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Wednesday, December 16, 2009


Ultrasound: High-frequency impossible to hear muffled sound waves are sent and these waves are bounced off by body tissues. The movement of sound waves are recorded to give the information about the structure of the inside organs. The good transmission of waves is ensured by placing an instrument near the skin and by smother the skin surface by an oily substance. Oil substance probably a mineral oil is put for the diffusion of sound waves properly.
The ultrasound instrument produces dumpy sound waves in cyclic beats. Each wave is in different speed of motion and invades through the tissues inside the body and becomes aware of boundaries amid tissues of diverse compactness. These waves are passed back to the ultrasound monitor and recorded. This record is called echogram or sonogram.
This instrument is used not only by radiologists, but also by ophthalmologists to detect intracranial and ophthalmic lesions. Cardiologists also use this instrument to identify blood valve and heart valve ailments. This is called echocardiogram.
Gastroenterologists use this equipment to track down of any abdominal masses in the GI tract.
Gynecologists and obstetricians use this equipment to make a distinction between whether there is a single child or more than one in the uterus.
Obstetricians perform amniocentesis to track down tumors or cysts if any in the uterus. Measurement of fetal size and age of the fetus can also be calculated using ultrasound wave technique.
Comparing iodine contrast study and other studies ultrasound is very safe and has side effects as the sound waves used in this method are nonionizing. Passing these waves inside the body will not damage the internal organs or any tissues.
In the next post we will study about Different views of x-ray positions. Okay.
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In order to take the best possible view of the part of the body being radiographed, the patient, film, and x-ray tube must be positioned in the most favorable alignment possible. There are special terms used by radiologists to designate the position for direction of the x-ray beam, the patient's position, and the motion and position of the part of the body to be examined. Some of the important x-rays terms are as follows:
AP view or anteroposterior view: In this view the patient is usually supine i.e. lying on the back and the x-ray tube is aimed from above at the frontal side of the body and the beam is passed from the anterior to posterior. The film lies underneath the patient. The AP view may also be taken with the patient in the upright position.

PA view or posteroanterior view: In this view, the patient is upright with back to the x-ray machine and the film to the chest. The x-ray machine is aimed horizontally at a distance of about 6-feet from the film.
Lateral view: In this view, the x-ray beam passes from one side of the body toward the opposite side. In taking a right lateral view, the right side of the body is held closely against the x-ray film and the x-ray beam passes from the left to the right through the body.
Oblique view: In this view, the x-ray tube is positioned at an angle from the perpendicular plane. Oblique views are used to show regions that would be hidden and superimposed in routine AP and PA views.

1. Abduction: Moving the part of the body away from the midline of the body or away from the body.
2. Adduction: Moving the part of the body toward the midline of the body or toward the body.
3. Eversion: Turning outward.
4. Extension: Lengthening or straightening a flexed limb.
5. Flexion: Bending a part of the body.
6. Inversion: Turning inward
7. Lateral decubitus: Lying down on the side with x-ray beam horizontally positioned. Another term for this is cross-table lateral.
8. Prone: Lying on the belly i.e. face down.
9. Recumbent: Lying down i.e. prone or supine.
10. Supine: Lying on the back i.e. face up.
In the next lesson we will study about Nuclear Medicine. Okay.
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1. Adjuvant therapy: Assisting primary treatment. Drugs are given early in the course of treatment along with surgery or radiation to attack cancer cells that may be too small to be detected by diagnostic techniques.
2. Alkylating agents: Synthetic chemicals containing alkyl groups that interfere with DNA synthesis.
3. Anaplasia: Loss of differentiation of cells. Reversion to a more primitive cell type.
4. Antibiotics: Chemical substances produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of cells used in cancer chemotherapy.
5. Antimetabolites: Chemicals that prevent cell division by inhibiting the formation of substances necessary to make DNA and used in cancer chemotherapy.
6. Apoptesis: Programmed cell death. Apo- means off, away, and -ptosis means to fall. Normal cells undergo apoptesis when they are damaged or aging. Some cancer cells have lost the ability to undergo apoptesis and live forever.
7. Benign: Noncancerous.
6. Biological response modifiers: Substances produced by normal cells that either directly block tumor growth or stimulate the immune system.
7. Biological therapy: Use of the body's own defense mechanism to fight tumor cells.
8. Carcinogens: Agents that cause cancer. Chemicals and drugs, radiation, and viruses.
9. Cellular oncogens: Pieces or DNA hat when broken or dislocated can cause a normal cell to become malignant.
10. Chemotherapy: Treatment with drugs
11. Combination chemotherapy: Use of several therapeutic agents together in the treatment of tumors.
12. Dedifferentiation: Loss of differentiation of cells. Reversion to a more primitive, embryonic cell type anaplasia.
13. DNA or deoxyribinucleic acid: Genetic material within the nucleus of a cell that controls cell division and protein synthesis.
14. Differentiation: Specialization of cells.
In the next post we will see the continuation of this post. Okay.
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BIOLOGICAL THERAPY TO CURE CANCER:  An additional fresh line of attack to cancer management is the employment of the body's individual resistance systems to scrap tumor cells. Researchers see the sights how the ingredients of the immune system can be brought back, developed, imitated, and influenced to annihilate cancer cells within the body. Chemical materials brought into being by standard cells that moreover in a straight line wedge tumor development before kindle the immune system and additional body barricades are called genetic reaction modifiers. The instances of these materials are interferon prepared by lymphocytes, monoclonal antibodies created by mouse cells, and proficiency of strapping to human tumors, colony-stimulating factors or CSFs so as to accelerate blood-forming cells and turn around the upshots of chemotherapy, and interleukins with the intentions of stimulating the immune system to annihilate tumors.
Now we will sort out chemotherapeutic and biological events one by one.

1. BCNU or carmustine
2. Cisplatin and carboplatin
3. Cyclophosphamide or Cytoxan
4. Melphalan or Alkeran
5. Nitrogen mustard
6. Chlorambucil
1. Actinomycin D
2. Bleomycin sulfate
3. Daunorubicin hydrochloride
4. Doxorubicin hydrochloride or Adriamycin
5. Idarubicin
6. Mitomycin C
1. Cystosine arabinoside or ara-C
2. 5-fluorouracil or 5-FU
3. Methotrexate or MTX
4. 6-thioguanine or 6-TG
5. Fludarabine
6. Pentostatin
The next post describes the continuation of BIOLOGICAL CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS. Okay.
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CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS:  The subsequent list categorizes all cancer chemotherapeutic agents:
1. Plant byproducts: These chemical substances are drawn from plants. These chemical materials are used recurrently in mixture as a supplement to other chemotherapeutic agents. The offshoot effects take account of myelosuppression, alopecia, and smash up of nerves.

2. Antimetabolites: These drugs slow down the amalgamation of drugs so as to the essential part of DNA or possibly will unswervingly hunk the copying DNA. The offshoot consequences of antimetabolites are myelosuppression with leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and bleeding. The other side effects are toxicity to the oral and digestive tract, as well as stomatitis called sore mouth, nausea, and vomiting.

3. Alkylating agents: These are artificial amalgams be full of two or more element groups names alkyl groups. The chemical substances get in the way by means of the development of DNA fusion next to putting together to DNA molecules. Venomous side effects take account of nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, bone marrow depression or myelosuppression, and alopecia or hair loss. These are widespread impacts for the reason that the cells in the gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow and scalp are hurriedly dividing cell, which is having for the above ground growth division that by the side of tumor cells are predisposed to the toxic consequences of chemotherapeutic drugs. The side effects fade away subsequent to treatment is on the edge.

4. Steroids: These are a course group of substances prepared in the body, and these chemical substances contain imperative consequences on duplication of sex cells during reproduction process, energy manufacture, and aging process, the instances for these kind are estrogens and androgen. These hormones bring bear to their encounter by means of putting together to receptor proteins in objective tissues. The development of a number of tumors for example breast and prostate is over and over again reliant lying on steroid hormones. A number of breast cancers encompass estrogen receptors or ER and will act in response on the way to the elimination of estrogen through oophorectomy otherwise the utilization of antiestrogen drugs such as tamoxifen. Those drugs break apart estrogenic end products. Fluid withholding, masculinization or feminization, nausea, and vomiting are selected feasible impacts of different steroids.

5. Antibiotics: These drugs are fashioned by bacteria or fungi. A lot of these chemical substances medication their duty by strapping to DNA and RNA inside the cell as a result nip in the budding of standard reproduction of cells. Poisonous upshots on or after their application take account of alopecia or hair loss, stomatitis, myelosuppression, and gastrointestinal turmoils.

In the next lesson we will see about Biological Therapy to cure cancer. Okay.
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To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.