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Saturday, March 17, 2012

Reproductive System Hormones - Lesson 307

We will study about reproductive system hormones now. In this article, we will see about female and male reproductive systems, hormones secreted by them, and their functions in human body. Female reproductive system consists of ovaries. Ovaries are two small, about 1.5-inch sized glands situated in the lower part of the abdomen in female. The other important parts of female reproductive system are vagina, cervix, uterus and fallopiant tubes. These are inner reproductive parts. The other parts are in the outer side are labia, clitoris and urethra. Whenver a male has intercourse with a female sperm is discharged into the vagina. The sperm is then deposited at the end of the vagina near the tightly-closed mouth of the cervix. Cervix is the narrow head portion of the uterus.

Anatomy of Female Reproductive System: The outer area of the female reproductive organ is labia muscles. Labia are of two types, such as labia minora and labia majora. Labia majora is the bigger outer muscle of the vagina with hairs. Labia minora is the smaller hairless muscle concealed inside the labia majora. Both labia majora and labia minora are lip-like structures and they are made up of adipose tissue. Clitoris is a small button-like structure. This is an important sexual organ in female. It is situated adjacent to the upper junction of the labia minora. Clitoris is present above the urinary opening called as urethra and the reproductive opening called as vagina. Vagina is a fibromuscular tube. Sexual intercourse and birth of a child happens here only. Vaginal canal leads to the cervix. Cervix is attached with uterus. Uterus is attached with fallopian tubes. Two fallopian tubes on both sides of the cervix attached to ovaries. Ovaries produce eggs. Eggs travel via fallopian tubes to enter into the uterus. Where the sperm cell unite with the egg to form a gamete. Two glands are present on the backside of the left and right side of the vagina called as Bartholin's glands. Sexual lubricants are secreted by these glands on arousal and also produce mucus.

Female Reproductive System Hormones: Ovaries are the important female reproductive organ, which secretes two important hormones to perform normal body functions during menstrual cycle and childbirth.  The two important hormones are estradiol or estrogen and progesterone. 

Function of Estradiol: The hormone estradiol or estrogen is useful for the growth and management of secondary sexual characteristics, for example, hair growth and breast growth in female.
Function of Progesterone: The other hormone progesterone is useful for the management and preparation of the uterus during pregnancy.

Male Reproductive System Anatomy: There are a series of organs that form male reproductive system that are present around the pelvic area of male. Penis, testes, prostate glands and Cowper's glands are 

the importnat parts of the male reproductive system. Penis can be enlarged or shrink at times on arousal. Urine is excreted via the penis. Testes is the important glands that are small in structure. Testes are surrounded by scrotal sac. Spermatic cord attaches to it.

Function of Testes: Testes create male gametes, known as spermatozoa. Testes also secrete testosterone. Testosterone is a male steroid hormone type. The other name is androgen. Androgen is responsible for secondary male characteristics, such as, voice difference, hair growth in the face and body, big shoulders etc.

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