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Wednesday, January 26, 2011


Now let us learn about some of the muscular actions and their meanings. As a human being we live with movements using our muscles and bones of different kinds. Each muscle contracts and expands in combination with bone corresponding to the muscle attached to it, and so we can move easily in a smooth manner. These movements are as follows. They are flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, supination, and pronation. As a medical transcription aspirant, we should know about these movement types and should have a good understanding about them. We will see the explanation of each movement type one by one now.

1. For ‘flexion’ the term means lessening or decreasing the angle between two bones or bending a limb.

2. For ‘extension’ the term means increasing or to make much the angle between two bones or straightening out a limb.

3. For ‘abduction’ the term means the movement or acting away from the midline of the body.

4. For ‘adduction’ the term means the movement or acting away from the midline of the body.

5. For ‘rotation’ the term means the circular movement which occurs around an axis.

6. For ‘dorsiflexion’ the term means the decrease in the angle of the ankle joint so that the front bends or leap backward or upward.

7.  For ‘plantar flexion’ the term indicates that the motion that extends or streches the foot downward toward the ground as when pointing the toes. Plant/o means sole of the foot.

8. For ‘supination’ the word clearly determines that as applied to the hand, the act of turning to forward the palm.

9. For ‘pronation’ the term expresses that as applied to the hand, the act of turning the palm backward.

Now let us also see some of the vocabulary of pronouncing different and more difficult terms.

1. Abduction defines that the movement away from the midline of the body.

2. Adduction defines that the movement toward the midline of the body.

3. Dorsiflexion defines that the backward or upward bending of the foot.

4. Extension defines the straightening of a flexed limb.

5. Fascia means the fibrous membrane separating  and enveloping muscles.

6. Flexing means bending.

7. Insertion of a muscle means the connection of the muscle to the bone that moves.

8. Origin of a muscle defines the connection of the muscle to a stationary bone.

9. Plantar flexion means the bending of the sole of the foot downward toward the ground.

10. Pronation determines the turning the palm backward.

11. Rotation clearly explains the circular movement around a central point.

12. Skeletal muscle figures the muscle connected to bones; or voluntary or striated muscles.

13. Smooth muscle also figures the muscle connected to internal organs; or the involuntary or visceral muscle.

14. Straited muscle is also called the skeletal muscle.

15. Supination is merely the turn the palm forward.

16. Visceral muscle is also known as the smooth muscle.

In the next post we would try to learn about the combining forms, suffixes and prefixes and their meaning.


To go to the PRIOR lesson from here please click the link below

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Wednesday, January 12, 2011

Games Prolong the Lifetime of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

What is Alzheimer’s disease?

Alzheimer’s disease is called AD in short.  The other names of this disease will make us understand the actuality of this disease more.  SDAT is the another name of AD and it is expanded as senile dementia of the Alzheimer type or PDDAT and it is expanded as primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer's type.  Generally, all over the world this disease is termed as Alzheimer’s in short.  This is mainly a general type of dementia.  The name was given to this disease by a neurophysiologist name Alois Alzheimer, a German, who did describe about this disease condition for the first time to the world.  Alzheimer’s is a terminal illness as it is incurable and also degenerative.  The common symptoms of this disease are the lack of ability to create new memories, such as complexity in brining to mind newly scrutinized events or facts. Most probably a brain scan will reveal the existence of this disease accompanied by some cognitive tests, as well as performance review tests. In the matured phases, the patient will get symptoms, such as bewilderment, hostility and tetchiness, mood hang-down, language crash, and memory loss.  These failures gradually will lead the patient to death.

Playing Games Enhance the Lifetime of Alzheimer’s patient:  Now we come to the point, Alzheimer’s patients struggle with memory loss.  

These patients can hold back their memory power by playing some games either board games or card games, or any word games, such as Sudo-Ku. Puzzle-solving games will activate brain neurons and so they can deflect their memory skills more for a prolonged period. 

The games, such as dragger, guess the colors, rotate, mastercards, Sudoku, and chess are the best examples of brain games.  These games activate the nerves in the brain and so these patients can be benefited.

In the next post, we will learn about the remaining pathological conditions related to musculoskeletal system. OK.

Come on…

To go to the prior lesson from here please click the link below.

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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...