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Wednesday, March 25, 2009


In this lesson we are going to learn about what are important test related to gastrointestinal system. About these tests, as a medical transcription learner one must know. These lesson consists of STOOL ANALYSES TESTS and LIVER FUNCTION TESTS. We will see about one by one in detail now.

STOOL ANALYSES:  Whenever one gets infected to a disease in the gastrointestinal tract, stool or feces culture is essential to analyze the stool to know about the disease condition. There are two tests are commonly used to analyze stool. They are

1. Hemoccult test or stool guaiac test.
2. Culture of the stool.

1. Hemoccult or stool guaiac test: This test is used to find out the hidden blood cells especially hemoglobin in the stool and its peroxidase action on the stool. This test is an important show test to find out cancer in the colon. For this test guaiac is a chemical essence or resin extracted from trees is supplemented with the stool. Guaiac reacts with the hidden red blood cells in the blood.

2. Stool Culture: This is a transmission process of microorganisms of the feces using a medium. This test shows the unusual or malformed odd microorganisms present in the stool and becomes the cause of the abnormal disease condition.


Liver is the largest gland in the human body, which is present in the right hypochondric area. Liver is under the diaphragm, a muscular membrane divides the thoracic and abdominal cavities. Liver secretes a juice of solution called bile. This liquid is essential for gastric functions such as storeroom for starch created from food and also for protein metabolism. So as an important organ in the gastrointestinal tract, the study of the liver occupation will be of more helpful to monitor the diseases.

The liver function tests consist of
1. Serum bilirubin test.
2. Alkaline phosphatase.
3. SGPT or serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase or ALT (alanine transaminase) or PT (prothrombin time or pro time).
4. SGOT serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase or AST (aspartic acid transaminase) or OT.

We will see about each of the test one by one.

1. Serum bilirubin test: Whenever the bilirubin, a yellowish gastric juice produced by the liver raises, which creates jaundice. When a patient jaundiced his skin, eyes, and other tissues, stools are become yellowish in color. This is called icterus state.

2. Alkaline phosphatase: This is an enzyme test. This is called alk phos. Alkaline phosphatase is found in abnormal levels in the blood serum whenever cancer cells found in the human body or the liver gets diseased, and also in some abnormal liver conditions.

3. SGPT or ALT or PT: Abnormal condition of high level of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase. This is an indication of liver disease.

4. SGOT or AST or OT: Abnormal condition of high level of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase. This is an indication of liver disease.

Note: Serum is a transparent dilute clear liquid found after blood is thickened. Simply the blood gets a fluid form only this is present with blood cells.

This lesson concludes lab test of GI tract. In the next lesson we will learn about GI system lab procedures. Okay.
From the next lesson we will start URINARY SYSTEM..Ok

Come on…

To go to the next lesson from here, please click the link below