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Friday, March 9, 2012

Hormones Produced by the Pituitary Gland - Lesson 305

Anatomy of Pituitary Gland: All medical transcription learner should know about pituitary glands and horomones produced by the pituitary gland. In fact, all vertebrate animals have pituitary gland. The other name of pituitary gland is hypophysis. Pituitary gland is an endocrine gland of peanut shaped. It weighs approximately half gram or 0.02 ounces. It is situated beneath the brain and it extends from the downside of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. It is packed inside a hallow depression in the skull named as sella turcica cavity of the brain and it is surrounded by diaphragma sellae. A small tube like structure named as pituitary stalk that connects median eminence of the brain to the hypothalamus.

Parts of Pituitary Gland: Pituitary gland has two lobes anteriorly and posteriorly. The anterior lobe is called as adenohypophysis and the posterior lobe is called as neurohypophysis. Adenohypophysis is an extension from the pharynx. This part is glandular in nature. Neurohypophysis is an downward extension from the base of the brain. Neurohypophysis is formed by neuron tissues. An organ named as hypothalamus is situated near the pituitary gland.

Functions of Pituitary Gland: Apart from hormones produced by the pituitary gland, they perform important functions in the body. As it is an important gland our body protects naturally with skull on the upper side and by the nasal cavity in the down side. The hormones secreted by the pituitary glands control the function of the hypothalamus.

Hormones Produced By the Pituitary Gland: Anterior pituitary gland secretes more number of hormones when comparing posterior part of it. Anterior pituitary area secretes nearly 7 hormones and posterior area secretes only 2. The hormones secreted by anterior pituitary gland are adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The posterior pituitary hormone secretes antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin.

Functions of Pituitary Hormones: Adrenocorticotropic hormone or ACTH helps in stimulating the development of adrenal cortex of the thyroid gland. ACTH helps to increase the formation of cortisol and other steroid hormones. Follicle-stimulating hormone or FSH in female helps to stimulate the development opf eggs in the ovaries, ovulation process, and in the production of essential hormones. Luteinizing hormone or LH works the same as FSH. Growth hormone or GH works on bones tissues to stimulate its development in the body. The other name of GH is somatotropin. Thyroid-stimumalating hormone or TSH helps to stimulate the development of thyroid gland and its production of a hormone named thyroxine. Prolactin or PRL helps to stimulate and keep producing milk in female after a child birth. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone or MSH has an influence in the development of melanin in the skin. It also helps to increase pigmentation of the skin.

The other hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary named as antidiuretic hormone or ADH helps to stimulate re-absorption of water by kidney tubules. The other name of ADH is vasopressin. It also helps to increase blood pressure by shrinking arterioles. The other hormone oxytocin helps to contract uterus during labor and childbirth. This hormone helps to increase milk production while a child suckles the breast nipples.
We have seen about hormones produced by the pituitary gland. In the next lesson, we will learn about Important Endocrine Glands and their Functions in the next lesson. Okay. Come on.

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