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Tuesday, March 27, 2012

Important Endocrine Terms - Lesson 311

We are seeing about important endocrine terms in the last few posts. This chapter is a long one. We have seen about glucagon, insulin, FSH, estradiol, estrogen, calcitonin, and cortisol in the prior lesson. In this lesson we are going to see explanations about luteinizing hormone (LH), melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), progesterone, parathormone (PTH), oxytocin and norepinephrine.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH): This hormone is produced by the anterior pituitary gland portion named as adenohypophysis. Luteinizing hormone or LH induces the formation of ovum or egg in female reproductive system. In male LH stimulates the creation of an important hormone named as testosterone.

Melanocyte-stimulating Hormone (MSH): MSH induces the color cell formation on the skin. Melanocyte-stimulating hormones is formed on the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The another name of anterior pituitary gland is adenohypophysis.

Progesterone: This important hormone is produced by ovaries. Progesterone helps to make ready the uterus before pregnancy and while prognancy.

Parathormone (PTH): PTH is formed in the parathyroid gland in the neck. The another name of parathormone is parathyroid hormone. The main function of parathormone is to increase in blood calcium level in the blood.

Oxytocin: It is one of the important endocrine terms. This important hormone is formed on the backside portion of the pituitary gland in the brain. This posterior portion of the pituitary gland is called as neurohypophysis. The important function of oxytocin is to induce the shrinking and extension of the uterus during labor pain and childbirth.

Norepinephrine: This hormone is produced by the outer covering of adrenal gland named as adrenal medulla. The another name of norepinephrine is noradrenaline. Norepinephrine helps in the sympathomimetic action of the nervous system in human. This hormone also helps to increase the heart rate and pressure in the blood.

We have seen important endocrine terms yet. In the next lesson, we will see about other important endocrine terms, such as, thyroid-stimulating hormone, somatotropin, testosterone, prolactin, and thyroxine. Okay. Come on.

Endocrine System

Saturday, March 24, 2012

Endocrine Medical Terms - Lesson 310

In this article, we are going to see about endocrine medical terms. Endocrinology is an important medical speciality. Many women suffer from hormone deficits and so suffer from many sexual and appearance problems. Late menstruation, irregular menstrual cycles, abnormal hair growth, bone thinness etc. Proper timely treatment and medications will solve these problems, but many women have no idea of what kind of treatment to be done. As a medical transcription online trainee, you should know about endocrinology terms. In this lesson, we will see about insulin, glucagon, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen, estradiol, calcitonin, cortisol, and epineprhine. 

Glucagon: This is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas, especially by the cells of the Islet of langerhans. The main duty of glucagon is to increase blood sugar by converting glycogen into 
glucose.

Insulin: This very very important hormone is produced by the same pancreas, especially by the Islet of langerhans. Insulin lessents blood sugar and converting glucose into glycogen. Insuling works opposite 
to glucagon.

Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH): This important hormone is secreted by pituitary gland in the anterior part. The anterior part of pituitary gland is called as adenohypophysis. The short form of follicle-stimulating hormone is FSH. It induces secretion of hormones and also stimulates production of egg by the ovaries. FSH also stimulates the production of sperm cells by the testes.

Estradiol: This is a female hormone. Estrogen is secreted by the ovaries.

Estrogen: This is also a female hormone. Estrogen is secreted by the ovaries. Estrogen is also secreted by the adrenal corted in a smaller portions.

Calcitonin: This hormone is produced by the thyroid gland. The main function of calcitonin is to lessen calcium levels in the blood. The another name of calcitonin is thyrocalcitonin.

Cortisol: This hormone is produced by the adrenal cortex, the outer layer of adrenal glands. The main function of cortisol is to increase the levels of sugar in the blood.

We have seen about endocrine medical terms. The next lesson also is the continutation of endocrine terms, such as, growth hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), norepinephrine, oxytocin, progesterone, parathormone (PTH), and prolactin. Okay. Come on.

Endocrine System Information

Prior Lesson

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Thursday, March 22, 2012

Endocrine Terms - Lesson 309

In the endocrine terms information for free medical transcription course, the learners today are going to learn about some other important endocrine terms. Today we are going to deal about thyroid gland, adrenaline hormone, aldosterone, androgen, ACTH, and anti-diuretic hormone. Free medical transcription learners should study these words and remember them. Using a medical dictionary installed and refer it always in your computer is a good habit to learn the meanings of these words. Referring and keeping the meanings in mind is very essential in our learning process. Whenever you involve in doing training files or live files this habit of reference will add more pace to your profession.

Thyroid Gland: This gland is situated in the neck. Thyroid is the biggest gland in the human body. It is present below the thyroid cartilage. There are two thyroid glands on each side of the Adam's apple bone. The joining area of two lobes of thyroid gland is called as isthmus, which is present below the cricoid cartilage. The energy or stamina is created by consuming food materials. Thyroid gland determines how quickly this energy should be used by the body to form proteins and makes the body sensible to hormones.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH): In the lesson of endocrine terms, we will see about ACTH. Corticotropin is the other name of ACTH. It is a polypeptide kind of tropic hormone. Corticotropin is produced by anterior pituitary gland in the brain. This hormone helps in secreting and discharge of corticosteroids, named cortisol from the outer covering of the adrenal glands named as adrenal cortex.

Adrenaline Hormone: The other name of adrenaline hormone is epinephrine. Epinephrine is a neurotransmitter. It helps to stimumate heart rate and pulse rate of blood vessels. Adrenaline also dilates air passages and helps to function the sympathetic nervous system. Epinephrine is one of the catecholamines.

Aldosterone: This is produced by the outer cover of the adrenal glands called adrenal cortex. Aldosterone hormone is yellow in color. This functions mainly on the nephron in the kidneys. It helps to

increase liquid retention in our body and also helping in increasing blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive tablets functions opposite to the aldosterone.

Antidiuretic Hormone: The other name of ADH is vasopressin. This hormone helps to enhance absorption of water by the nephrons in the kidneys. This is also a peptide kind of hormone. ADH helps ot increase blood pressure in the arteries. Body's homeostasis is acheived by this hormone by regulating glucose, essential salts, and water in the body. It is believed that human behaves like a social animal only because of the influence of this hormone.

We have studied about endocrine terms. In the next lesson, we will learn about other important endocrine medical terms, such as, androgen, calcitonin, estradiol, estrogen, and FSH. Okay. Come On. 


Tuesday, March 20, 2012

Important Endocrine Terms - Lesson 308

We will study bout important endocrine terms now. We will deal with a list of words that are related to endocrine system. Small definitions of each term should be understood well by medical transcription course learners. You will hear these words often while you do tests and do online files of medical transcription. Today we will see words about endocrine system in alphabetical order. Today we are going to see about adrenal medulla, adrenal cortex, ovaries, testes, pancreas, parathyroid glands, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland.

Adrenal Medulla: This is a part of one of adrenal gland. It is situated at the middle of the adrenal gland. Adrenal gland is covered by adrenal cortex. The innermost covering of the adrenal gland is adrenal medulla. Important hormones that are secreted by adrenal medulla are  adrenaline or epinephrine, noradrenaline or norepinephrine, and dopamine.

Adrenal Cortex: This is the outermost layer of adrenal gland. It covers the outer area of adrenal gland. This outer covering secretes important hormones like mineralaocorticoids, glucocorticoids, cortisol, and aldosterone. The male hormone named androgen is synthsized in this layer.

Ovaries: It is the sexual gland, which produces egg. Ovary is found in pairs in female reproductive system. It is situated in the side wall of the pelvis in the ovarian fossa. The hormones secreted by ovaries are estrogen and progesterone. These hormones decide the secondary sexual characteristic features in women.

Testes: These are the male sexual gland that are homologous to the ovaries. Sperm is produced by testes by a process called spermatogenesis. The hormones secreted by testes are androgen and testosterone. These hormones decide the secondary sexual characteristic features in men.

Pancreas: Pancreas is one of the gland in the human body. This is situated in the digestive system in human. Pancreas is not only function as a digestive organ, but also an endocrine gland. Pancreas secretes pancreatic juice. Pancreas is present behind the stomach. Islets of Langerhans produce hormones from the pancreas.

Parathyroid Glands: These are two small-sized endocrine glands that are present on both sides of thyroid glands in the neck area. Parathyroid hormones produce parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid glands are four in number. The level of calcium in the blood and bones are controlled by these glands.

Pituitary Gland: The other name of pituitary gland is hypophysis. This gland is in the size of a pea. Pituitary gland is present beneath the hypothalamus. It is present at the base of the brain. Anterior pituitary is called adenohypophysis and posterior pituitary is known as neurohypophysis.

In the next lesson, we will see about thyroid gland, adrenaline hormone, androgen, aldosterone, and calcitonin. Okay. Come on.




Saturday, March 17, 2012

Reproductive System Hormones - Lesson 307

We will study about reproductive system hormones now. In this article, we will see about female and male reproductive systems, hormones secreted by them, and their functions in human body. Female reproductive system consists of ovaries. Ovaries are two small, about 1.5-inch sized glands situated in the lower part of the abdomen in female. The other important parts of female reproductive system are vagina, cervix, uterus and fallopiant tubes. These are inner reproductive parts. The other parts are in the outer side are labia, clitoris and urethra. Whenver a male has intercourse with a female sperm is discharged into the vagina. The sperm is then deposited at the end of the vagina near the tightly-closed mouth of the cervix. Cervix is the narrow head portion of the uterus.

Anatomy of Female Reproductive System: The outer area of the female reproductive organ is labia muscles. Labia are of two types, such as labia minora and labia majora. Labia majora is the bigger outer muscle of the vagina with hairs. Labia minora is the smaller hairless muscle concealed inside the labia majora. Both labia majora and labia minora are lip-like structures and they are made up of adipose tissue. Clitoris is a small button-like structure. This is an important sexual organ in female. It is situated adjacent to the upper junction of the labia minora. Clitoris is present above the urinary opening called as urethra and the reproductive opening called as vagina. Vagina is a fibromuscular tube. Sexual intercourse and birth of a child happens here only. Vaginal canal leads to the cervix. Cervix is attached with uterus. Uterus is attached with fallopian tubes. Two fallopian tubes on both sides of the cervix attached to ovaries. Ovaries produce eggs. Eggs travel via fallopian tubes to enter into the uterus. Where the sperm cell unite with the egg to form a gamete. Two glands are present on the backside of the left and right side of the vagina called as Bartholin's glands. Sexual lubricants are secreted by these glands on arousal and also produce mucus.

Female Reproductive System Hormones: Ovaries are the important female reproductive organ, which secretes two important hormones to perform normal body functions during menstrual cycle and childbirth.  The two important hormones are estradiol or estrogen and progesterone. 

Function of Estradiol: The hormone estradiol or estrogen is useful for the growth and management of secondary sexual characteristics, for example, hair growth and breast growth in female.
Function of Progesterone: The other hormone progesterone is useful for the management and preparation of the uterus during pregnancy.

Male Reproductive System Anatomy: There are a series of organs that form male reproductive system that are present around the pelvic area of male. Penis, testes, prostate glands and Cowper's glands are 

the importnat parts of the male reproductive system. Penis can be enlarged or shrink at times on arousal. Urine is excreted via the penis. Testes is the important glands that are small in structure. Testes are surrounded by scrotal sac. Spermatic cord attaches to it.

Function of Testes: Testes create male gametes, known as spermatozoa. Testes also secrete testosterone. Testosterone is a male steroid hormone type. The other name is androgen. Androgen is responsible for secondary male characteristics, such as, voice difference, hair growth in the face and body, big shoulders etc.




Monday, March 12, 2012

Endocrine Glands List - Lesson 306

We will now see main endocrine glands list now. There are 9 important endocine glands in our body. They secrete different types of hormones. Each homones does its unique function inside our body. These hormones directly mix with blood from the glands of its production and so they are named as endocrine glands. Our body also has a system of exocrine glands, such as sweat glands. Exocrine glands have its own ducts to contact with bloodstream. The important endocrine glands are thyroid glands in the neck, parathyroids glands on both sides of thyroid glands, adrenal cortex and medulla in the kidneys, pancreas in the liver, pituitary gland in the brain,  ovaries in female reproductive system, and testes in male reproductive system.

Thyroid and Parathyroid Hormones: Thyroid gland secretes two important hormones, such as, thyroxin and triiodothyroxine. These two hormones help to increase body metabolism in body cells. Another one important hormone secreted by thyroid glands is calcitonin. This hormone helps to lower blood calcium levels in blood. Parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone, This hormone helps to increase blood calcium. Calcitonin and parathyroid hormone are opposite in their actions. 

Adrenal Gland Hormones: Adrenal glands in the kidney secrete a hormone named as aldosterone, the other name of this hormone is mineralocorticoid. This hormone is helpful in increasing re-absorption of sodium. The outer cover of adrenal glands called as adrenal cortex secretes this hormone. The other hormones secreted by adrenal cortex is cortisol, the other name of cortisol is glucocorticoid, and other sexual hormones, such as androgens, estrogens, and progestins. Cortisol is helpful in increasing blood surgar. Androgen, estrogen, and progestin are helpful in maintaining secondary sexual characteristics in both men and women. Medulla is the inner layer of adrenal gland. Medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine hormones. The other name of epinephrine is adrenaline and the other name of norepinephrine is nor-adrenaline. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are responsible for sympathomimetic actions in the body.

Pancreas Hormones: The homones secreted by pancreas are insulin and glucagon. The main function of insulin is to decrease blood sugar by coverting glucose into glycogen. The function of glucagon is to increase blood sugar. Insulin and glucagon are opposite to each other in functions.

Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by pituitary gland are growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 
luteinizing hormone (LH), melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), antidiuretic hormone (ADH), and oxytocin. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) helps to increase skin pigmentation. Luteinizing hormone (LH) helps in promoting ovulation in female, secretion of testosterone, breast growth, and milk production. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) helps in the process of oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Growth 
hormone (GH) helps to increase bone and tissue growth. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) helps to stimulate secretion of thyroxine and development of thyroid gland. Adrenocorticotropic hormone helps to 
stimulate production of hormones from the adrenal gland, mainly the cortisol.

Reproductive Hormones: Ovaries in female and testes in men secrete estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. Estradiol helps in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in female. Progesterone helps in preparation and maintenance of uterus during pregnancy. Testosterone helps to promote development and maintaining secondary sexual characteristics in men.
We have dealt with endocrine glands list now. In the next lesson, we will deal about female reproductive system hormones and functions. Okay. Come on.


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Friday, March 9, 2012

Hormones Produced by the Pituitary Gland - Lesson 305

Anatomy of Pituitary Gland: All medical transcription learner should know about pituitary glands and horomones produced by the pituitary gland. In fact, all vertebrate animals have pituitary gland. The other name of pituitary gland is hypophysis. Pituitary gland is an endocrine gland of peanut shaped. It weighs approximately half gram or 0.02 ounces. It is situated beneath the brain and it extends from the downside of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. It is packed inside a hallow depression in the skull named as sella turcica cavity of the brain and it is surrounded by diaphragma sellae. A small tube like structure named as pituitary stalk that connects median eminence of the brain to the hypothalamus.

Parts of Pituitary Gland: Pituitary gland has two lobes anteriorly and posteriorly. The anterior lobe is called as adenohypophysis and the posterior lobe is called as neurohypophysis. Adenohypophysis is an extension from the pharynx. This part is glandular in nature. Neurohypophysis is an downward extension from the base of the brain. Neurohypophysis is formed by neuron tissues. An organ named as hypothalamus is situated near the pituitary gland.

Functions of Pituitary Gland: Apart from hormones produced by the pituitary gland, they perform important functions in the body. As it is an important gland our body protects naturally with skull on the upper side and by the nasal cavity in the down side. The hormones secreted by the pituitary glands control the function of the hypothalamus.

Hormones Produced By the Pituitary Gland: Anterior pituitary gland secretes more number of hormones when comparing posterior part of it. Anterior pituitary area secretes nearly 7 hormones and posterior area secretes only 2. The hormones secreted by anterior pituitary gland are adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The posterior pituitary hormone secretes antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin.

Functions of Pituitary Hormones: Adrenocorticotropic hormone or ACTH helps in stimulating the development of adrenal cortex of the thyroid gland. ACTH helps to increase the formation of cortisol and other steroid hormones. Follicle-stimulating hormone or FSH in female helps to stimulate the development opf eggs in the ovaries, ovulation process, and in the production of essential hormones. Luteinizing hormone or LH works the same as FSH. Growth hormone or GH works on bones tissues to stimulate its development in the body. The other name of GH is somatotropin. Thyroid-stimumalating hormone or TSH helps to stimulate the development of thyroid gland and its production of a hormone named thyroxine. Prolactin or PRL helps to stimulate and keep producing milk in female after a child birth. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone or MSH has an influence in the development of melanin in the skin. It also helps to increase pigmentation of the skin.

The other hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary named as antidiuretic hormone or ADH helps to stimulate re-absorption of water by kidney tubules. The other name of ADH is vasopressin. It also helps to increase blood pressure by shrinking arterioles. The other hormone oxytocin helps to contract uterus during labor and childbirth. This hormone helps to increase milk production while a child suckles the breast nipples.
We have seen about hormones produced by the pituitary gland. In the next lesson, we will learn about Important Endocrine Glands and their Functions in the next lesson. Okay. Come on.

Monday, March 5, 2012

Function of Pancreas - Lesson 304

What is Pancreas and Where is it situated and What are the Function of Pancreas?: Pancreas is an endocrine gland that is situated in the small intestine. It is situated at the backside of the stomach in the area of the first and second lumbar vertebral bones. The head part of the pancreas lies in the concave area of the duodenum. The body part of the pancreas lies behind the stomach. The tail area of the pancreas lies in touch with spleen.  Function of pancreas is the lesson topic we are going to see now. Pancreas is a very important gland in our body. It is situated in the digestive system. Pancreas is an endocrine gland. It secrets a number of important hormones. The names of hormones that are secreted by pancreas are insulin, somatostatin, glucagon, and pancreatic juice. In these hormones, pancreatic juice is a hormone that has important enzymes that are useful in digestion of food and also pancreatic juice helps to absorb essential nutrient particles from the food and also helps in digesting food materials in the small intestine. All the hormones of pancreas helps to break down food nutrients, such as, fat, protein, and sugars.


Functions of Pancreas: What is the function of pancreas? Pancreas functions both as an endocrine gland as well as an exocrine gland. Any endocrine gland has no ducts to secrete its content to mix in the blood stream and a gland with exocrine function mixes its secretion in the blood throuth ducts. The organ named as islets of Langerhans in the pancreas functions as an endocrine gland. Islets of Langerhans is an organ of the pancreas that is made up of cluster of cells of millions in number. These cells have specialized functions. Islets of Langerhans secretes important hormones named as insulin and glucagon. Insulin is produced by beta cells of the islets of Langerhans and glucagon is produced by alpha cells of it. In food metabolism function of the body insulin and glucagon play a vital role. In human body, sugar and starch are formed in the blood once food is consumed. Insulin secreted by the iselt of Langerhans makes the free glucose present in the blood to enter the body cells and excess of glucose is stored in the liver as glycogen. When no more glucose in the blood stream, liver converts glycogen into glucose. The process converting glycogen into glucose whenever 
needed is called as glucogenesis. Glucagon functions oppositely of the insulin. When sugar levels are less in the blood stream, glucagon is secreted and so it breaks down the glycogen into glucose and 
so the level of sugar in the blood increases.

Exocrine Function of Pancreas: Other cells of pancreas apart from islets of Langerhans work like an exocrine gland. These cells secrete essential digestive enzymes and pancreatic juice in the alimentary canal. Pancreas has a duct to release its enzymes into the bloodstream.

In the next lesson of free medical transcription course, we will learn about pituitary gland anatomy and functions. Okay. Come on


The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...