERITONEOSCOPY TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:
Paracentesis: When a patient is affected with peritoneal mesothelioma the physician possibly will look within the abdomen with a unique apparatus known as a peritoneoscope. The peritoneoscope is put into an notch created by the doctor in the abdomen. This analysis is by and large done in the hospital after administering a local anesthesia to the patient. If fluid has collected in the abdomen of the patient, the physician possibly will drain the fluid out of the body by inserting a needle into the abdomen using a moderate suction and remove the fluid.

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Mesothelioma Lung Cancer Diagnosis Techniques - 2 - Lesson 97


This is the continuation of the lesson mesothelioma diagnosis using many techniques.
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA: MRI scans are in the largest part over and over again used to establish the degree of growth of cancer earlier than any aggressive handling of the cancer. For the reason that MRI scans make available images in numerous planes. MRI scans are better have the ability to make out tumors as contrasting to normal structures. MRI scan technique is useful in analyzing a candidate whether he needs a surgery or not. MRI scans are more precise than CT scans in reviewing growth of the lymph nodes in the mediastinum those are between the two lungs. MRI scans give an obvious diaphragmatic surface.

POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY (PET) SCAN TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:  Nowadays PET scan imaging is appropriate for the diagnosis and assessment of mesothelioma. At the same time as PET scans are high-priced than others and are not always covered under insurance, they are at this time well thought-out to be a good number diagnostic of tumor sites. PET scan imaging is the nearly all greater in assessing mesothelioma staging.

CT/PET TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:  CT/PET is an imaging technique useful for patients who possibly be candidates for hard-hitting aggressive multimodality treatment that includes surgery, chemotherapy with radiation. CT/PET is mostly useful in precise clinical staging of mesothelioma. Incorporated imaging of CT/PET gives a moderately original contrivance.

CT/PET scan imaging technique has developed into an imaging technique of preference to be decisive for surgical eligibility. By merging together the benefits of a CT and PET (anatomic and metabolic information) into a single scan, this know-how is precise to determine the stage of mesothelioma cancer. CT/PET imaging technique is also helpful in making out the most excellent treatment preference.

NEEDLE BIOPSY TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:  This is a technique is used to biopsy of a lung mass. This method is also useful in the removal and examination of the fluid adjoining the lungs. This is used for the diagnosis of mesothelioma because the biopsy trials are occasionally not enough as far as decisive of cell type such as epithelial, sarcomatous, or mixed. For the reason that of the changeableness of fluid assessment an open pleural biopsy may be suggested.

When doing a pleural biopsy procedure a small notch or opening through the chest wall is made by the surgeon and he inserts a slender tube called a thoracoscope into the chest between two ribs. The surgeon will afterward get rid of a sample of a tissue to appraise under a microscope. This microscopic assessment is done by a pathologist. When doing a peritoneal biopsy a small incision in the abdomen is made by the doctor and he inserts a tube called peritoneoscope into the abdominal cavity.

The doubt of mesothelioma created by the imaging tests is confirmed by the pathological examination. The tissue removed is set under the microscope and a pathologist formulates a state-of-the-art diagnosis. The pathologist's pathology report is the end of a process and send that report to the surgeon.

The symptoms will prove the diagnosis by the symptoms like the fluid upsurge in the pleura, shortness of breath, chest pain or pain or swelling in the abdomen. The physician will then possibly order an x-ray or a CT scan of the chest or abdomen. If additional examination is necessary, the following tests will be done after that.

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MESOTHELIOMA LUNG CANCER- DIAGNOSIS USING MANY TECHNIQUES-1-LESSON 96

The analysis for mesothelioma is commonly attained with cautious evaluation of findings of both clinical and radiological results as well as to an authenticated biopsy of tissue affected. An evaluation of medical history of the patient such as the past asbestos exposure if any is considered followed by a thorough physical examination of the patient. X-rays of the chest and abdomen is also done. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are also taken with a CT scan or MRI imaging studies with it. These procedures and tests may confirm the presence of mesothelioma factors in the body. A tissue biopsy will probably confirm mesothelioma. Imaging Techniques to diagnose Mesothelioma:There are more than a few imaging methods possibly will be helpful in the cases of presence of pleural effusion in cases who has the asbestos exposure occupationally or any other secondary exposures.At the same time as these imaging methods can be costly in reviewing the likelihood of mesothelioma, a state-of-the-art analysis of diagnosis is still the large part time and again created via fluid diagnosis or tissue biopsy.

X-RAY TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:  A chest x-ray is able to make known a fluid upsurge called pleural effusion, which is limited to whichever the right lung of 60% or of the left lung of 40% or possibly a mass possibly present too. The signs of aforementioned benign asbestos disease, for example pleural plaques or pleural calcification, or scarring by reason of asbestosis possibly will also be distinguished by x-ray films.

COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) SCAN TECHNIQUE TO DIAGNOSE MESOTHELIOMA:
Pleural effusion is also characterized using CT scans. This method also defines pleural calcification, pleural thickening, thickening of interlobular fissures of the lung, or potential invasion of mesothelioma to the chest wall. On the other hand a CT scan is not useful in making a distinction amid and changes connected with benign asbestos disease (pleural disease) or to make a distinction between adenocarcinoma of the lung metastasized to the pleura in opposition to mesothelioma.

This CT scan procedure is very useful in leading in the direction of a fine needle aspiration of any pleural masses for tissue biopsy.

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Friday, August 28, 2009

Attributes of Malignant Tumors and Benign Tumors - Lesson 95



Tumors or neoplasms are masses or growths that arise from normal tissues. They may be either malignant (progressive and lethal) or benign (not lethal and not progressive). There are several differences between benign and malignant tumors.
Differences between a malignant tumors and benign tumors:  Benign tumors grow slowly. Malignant tumors grow rapidly as their ells are multiplied speedily. Benign tumors are often encapsulated that is contained within a fibrous capsule or cover. So that the tumor cells do not invade the surrounding tissue.

Malignant tumor growth is characteristically invasive and infiltrative extending beyond the tissue of origin into adjacent organs. Benign tumors are composed of highly organized and specialized that is differentiated cells, which closely resemble normal, mature tissue.

Malignant tumors are composed of cancerous cells that resemble primitive or embryonic cells that do not have the capacity for mature cellular functions. These types of malignant tumors are called anaplasia. Anaplasia means that the cancerous cells are differentiated that is lapsing to a less developed state in contrast to the normal differentiated tissue of their origin. Anaplastic cells lack an orderly arrangement. Instead, the tumor cells are found piled one on top of the other in a disorganized fashion.

Cells from benign tumors do not spread to form secondary tumor masses in other places in the body. Malignant tumors, however, can detach themselves from the primary or original tumor site travel through the bloodstream and lymphatic system and establish a new tumor site at a distant region within the body. This type of secondary growth is called metastasis.

In the next lesson we will see about MESOTHELIOMA RADIATION THERAPY TREATMENTS. Okay.

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Thursday, August 13, 2009

Signs and Symptoms of Mesothelioma-Lesson 92



SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF MESOTHELIOMA: The primary symptom of mesothelioma is shortness of breath. This happens due to the accumulation of fluids between the lung and the chest wall due to mesothelioma. Chest wall pain is also another symptom due to this condition, as well as weight loss. The disease condition can be confirmed by a chest X-ray with a CT scan. A lung biopsy taken from the tissue of the lung can confirm the diagnosis after the visual examination under the microscope. Mesothelioma mainly has an effect on the pleura the outer lining of the lung and can produce some signs and symptoms such as chest wall pain, pleural effusion or fluid surrounding the lung, shortness of breath due to the fluid accumulation between the lung and chest wall, weakness, anemia, short windedness, voice huskiness, or cough. Weight loss is also a symptom in the severe conditions of mesothelioma. Thrombophlebitis may also another symptom, in which case blood accumulates in the veins of the patient.

The cancer may spread to the other parts of the body too. In the severe conditions of metastasis to the abdominal cavity near to it may give abdominal pain. Gathering of serous fluids in the peritoneal cavity called ascites may also happen. It may create a bunch in the abdomen too.

The other symptoms of mesothelioma are blood in the sputum coughed up from the lungs called hemoptysis. In the brutal cases of mesothelioma numerous tumors occur in the lungs of these people and complimentary air or gas exists in the lungs and this made disintegration of the lung. Severe bleeding in several body organs known as disseminated intravascular coagulation is also an important symptoms of severe mesothelioma cancer. Jaundice or yellowing of the eyes and skin, low blood sugar level, pulmonary emboli or blood clots in the arteries of the lungs too happen in severe conditions. But as like in other cancers metastasis spread to the brain, bone or adrenal glands not happen in mesothelioma.

In the next post we will learn about signs and symptoms of mesothelioma. Okay.
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MESOTHELIOMA LUNG CANCER-LESSON 91



What is mesothelioma? Mesothelioma is a structural outline of cancer that is more or less for all time originated by contact to asbestos. In this ailment, malignant cells increase in the mesothelium (a solitary coating of cells contouring serous cavities form an cellular avascular layer), which is shielding nearly all of the body's inner organs. Outer lining of the lungs and internal chest wall called pleura is the usual place common of mesothelium. Mesothelium is also occur in the lining of the abdominal cavity called peritoneum, the sac like structure covering the heart called pericardium, and tunica vaginalis. Nearly all natives who build up mesothelioma have employed on professions where they breathe in asbestos atoms or these natives have been rendered to asbestos power and filaments in other ways. Asbestos exposure can also take place for one who washes the clothes of a family member who worked with asbestos may also put at risk for developing mesothelioma.

On the contrary to the lung cancer, there is no relationship amid mesothelioma and smoking. Other than smoking to the highest degree increases risk of other asbestos-provoked cancer. Malignant mesothelioma is an illness wherein a cancerous tumor develops on the mesothelium (the pouch lining the inner body cavities). An explicit variety of mesothelioma is given name for the tissue where the cancer started.

Pleural mesothelioma begins in the chest that is in the outer coating surrounding the lungs and the inner chest wall. It builds up about 65% of mesothelioma occurrences. Peritoneal mesothelioma originates in the outer layer of the abdominal cavity.

The other name for mesothelioma is asbestos lung cancer as asbestos is the main cause of this cancer. This cancer differs from lung cancer. Lung cancer occurs only in the inside of the lungs, but the mesothelioma occurs only in the outer covering of the lungs. The main cause of lung cancer is smoking, but the main cause of mesothelioma is the asbestos particles. Most people in the world are affected by lung cancer only, but mesothelioma is an uncommon type comparing lung cancer.

In the next lesson we will see about the signs and symptoms of mesothelioma. Okay.

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WHAT IS CANCER?-LESSON 90


In the coming lessons we will learn about cancer. WHAT DOES CANCER MEAN? Every single livelihood for instance microorganisms, creepy-crawly insects, animals, and human beings are constructed of abundant cells. Human body itself is constructed of millions of cells that are particularly modified to accomplish specific roles for example sex cells, sperms, and egg (these cells perform the role of reproduction). What is a cell?
The cell is the basic unit of all living things or organisms, which can duplicate itself exactly. A tissues is a gathering or one type of cells of same kind for instance nervous tissue, muscular tissue, connective tissue, etc, A collection of same kind of tissues form an organ, such a heart, lungs, liver, etc. In other words, an organ is a part of the body, composed of more than one tissue.

As the human body grows from babyhood to parenthood, the cells belonging to different tissues and organs break up and subdivide in anticipation of more increase of the cells is required with the exception of the normal metabolism of the body. Usually the speed at which an organ should grow and when it should stop growing is controlled by the body itself only.

Cancer originates from the anomalous and uncontrolled division of cells, known as cancer cells, that then invade and destroy the surrounding tissues. Cancer cells, in other words, refuse to stop multiplying and continue to increase in number. It is the failure to stop multiplying which is the hallmark of cancer. This they do even at the cost of other normal cells of the body which are starved to death for lack of nutrition.

Cancer cells are different from normal cells in some aspects. They do not remain confined to one part of the body. They penetrate and infiltrate into the adjoining tissues and dislocate their function. Some of the cancer cells get detached from the main mass or site of origin and travel by blood and lymph channels to sites distant from the original tumor and form flesh colonies, known as metastasis or secondary growths, in other organs where grow at the cost of the normal cells. This is how they destroy the well-regulated functioning of the body and bring about its end.

A cancer may be slow-growing or fast-growing. The rate at which a cancer grows depends on the tissue in which it occurs and also on the inherent character of the type of cancer. Rapidly-growing cancers are those which send metastasis in other organs, are much more dangerous. Sometimes, the primary cancer in first stage of development grows slowly, as for example, that of the stomach and remains unnoticed, while the secondaries spread rapidly in the liver, abdominal lymph glands etc. These secondary cancers are first noticed.

In the next lesson we will learn about Mesothelioma. Okay.

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Sunday, August 9, 2009

URINARY SYSTEM INFORMATION- ABBREVIATIONS-LESSON 89


In this post, we will learn about the important urinary system abbreviations. As a medical transcription learner, you should all be familiar with these abbreviations, as physicians often use these words while they dictate live files in companies when you involve in medical transcription job online live. So be careful to study these words and their meanings and also familiarize with them.

1. ARF-Acute Renal Failure

2. ADH-Antidiuretic Hormone (also known as vasopressor)

3. BUN-Blood Urea Nitrogen

4. CAPD-Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

5. Cath.,-catheterization

6. Cl-chloride

7. CRF-Chronic Renal Failure

8. Cysto-Cystoscopic examination

9. ESRD-End-stage Renal Failure

10. ESWL-Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

11. HCO3-Bicarbonate (an electrolyte)

12. HD-Hemodialysis

13. IVP-Intravenous Pyelogram

14. K+-Potassium (an electrolyte)

15. KUB-Kidney Ureter and Bladder

16. Na+-Sodium (an electrolyte)

17. pH-Symbol of value or urine acidity or alkalinity

18. PKU-Phenyketonuria

19. UTI-Urinary Tract Infection

20. VCUG-Voiding Cystourethrogram

This lesson concludes urinary system. Next lesson starts the new chapter CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM. OK.

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URINARY SYSTEM INFORMATION- CLINICAL COURSES-2-LESSON 88



MRI or magnetic resonance imaging: The images of the retroperitoneal and pelvic regions of a patient is taken by lying the patient in a cylindrical MRI appliance. Protons are the kind of images taken by this machine when the internal organs moving. The images can be taken in all the three planes of the body such as sagittal, transverse, and frontal. 9. Ultrasonography: Sound waves are used to find the abnormalities in the kidneys such as tumors, size of the kidneys, hydronephrosis, polycystic kidneys or any obstructions can be found out using this. 10. Dialysis: Waste materials are filtered out using a machine when the kidney are no more working. Dialysis are of two types. They are of Hemodialysis and Peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis is a filtering of the patient's blood by sending the waste material filled blood into a dialysis machine and filtered out and then the blood is send back to the patient's body. Peritoneal dialysis is done by using a peritoneal catheter by introducing a fluid into the peritoneal cavity. The wastes are then passed into the fluid. The fluid is then removed by the catheter tube. Intermittent Peritoneal Dialysis or IPD is done by the patient him or herself continuously using an artificial support. This method is also called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis or CAPD.

Cystoscopy: This is the visual examination of the urinary bladder using an instrument called cystoscope. The bladder mucosa is examined by inserting a empty tube into the bladder via urethra and a light source, lenses, mirrors are used to do this procedure. A wide-angle view of the bladder is obtained using a method called panendoscope.

ESWL or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: Kidney stones are mashed using this method by passing shock waves and the stones are crushed into a little fragments. The shock waves are passed into the body from the outside of the body i.e. extracorporeally.

Renal transplantation: When both kidneys of a patient is failed then a kidney from another person can be transplanted to that patient. This transplanted kidney can be obtained from an identical twin of that patient and this is called isograft. If the kidney is obtained from other persons that is called allograft.

Renal biopsy: Live tissue from the kidney is taken out using a needle via the skin after the patient was given anesthesia. This biopsy sample of the kidney is used for microscopic visual examination of the cells. This test is done by a pathologist. Fluoroscopy or ultrasonography equipment is attached to the biopsy needle and inserted via the skin to the kidney.

In the next lesson we will see about important urinary system abbreviations. OK.

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URINARY SYSTEM INFORMATION- CLINICAL COURSES-LESSON 87


1. CT scan: This is a visual examination to find out cysts, hydronephrosis, tumors, or any abscesses in the kidneys. This can be done with a contrast material injected into the kidney or without any contrast material.
2. KUB or kidney, ureter, and bladder: This is an x-ray study done to measure the size of the kidneys and also to find out the exact position setting of the kidneys in relation to other organs in the abdominopelvic regions. 3. IVP or intravenous pyelogram: Another name of this test is excretory urogram or IVP tomography. This test is done to find out the tumors, infections, cysts, renal stones, or hydronephrosis in the kidneys. This visual examination is done by injecting a contrast material in a vein that goes directly to any kidney. The contrast material then filtered out in the urine by the kidney. Films are taken following the travelling of the contrast material through the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra and the abnormalities are found out.

4. Retrograde pyelogram: This test is used to find out the occurrence of renal stones or any barriers. A contrast material injected in to the ureters and bladder using a cystoscope. Intravenous dye material is used in this test to find out poor renal functions. If the patient is sensitive to intravenous contrast in IVP test retrograde pyelogram is used as an alternative.

5. Retrograde angiography: This test is used to visually examine the vascular system (blood vessels) of the kidneys. By this test kidney tumors are diagnosed.

6. Voiding cystourethrogram: This is an x-ray examination of the bladder and urethra while the patient is voiding urine. In this test bladder is filled with contrast material to diagnose the abnormalities.

7. Radioisotope tests: The size and function of the kidneys are tested in this test by using an radioactive isotope into the bloodstream and pictures are taken.

Next lesson is the continuation of the urinary system lab tests. OK.

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URINARY SYSTEM INFORMATION- LAB TESTS-LESSON 86


There are two type blood lab tests to analyze the kidney function. They are of BUN or blood urea nitrogen and creatinine clearance test. We will see one by one now. 1. BUN or blood urea nitrogen: BUN determines the total urea content in the blood. If the kidneys fails to excrete urea from blood due to any disease conditions, then urea accumulates in the blood and so uremia occurs. This is a serious condition. One may even attain coma or even die. In normal conditions the urea level in the blood is low due to be excreted by the kidneys. 2. Creatinine clearance test: The efficiency of the kidneys of how they eliminate creatinine from the blood is proved by this test. This test is done by draw a sample of blood and its creatinine level is measured. Then urine samples collected for the 24-hour period and its creatinine levels are measured. The blood creatinine level will be high if kidneys are not functioning well.

In the next lesson we will learn about urological clinical course. Okay.

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In the next lesson we will learn about urinary system clinical courses. Okay.

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URINARY SYSTEM INFORMATION- DISEASE CONDITION-3-LESSON 86



This lesson is the continuation of the lesson 84. 10. Nephrosclerosis: This is an abnormal condition of thickening of arteriole walls of the kidney. 11. Wilm's tumor: Babyhood malignant tumor of the kidneys. Chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation are the treatments for this tumour. It should be treated before its spread otherwise cannot be cured.

Bladder cancer: This cancer is common in industry worker and in tobacco users. The occurrence of this cancer is in general in men who are above 50 years old. The symptoms of bladder cancer are increased urinary frequency, dysuria, and hematuria. Biopsy of the urinary bladder and cystoscopy are the visual examinations of this cancer. Electrocauterization is the method to remove external tumors, but if the tumor is deep and then invasive methods such as cystectomy, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy are the other options of treatment.

Diabetes mellitus: This is condition happened outside the kidneys but related to kidneys. In diabetes mellitus less insulin is secreted. Without insulin body cells cannot use glucose for energy and converted. Unused sugars remain in blood and so more sugars accumulated in the blood makes the condition called hyperglycemia and so excreted more in urine. Kidneys cannot reabsorb the sugars through the renal tubules. Mellitus means sweet. In this condition urine is sweet due to more sugar in urine.

Diabetes insipidus: In this condition water is not reabsorbed from the blood by the renal tubules due to the too little secretion or confrontation of the kidney to the combat of ADH or antidiuretic hormone. The symptoms of this condition are polyuria (excessive urination) and polydipsia (excessive thirst). Urine is more watery in this condition due to the inability of the kidneys to hold up water content.

In the next lesson we will learn about urinary system lab tests. OK.

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Monday, August 3, 2009

URINARY SYSTEM INFORMATION AND CONDITIONS-LESSON 84


This lesson is the continuation of urinary system disease conditions. 5. Polycystic kidneys: There are manifold liquefied pouches or cysts formed inside the kidneys. This is a genetic condition that typically stays behind asymptomatic or no symptom revealed until one's adult life. The symptoms in the adult life reveals this condition are enlargement of the kidneys (nephromegaly), hematuria (blood in the urine), UTI (urinary tract infection), uremia, and hypertension. 6. Pyelonephritis: This is a disease condition caused by a bacteria due to the inflammation of the renal pelvis in the kidneys. Pus is collected in the renal pelvis as tiny abscesses. The symptom of this disease is pyuria that is excretion of pus in the urine. Surgical repair is needed to remove the obstructions and antibiotics are the treatment options for this disease condition.

7. Kidney failure or renal failure: In this disease condition kidneys fail to send out urine. Nitrogenous wastes and some acids are formed in our body from the diet and body metabolism functions. These are to be excreted through the kidneys periodically. But when the kidneys failed they stop this function of sending out nitrogenous wastes and acids from the body. This condition may be for short period or for a long term or progressive in nature or may be mild one or may be a severe one. If it is severe it called ESRD or end-stage renal disease. It should be treated otherwise it is deadly. Erythropoietin is used to treat this condition.

8. Renal cell carcinoma: Cancerous growth of the kidney in middle age. Hematuria is the main symptom of this disease condition. This cancer may spread to the lungs and bones. Nephrectomy is the treatment option.

9. Renal hypertension: Hypertension (high blood pressure) caused by kidney disease. Renal hypertension is of two types such as Secondary hypertension and essential hypertension. Secondary hypertension is of an ordinary type caused due to renal artery stenosis or glomerulonephritis. Essential hypertension is one the cause of which is unknown. In this condition renal arteriole walls turn out to be thickened or narrowed.

Next lesson is the continuation of the urinary system disease conditions. OK.

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URINARY SYSTEM INFORMATION- DISEASE CONDITIONS-LESSON 83


1. Bright's Disease or Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the kidneys. This is of two types such as, acute glomerulonephritis and chronic glomerulonephritis. When bacteria named Streptococcus infect kidneys, the symptoms will appear after 10 to 15 days. This will cure spontaneously. But if it persists for a longtime that is called chronic glomerulonephritis. This is a serious pathological condition. Symptoms of chronic disease are high blood pressure, albuminuria, kidney failure, and uremia. In more serious conditions kidney transplant and dialysis are needed.

2. Interstitial Nephritis: Renal tubules in the kidneys are connected by connective tissues called renal interstitium. When these tissues are infected that condition is called interstitial nephritis. Symptoms of this condition are fever, eosinophilia, skin rash, and poor kidney function. Corticosteroids are the anti-inflammatory drugs useful to cure this disease.

3. Nephrotic syndrome: Syndrome is a group of symptoms. Nephrotic syndrome is a combination of renal symptoms due to extreme passing away of protein in the urine. This condition is also called nephrosis. Symptoms of this condition are proteinuria, tissue swelling or edema, hypoalbuminuria, and exposure to more infections. Diabetes mellitus and glomerulonephritis and toxins in the blood are following this condition.

4. Renal stones or nephrolithiasis: Abnormal condition of formation of stones (calcium salts and uric acid) in the kidneys. The etiology of this is unknown. Calcium is accumulated in the kidneys when the parathyroid glands get any tumor and so not work efficiently. Renal stones may form in the conditions of accumulation of more uric acid in the kidney too. The gatehouse of these renal stones are may be ureters, bladder, or renal pelvis. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is the procedure used to break these stones and take away these stones.

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URINARY SYSTEM INFORMATION- URINALYSIS-2-LESSON 82


This lesson continues the prior lesson Urinalysis.6. Pus: Presence of pus in the urine is called pyuria. The urine is turbid or gloomy in color. This condition is due to the presence of more white blood cells in the urine. White blood cells are called leukocytes. Bacterial infection of the kidney or urinary bladder is the reason for this condition. 7. Glucose: Renal tubules in the kidney are unable to reabsorb the sugars from the urine and so more sugars excreted. This condition is called glycosuria. When the sugar is more in the blood this condition is called hyperglycemia. Glycosuria is a symptom of diabetes mellitus.8. Sediment: Urine is residuous or sedimentuous when it contains the red blood cells, white blood cells, epithelial cells, bacteria, and crystals. The presence of these materials in the urine is a disease condition.

Specific Gravity: This is a test of urine density. This density is compared with water density and the difference says the nature of the urine. Nephritis is a condition in which the reabsorption capacity of kidneys are less and so urine is more watery and specific gravity is less. Normally specific gravity is high in the sugar patients due to the presence of sugar more in it. 10. Ketone Bodies: Due to the fat catabolism ketones are created in the blood. Ketones are also called acetones. Fat is used to get energy in abnormal conditions such as diabetes mellitus energy is created by burning fat stored in the body other than sugar, and so ketones are formed. So more ketones are excreted in the urine. This condition is called ketonuria.

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URINARY SYSTEM INFORMATION- URINALYSIS-1-LESSON 81

In the next lesson we will learn about Urinalysis.
Urinalysis is an examination to ascertain the occurrence of any abnormal chemical substances in the urine.
There are 10 types of tests are there for the urine to determine it is contaminated or infected. They are of as following:

1. Color
2. Bilirubin
3. pH
4. Phenylketonuria (PKU)
5. Protein
6. Pus or Pyruia
7. Glucose
8. Sediments
9. Glucose
10. Ketone bodies

Now we will see about one by one in details.

1. Color: Straw color or Amber color is the normal color of the urine. If urine contains more water then it will be colorless or wishy-washy in appearance. Abnormal urine would be of cloudy in color or may be red in color with blood. Some food or drugs we intake may change sometimes the color of the urine too that is not a consideration or abnormality.

2. Bilirubin: Bilirubin is a substance created when hemoglobin is broken down in the blood. This material may be excreted in the urine may be a symptom of gallbladder disease or liver disease. The liver is the organ in our body removes the bilirubin from the blood when blood hemoglobin broken down. So more bilirubin are accumulated in the blood. This condition is called hyperbilirubinemia. Due to this condition, more bilirubin is filtered out by the kidney from the blood and excreted more in urine. This condition of urine is called bilirubinemia.

3. pH: This test indicates whether urine is acid in nature or basic or alkaline in nature. pH is a number, which is from 0 to 14. By the number value of the urine we can whether the urine acid in nature or alkaline. If the pH value is 0 then we can say urine is more acid. If the value is 14 then we can say urine is more alkaline in nature. Normal pH value is 6.5. Urine is slightly acidic in nature normally. If urinary tract is infected by bacteria pH value will increase and urine becomes alkaline. Nitrogen is broken down more by the bacteria to create ammonia. More ammonia content makes urine more alkaline.

4. Phenylketonuria or PKU: In our body one kind of amino acid named phenylalanine must be converted into tyrosine another amino acid. To do this conversion an important hormone called phenylalanine hydroxylase is essential. When this hormone is less phenylalanine will accumulate in the blood. This condition leads to mental retardation in infants. These are ketone bodies. PKU test is an important test in infants. To prevent this affected infant must be given a low-protein diet to leave out the excess phenylalanine in the blood.

5. Protein: Normally a very less amount of protein is excreted in the urine. Due to the reason of glomerular leakage in the kidney the filtered protein are excreted more in urine. The name of that protein is albumin. This condition is called albuminuria. This condition is confirmed by a positive protein test of the urine.

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The Longest Medical Word

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